578 results match your criteria ginseng vascular

Ginseng in vascular dysfunction: A review of therapeutic potentials and molecular mechanisms.

Phytother Res 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Vascular dysfunction can lead to a variety of fatal diseases, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Although a large number of studies have reported the therapeutic effects of natural compounds on vascular-related diseases, ginseng is still the focus of research. Ginseng and its active substances have bioactive effects against different diseases with vascular dysfunction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling: An important molecular mechanism of herbal medicine in the treatment of atherosclerosis the protection of vascular endothelial cells from oxidative stress.

J Adv Res 2021 Dec 6;34:43-63. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611130, PR China.

Introduction: Recently, Nrf2/HO-1 has received extensive attention as the main regulatory pathway of intracellular defense against oxidative stress and is considered an ideal target for alleviating endothelial cell (EC) injury.

Objectives: This paper aimed to summarized the natural monomers/extracts that potentially exert protective effects against oxidative stress in ECs.

Methods: A literature search was carried out regarding our topic with the keywords of "atherosclerosis" or "Nrf2/HO-1" or "vascular endothelial cells" or "oxidative stress" or "Herbal medicine" or "natural products" or "natural extracts" or "natural compounds" or "traditional Chinese medicines" based on classic books of herbal medicine and scientific databases including Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science, GoogleScholar, BaiduScholar, and others. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Endothelial injury by circulating IgA1 complex through the activation of mesangial cells in IgA nephropathy.

Clin Nephrol 2022 Jan 10. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Background: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) commonly entails arteriolar microangiopathic (MA) lesions of the kidneys. The most significant reason for MA lesions is endothelial injury, although the mechanism of injury to the vascular endothelium is not clear.

Materials And Methods: 59 patients with IgAN and 19 healthy controls were included for measuring the blood von Willebrand factor (vWF), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM1), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) by ELISA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Lysozyme Improves the Inhibitory Effects of Saponins on Phenotype Transformation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Binding to Ginsenoside Re.

Front Nutr 2021 23;8:795888. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, China.

saponins (PNS) have been used to treat cardiovascular diseases for hundreds of years in China. Lysozyme can bind to exogenous compounds and promote their activity. Nevertheless, knowledge of whether there is a synergistic role between lysozyme and PNS is far from sufficient. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

[Mechanism of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma on SIRT1 autophagy pathway of endothelial cell senescence induced by hydrogen peroxide].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Dec;46(23):6216-6223

Beijing Key Laboratory of Research of Chinese Medicine on Preventional and Treatment for Major Diseases,Experimental Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

This study aims to explore the effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(hereinafter referred to as GNS) on the SIRT1-autophagy pathway of endothelial cell senescence induced by hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2). To be specific, vascular endothelial cells were classified into the blank control group(control), model group(model), model + DMSO group(DMSO), resveratrol group(RESV), and GNS low-dose(GNS-L), medium-dose(GNS-M), and high-dose(GNS-H) groups. They were treated with H_2O_2 for senescence induction except the control. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Notoginseng Triterpenes Inhibited Autophagy in Random Flaps the Beclin-1/VPS34/LC3 Signaling Pathway to Improve Tissue Survival.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 19;9:771066. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Random flaps are widely used in tissue reconstruction, attributed to the lack of vascular axial limitation. Nevertheless, the distal end of the flap is prone to necrosis due to the lack of blood supply. Notoginseng triterpenes (NTs) are the active components extracted from , reducing oxygen consumption and improving the body's tolerance to hypoxia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Ginsenoside Rg3 attenuates skin disorders via down-regulation of MDM2/HIF1α signaling pathway.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Sep 24;45(5):610-616. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Anatomy & Information Sciences, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) acts as a master switch for inflammatory responses. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) which is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng Meyer (Araliaceae) is known to possess various therapeutic effects. However, a modulatory effect of Rg3 on TSLP expression in the inflammatory responses remains poorly understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Ginsenoside Rh2 reduces m6A RNA methylation in cancer via the KIF26B-SRF positive feedback loop.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Nov 25;45(6):734-743. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Vascular and Thyroid Surgery, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: The underlying mechanisms of the potential tumor-suppressive effects of ginsenoside Rh2 are complex. 6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation is usually dysregulated in cancer. This study explored the regulatory effect of ginsenoside Rh2 on m6A RNA methylation in cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Investigation on the Q-markers of Bushen Huoxue Prescriptions for DR treatment based on chemometric methods and spectrum-effect relationship.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Mar 5;285:114800. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

State Key Lab Southwestern Chinese Med Resources, School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a kind of complex complication of late diabetes mellitus with high incidence and risk of blindness. Bushen Huoxue Prescription (BHP), which consists of Rehmanniae radix (RR), Salviae miltiorrhizae radix et rhizoma (SMRR), Ginseng radix et rhizome (GRR) and Puerariae lobatae radix (PLR), has an active effect on the treatment of DR. However, the quality markers (Q-markers) of BHP are not entirely clear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Wound Healing Effect of Gintonin Involves Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 21;22(18). Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Ginsentology Research Laboratory and Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Gintonin, a novel compound of ginseng, is a ligand of the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor. The in vitro and in vivo skin wound healing effects of gintonin remain unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gintonin on wound healing-linked responses, especially migration and proliferation, in skin keratinocytes HaCaT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Identification of tyrosine kinase inhibitors from Panax bipinnatifidus and Panax pseudoginseng for RTK-HER2 and VEGFR2 receptors, by in silico approach.

Mol Divers 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papum Pare, Arunachal Pradesh, 791112, India.

Breast and stomach cancer is reported as a leading cause for human mortality across the world. The overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) proteins, namely the human epidermal growth factor receptor2 (HER2) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor2 (VEGFR2), is reported to be responsible for development and metastasis of breast and stomach cancer. Although several synthetic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as drug candidates targeting RTK-HER2 and VEGFR2 are currently available in the market, these are expensive with the reported side effects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Protects against Diabetes-Associated Endothelial Dysfunction: Comparison between Ethanolic Extract and Total Saponin.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 4;2021:4722797. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China.

Previous studies revealed a cardioprotective potential of to relieve acute myocardial infarction and focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. However, whether protects endothelial function in diabetes and the underlying mechanisms remain to be explored. contains several chemical components including saponins, which are commonly believed as the major bioactive ingredients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The RIG-I Signal Pathway Mediated Saponin Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Ischemia Stroke.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 20;2021:8878428. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

saponins (PNS), the main bioactive constituents of a traditional Chinese herb , were commonly used for ischemic stroke in China. However, the associated cellular and molecular mechanisms of PNS have not been well examined. This study aimed to decipher the underlying molecular target of PNS in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Inhibition of STAT3/PD-L1 and Activation of miR193a-5p Are Critically Involved in Apoptotic Effect of Compound K in Prostate Cancer Cells.

Cells 2021 08 20;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Korean Pathology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Since the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling plays an important role in tumor-immune microenvironments, in the present study, the role of STAT3/PD-L1 signaling in the apoptotic mechanism of an active ginseng saponin metabolite compound K (CK) was investigated in human prostate cancer cells. Here, CK exerted significant cytotoxicity without hurting RWPE1 normal prostate epithelial cells, increased sub-G1 and cleavage of Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and attenuated the expression of pro-PARP and Pro-cysteine aspartyl-specific protease3 (pro-caspase-3) in LANCap, PC-3 and DU145 cells. Further, CK attenuated the expression of p-STAT3 and PD-L1 in DU145 cells along with disrupted the binding of STAT3 to PD-L1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Notoginsenoside R1 alleviates high glucose-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HUVECs via upregulating miR-147a.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2021 Dec 9;37(12):1101-1112. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Peripheral Vascular, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has become one of the main characteristics in patients with diabetes mellitus, which is usually caused by abnormal inflammation and oxidative stress response. Presently, we focused on the role of Notoginsenoside R1 (NR1), a major component isolated from Panax notoginseng, in endothelial dysfunction caused by high glucose (HG). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with HG and then dealt with NR1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Modified Renshen Yangrong decoction enhances angiogenesis in ischemic stroke through promotion of MicroRNA-210 expression by regulating the HIF/VEGF/Notch signaling pathway.

Brain Behav 2021 08 1;11(8):e2295. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: This study aims to investigate the efficacy of modified Ginseng Yangrong decoction (GSYRD) promoting angiogenesis after ischemic stroke.

Methods: In an in vivo study, rats that survived surgery were allocated into four groups: the control group and model group were treated with normal saline, the GSYRD group was treated with 18.9 mg/kg of GSYRD daily, and the positive control group was treated with Tongxinluo (TXL) (1 g/kg/d). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Huotan Jiedu Tongluo Decoction Inhibits Balloon-Injury-Induced Carotid Artery Intimal Hyperplasia in the Rat through the PERK-eIF2-ATF4 Pathway and Autophagy Mediation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 20;2021:5536237. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Hospital of Affiliated Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130021, Jilin, China.

In-stent restenosis (ISR) is the main factor affecting the outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and its main pathological feature is neointimal hyperplasia. Huotan Jiedu Tongluo decoction (HTJDTLD) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription for the treatment of vascular stenosis diseases. However, the precise anti-ISR mechanism of HTJDTLD remains unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Shenzhi Jiannao formula ameliorates vascular dementia in vivo and in vitro by inhibition glutamate neurotoxicity via promoting clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

Chin Med 2021 Jul 28;16(1):65. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Shenzhen Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (Longgang), No. 1 Dayun Road, Longgang District, Shenzhen, 518172, China.

Background: Synaptic damage and glutamate excitotoxicity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD). Clathrin, RAB5B and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NMDAR1) proteins play a vital role in endocytosis of synaptic vesicles in neurons and glutamate over accumulation. Previous researches have been confirmed that Shenzhi Jiannao (SZJN) formula has an anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effect in VD, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anti‑angiogenic effect of mountain ginseng and : Comparison with farm‑cultivated ginseng.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Aug 29;24(2). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Korean Medicine R&D Team 1, National Institute for Korean Medicine Development (NIKOM), Gyeongsan 38540, Republic of Korea.

Mountain ginseng () has been used for cancer patient therapy in Northeast Asia. Although it is well known that cancer cells are able to induce angiogenesis, the effect of mountain ginseng on angiogenesis is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ethanolic extract of mountain ginseng (MGE) could inhibit angiogenesis in and models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Xiaoxuming Decoction Regulates Vascular Function by Modulating G Protein-Coupled Receptors: A Molecular Docking Study.

Biomed Res Int 2021 5;2021:5575443. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Targets Identification and Drug Screening, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Xiaoxuming decoction (XXMD) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) that is used for the treatment of stroke in China. Stroke injury damages the cerebral vasculature and disrupts the autoregulation of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation, which is crucial for maintaining constant cerebral blood flow (CBF). It has been reported that XXMD exerts a positive effect on cerebral circulation in animal models of stroke. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Inhibition of the Ras/ERK1/2 pathway contributes to the protective effect of ginsenoside Re against intimal hyperplasia.

Food Funct 2021 Aug;12(15):6755-6765

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.

Neointimal hyperplasia is the major cause of carotid stenosis after vascular injury, which restricts the long-term efficacy of endovascular treatment and endarterectomy in preventing stenosis. Ginsenoside Re (Re) is a major active ingredient of ginseng having multifaceted pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system, and is a potential treatment for restenosis. In this study, we demonstrated that Re treatment significantly inhibited vascular injury-induced neointimal thickening, reduced the intimal area and intima/media (I/M) ratio, increased the lumen area, and inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The role of angiotensin-(1-7) on acquired platinum resistance-induced angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo.

Neoplasma 2021 Jul 26;68(4):770-779. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) signaling has been implicated in the development of cancer. The new RAS ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis antagonizes the classical ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis. Ang-(1-7) has pleiotropic roles in lung cancer including suppressing proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Notoginsenoside R1 activates the NAMPT-NAD-SIRT1 cascade to promote postischemic angiogenesis by modulating Notch signaling.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 21;140:111693. Epub 2021 May 21.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Innovative Drug Discovery of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Natural Medicine) and Translational Medicine, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical Colleg, Beijing 100193, China; Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100193, China; Key Laboratory of New Drug Discovery Based on Classic Chinese Medicine Prescription, Beijing 100193, China; NMPA Key Laboratory for Research and Evaluation of Pharmacovigilance, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) maintains mitochondrial function and protects against cerebral ischemic injury by improving energy metabolism. Notoginsenoside R1 (R1), a unique constituent of Panax notoginseng, has been shown to promote the proliferation and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Whether R1 has proangiogenesis on the activation of NAMPT in ischemic stroke remains unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparative Analysis of Compatibility Influence on Invigorating Blood Circulation for Combined Use of Panax Notoginseng Saponins and Aspirin Using Metabolomics Approach.

Front Pharmacol 2021 30;12:544002. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

The combined use of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS)-based drugs and aspirin (ASA) to combat vascular diseases has achieved good clinical results. In this study, the superior efficacy was observed the combined use of PNS and ASA on acute blood stasis rats, and untargeted metabolomics was performed to holistically investigate the therapeutic effects of coupling application and its regulatory mechanisms. The combined use of PNS and ASA exhibited better improvement effects when reducing the evaluated hemorheological indicators (whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, platelet aggregation, and fibrinogen content) in the blood stasis rats vs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ginsenosides in vascular remodeling: Cellular and molecular mechanisms of their therapeutic action.

Pharmacol Res 2021 07 6;169:105647. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518067, China.

Evidence is mounting that abnormal vascular remodeling (VR) is a vital pathological event that precedes many cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This provides us with a new research perspective that VR can be a pivotal target for CVD treatment and prevention. However, the current drugs for treating CVD do not fundamentally reverse VR and repair vascular function. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Korean Red ginseng prevents endothelial senescence by downregulating the HO-1/NF-κB/miRNA-155-5p/eNOS pathway.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 14;45(2):344-353. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 24341, South Korea.

Background: Korean Red ginseng extract (KRGE) has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system by improving endothelial cell function. However, its pharmacological effect on endothelial cell senescence has not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, we examined the effect and molecular mechanism of KRGE on the senescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identification and quantification of oleanane triterpenoid saponins and potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities from the roots and rhizomes of .

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 18;45(2):305-315. Epub 2020 May 18.

Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500, China.

Background: represents a folk medicine for treatment of inflammation. However, lack of experimental data does not confirm its function. This article aims to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of triterpenoid saponins isolated from . Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gintonin facilitates brain delivery of donepezil, a therapeutic drug for Alzheimer disease, through lysophosphatidic acid 1/3 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 16;45(2):264-272. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Ginsentology Research Laboratory and Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, South Korea.

Background: Gintonin is a ginseng-derived exogenous G-protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, which exhibits and functions against Alzheimer disease (AD) through lysophosphatidic acid 1/3 receptors. A recent study demonstrated that systemic treatment with gintonin enhances paracellular permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) through the LPA1/3 receptor. However, little is known about whether gintonin can enhance brain delivery of donepezil (DPZ) (Aricept), which is a representative cognition-improving drug used in AD clinics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of Ginsenoside Rg3 on Inhibiting Differentiation, Adipogenesis, and ER Stress-Mediated Cell Death in Brown Adipocytes.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 16;2021:6668665. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, Goyang, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), a main active component of , has various therapeutic properties in literatures, and it has been studied for its potential use in obesity control due to its antiadipogenic effects in white adipocytes. However, little is known about its effects on brown adipocytes.

Methods: The mechanisms through which Rg3 inhibits differentiation, adipogenesis, and ER stress-mediated cell death in mouse primary brown adipocytes (MPBAs) are explored. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Protective effect of serum containing ginseng and Moutan Cortex on HUVEC injured by H_2O_2].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Mar;46(6):1467-1476

Henan Luoyang Orthopedic-Traumatological Hospital (Henan Orthopedic Hospital) Zhengzhou 450018,China.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of serum containing ginseng and Moutan Cortex on human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVEC) injured with hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2). HUVEC injured with H_2O_2 were divided into 6 groups, namely blank group, model group, ginsenoside(TGG) group, total glucosides of Moutan Cortex(TGM) group, paeonol(P) group and TGG+TGM+P group. After 24 hours of co-culture with H_2O_2, the activities of succinate dehydrogenase(SDH) and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATP were detected by microenzyme labeling. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF