1,390 results match your criteria gfap upregulation


Boswellia serrata suppress fipronil-induced neuronal necrosis and neurobehavioral alterations via promoted inhibition of oxidative/inflammatory/apoptotic pathways.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 27;785:147384. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22516, Egypt. Electronic address:

Boswellic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic terpenoid derived from the gum-resin of Boswellia serrate. It is known for its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. It has improved spatial learning and provides neuroprotection against trimethyltin-induced memory impairment. Read More

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NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the eyes of hypertensive rats.

Mol Vis 2021 2;27:161-178. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla. CL Profesor García González, Sevilla, Spain.

Purpose: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by NADPH oxidase and inflammation are associated with arterial hypertension and eye diseases associated with high blood pressure, including glaucoma, retinopathies (e.g., age-related macular degeneration), and choroidopathies affecting ocular function; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse outcomes remain undefined. Read More

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The effect of IL-6/Piezo2 on the trigeminal neuropathic pain.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 23;13. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, XinHua Hospital, The Cranial Nerve Disease Center of Shanghai, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China.

The nature of trigeminal neuropathic pain (TN) attacks is regarded as the ignition of ectopic action potentials from the trigeminal root following vascular compression, which seemed to be related to transmembrane proteins and inflammation factors. This study focused on the mechanosensitive channel Piezo2 and cytokine IL-6. The chronic constriction injury of infraorbital nerve in SD rats was used to establish the TN model. Read More

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Dimethyl Fumarate, an Approved Multiple Sclerosis Treatment, Reduces Brain Oxidative Stress in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques: Potential Therapeutic Repurposing for HIV Neuroprotection.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory drug approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, induces antioxidant enzymes, in part through transcriptional upregulation. We hypothesized that DMF administration to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques would induce antioxidant enzyme expression and reduce oxidative injury and inflammation throughout the brain. Nine SIV-infected, CD8-T-lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques were studied. Read More

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Pharmacologic Inhibition of ADAM10 Attenuates Brain Tissue Loss, Axonal Injury and Pro-inflammatory Gene Expression Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 15;9:661462. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany.

The α-secretase A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) regulates various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Despite its broad functional implications during development, plasticity, and disease, no pharmacological approaches to inhibit ADAM10 in acute brain injury have been reported. Here, we examined the effects of the ADAM10 inhibitor GI254023X on the neurological and histopathological outcome after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Read More

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Upregulation of the pathogenic transcription factor SPI1/PU.1 in tuberous sclerosis complex and focal cortical dysplasia by oxidative stress.

Brain Pathol 2021 Mar 30:e12949. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of (Neuro)Pathology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a congenital disorder characterized by cortical malformations and concomitant epilepsy caused by loss-of-function mutations in the mTOR suppressors TSC1 or TSC2. While the underlying molecular changes caused by mTOR activation in TSC have previously been investigated, the drivers of these transcriptional change have not been fully elucidated. A better understanding of the perturbed transcriptional regulation could lead to the identification of novel pathways for therapeutic intervention not only in TSC, but other genetic epilepsies in which mTOR activation plays a key role, such as focal cortical dysplasia 2b (FCD). Read More

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SARM1 promotes neuroinflammation and inhibits neural regeneration after spinal cord injury through NF-κB signaling.

Theranostics 2021 20;11(9):4187-4206. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Orthopedics (Spine Surgery), The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang, China.

Axonal degeneration is a common pathological feature in many acute and chronic neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury (SCI). SARM1 (sterile alpha and TIR motif-containing 1), the fifth TLR (Toll-like receptor) adaptor, has diverse functions in the immune and nervous systems, and recently has been identified as a key mediator of Wallerian degeneration (WD). However, the detailed functions of SARM1 after SCI still remain unclear. Read More

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February 2021

Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Promotes Peri-Lesion Cell Proliferation and Functional Improvement after Cortical Contusion Injury.

Neurotrauma Rep 2021 22;2(1):27-38. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability globally. No drug treatments are available, so interest has turned to endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) as alternative strategies for treatment. We hypothesized that regulation of cell proliferation through modulation of the sonic hedgehog pathway, a key NSC regulatory pathway, could lead to functional improvement. Read More

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January 2021

-regulated activation of hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis by TGF-β signaling.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 May 17;320(5):G720-G728. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

School of Life Science, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing, China.

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is correlated with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation and liver fibrosis. is a key transcription effector of Hh signaling. However, the role of in HSC-mediated liver fibrosis progression is largely unknown. Read More

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Lapatinib ditosylate rescues memory impairment in D-galactose/ovariectomized rats: Potential repositioning of an anti-cancer drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Exp Neurol 2021 Mar 13;341:113697. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini St., Cairo 11562, Egypt. Electronic address:

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays a substantial role in learning and memory. The upregulation of EGFR has been embroiled in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, most of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have been extensively studied for non-CNS diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. Read More

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Therapeutic effects of peripherally administrated neural crest stem cells on pain and spinal cord changes after sciatic nerve transection.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Mar 15;12(1):180. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 West Baltimore Street, MSTF Building 823, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Background: Severe peripheral nerve injury significantly affects patients' quality of life and induces neuropathic pain. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) exhibit several attractive characteristics for cell-based therapies following peripheral nerve injury. Here, we investigate the therapeutic effect of NCSC therapy and associated changes in the spinal cord in a sciatic nerve transection (SNT) model. Read More

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Fetal inflammation induces acute immune tolerance in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Mar 11;18(1):69. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, East Building MB630, 2450 Riverside Avenue, Minneapolis, MN, 55454, USA.

Background: Infants born preterm due to chorioamnionitis are frequently affected by a fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) and then by subsequent postnatal infections. FIRS and postnatal systemic inflammatory events independently contribute to poor neurocognitive outcomes of preterm infants. Developmental integrity of the hippocampus is crucial for intact neurocognitive outcomes in preterms and hippocampally dependent behaviors are particularly vulnerable to preterm systemic inflammation. Read More

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Small Molecule Treatments Improve Differentiation Potential of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 22;9:623886. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Life Sciences Center, Institute of Biochemistry, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) are an exciting and very promising source of stem cells for therapeutic applications. In this study we investigated the effects of short-term treatments of small molecules to improve stem cell properties and differentiation capability. For this purpose, we used epigenetically active compounds, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors Trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaBut), as well as multifunctional molecules of natural origin, such as retinoic acid (RA) and vitamin C (vitC). Read More

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February 2021

Lin28 Inhibits the Differentiation from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells to Glial Lineage Cells through Upregulation of Yap1.

Stem Cells Int 2021 22;2021:6674283. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Scientific Research Center, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518107, China.

The RNA-binding protein Lin28 regulates neurogliogenesis in mammals, independently of the let-7 microRNA. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains obscured. Here, we established Lin28a or Lin28b overexpression mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and found that these cells expressed similar levels of the core pluripotent factors, such as Oct4 and Sox2, and increased Yap1 but decreased lineage-specific markers compared to the control ESCs. Read More

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February 2021

IGF1R signaling regulates astrocyte-mediated neurovascular coupling in mice: implications for brain aging.

Geroscience 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Oklahoma Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging, Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, BRC 1311, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Aging is associated with a significant deficiency in circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which has an important role in the pathogenesis of age-related vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Impairment of moment-to-moment adjustment of regional cerebral blood flow via neurovascular coupling (NVC) importantly contributes to VCI. Previous studies established a causal link between circulating IGF-1 deficiency and neurovascular dysfunction. Read More

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Aberrant regulation of retinoic acid signaling genes in cerebral arterio venous malformation nidus and neighboring astrocytes.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Mar 1;18(1):61. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Cardio Vascular Diseases and Diabetes Biology, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Poojapura, Thycaud, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695014, India.

Background: Cerebral arterio venous malformations (AVM) are a major causal factor for intracranial hemorrhage, which result in permanent disability or death. The molecular mechanisms of AVM are complex, and their pathogenesis remains an enigma. Current research on cerebral AVM is focused on characterizing the molecular features of AVM nidus to elucidate the aberrant signaling pathways. Read More

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Overexpression of DSPP promotes the proliferation and migration of astrocytes.

Neurosci Lett 2021 May 26;754:135775. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Astrocytes are activated after central nervous system (CNS) injury, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Activated astrocytes can form glial scar to block nerve regeneration. Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), a member of the SIBLING (Small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins) family, has been reported to contribute to the proliferation and migration of different types of tumor cells, including glioma. Read More

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Binge-like ethanol drinking activates anaplastic lymphoma kinase signaling and increases the expression of STAT3 target genes in the mouse hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 Feb 28:e12729. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Center for Alcohol Research in Epigenetics, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has a complex pathogenesis, making it a difficult disorder to treat. Identifying relevant signaling pathways in the brain may be useful for finding new pharmacological targets to treat AUD. The receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) activates the transcription factor STAT3 in response to ethanol in cell lines. Read More

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February 2021

How do neurons in sensory ganglia communicate with satellite glial cells?

Brain Res 2021 Jun 22;1760:147384. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91240, Israel; Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

Neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia maintain bidirectional communications that are believed to be largely mediated by chemical messengers. Nerve injury leads to SGC activation, which was proposed to be mediated by nitric oxide (NO) released from active neurons, but evidence for this is lacking. Here we tested the idea that increased neuronal firing is a major factor in NO release. Read More

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Androgenic activation, impairment of the monoaminergic system and altered behavior in zebrafish larvae exposed to environmental concentrations of fenitrothion.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 15;775:145671. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Fenitrothion is an organophosphorus insecticide usually found in aquatic ecosystems at concentrations in the range of low ng/L. In this manuscript we show that 24 h exposure to environmental concentrations of fenitrothion, from ng/L to low μg/L, altered basal locomotor activity, visual-motor response and acoustic/vibrational escape response of zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, fenitrothion and expression of gap43a, gfap, atp2b1a, and mbp exhibited a significant non-monotonic concentration-response relationship. Read More

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Regulation of GFAP Expression.

ASN Neuro 2021 Jan-Dec;13:1759091420981206

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

Expression of the GFAP gene has attracted considerable attention because its onset is a marker for astrocyte development, its upregulation is a marker for reactive gliosis, and its predominance in astrocytes provides a tool for their genetic manipulation. The literature on GFAP regulation is voluminous, as almost any perturbation of development or homeostasis in the CNS will lead to changes in its expression. In this review, we limit our discussion to mechanisms proposed to regulate GFAP synthesis through a direct interaction with its gene or mRNA. Read More

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February 2021

Neuropathological and Cognitive Effects Induced by CuO-NPs in Rats and Trials for Prevention Using Pomegranate Juice.

Neurochem Res 2021 May 11;46(5):1264-1279. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmacognosy Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are extensively utilized in several industries and in pharmaceutical production. This excess exposure elevates the concern about its expected poisonous impacts on humans and animals. Pomegranate juice (PJ) is a natural source of polyphenols and exhibits potent antioxidant activities. Read More

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MicroRNA-185 activates PI3K/AKT signalling pathway to alleviate dopaminergic neuron damage via targeting IGF1 in Parkinson's disease.

J Drug Target 2021 Mar 23:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Zhaoqing Medical College, Zhaoqing, China.

Objectives: Studies have extensively explored the role of microRNAs (miRs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and miR-185 is related to autophagy and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in PD. However, the role of miR-185 mediating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B signalling pathway (PI3K/AKT) in PD still needs in-depth exploration.

Methods: Rat PD models were established by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. Read More

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iTRAQ-based proteomic profiling reveals protein alterations after traumatic brain injury and supports thyroxine as a potential treatment.

Mol Brain 2021 01 27;14(1):25. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Emergency Center, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071, China.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a primary cause of disability and death across the world. Previously, RNA analysis was widely used to study the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying TBI; however, the relatively low correlation between the transcriptome and proteome revealed that RNA transcription abundance does not reliably predict protein abundance, which led to the emergence of proteomic research. In this study, an iTRAQ proteomics approach was applied to detect protein alterations after TBI on a large scale. Read More

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January 2021

Adipose-derived stromal cells improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury through TGF-β1/Smad3/PLOD2 pathway activation.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 01 20;13(3):4370-4387. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Cell Therapy Center, Jinan Central Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250013, China.

Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) improves functional recovery in experimental models of spinal cord injury (SCI), but the mechanism is not fully understood. Activation of procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2), a collagen-modifying enzyme, reportedly follows MSC transplantation in an SCI animal model. We investigated the regulation of PLOD2 expression and its potential contribution to the neuroprotective effects of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) following mechanical injury to neurons and SCI . Read More

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January 2021

Protriptyline improves spatial memory and reduces oxidative damage by regulating NFκB-BDNF/CREB signaling axis in streptozotocin-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Res 2021 Mar 7;1754:147261. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Neuroscience and Ageing Biology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, U.P., India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India. Electronic address:

Antidepressants are well known to exert their role via upregulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF has been reported to exerts its neuroprotective effect in rodent and primate models as well as in patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of protriptyline (PRT), a tricyclic antidepressant, in streptozotocin (STZ)- induced rat model of AD. Read More

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Elemene Emulsion Injection Administration Reduces Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Astrocytic NDRG2 Expression within Spinal Dorsal Horn.

Chin J Integr Med 2021 Jan 9. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710038, China.

Objective: To investigate the mechanisms underlying elemene-induced analgesia in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI).

Methods: Sixty-five rats were equally divided into 5 groups using a random number table: naive group, sham group, SNI group, SNI + elemene (40 mg·kg·d) group and naive + elemene (40 mg·kg·d) group. An SNI rat model was established and the intervention were given respectively for 14 consecutive days. Read More

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January 2021

Salidroside Inhibits Reactive Astrogliosis and Glial Scar Formation in Late Cerebral Ischemia via the Akt/GSK-3β Pathway.

Neurochem Res 2021 Apr 3;46(4):755-769. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070, People's Republic of China.

Cerebral ischemia leads to reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation. Glial scarring can impede functional restoration during the recovery phase of stroke. Salidroside has been shown to have neuroprotective effects after ischemic stroke, but its impact on long-term neurological recovery, especially whether it regulates reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation, is unclear. Read More

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Ethanol Gestational Exposure Impairs Vascular Development and Endothelial Potential to Control BBB-Associated Astrocyte Function in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 2;58(4):1755-1768. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Laboratório de Neurobiologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Bloco F, Sala F15, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21949-902, Brazil.

Ethanol consumption during pregnancy or lactation period can induce permanent damage to the development of the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). CNS development depends on proper neural cells and blood vessel (BV) development and blood-brain barrier (BBB) establishment; however, little is known about how ethanol affects these events. Here, we investigated the impact of ethanol exposure to endothelial cells (ECs) function and to ECs interaction with astrocytes in the context of BBB establishment. Read More

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The pathogenic potential of the combined action of chronic Opisthorchis felineus infection and repeated social defeat stress in C57BL/6 mice.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Apr 27;51(5):353-363. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS), Novosibirsk, Russia.

Parasitic food-borne diseases and chronic social stress are frequent attributes of day-to-day human life. Therefore, our aim was to model the combined action of chronic Opisthorchis felineus infection and repeated social defeat stress in C57BL/6 mice. Histological examination of the liver revealed inflammation sites, pronounced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiofibrosis together with proliferation of bile ducts and hepatocyte dystrophy in the infected mice, especially in the stress-exposed ones. Read More

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