Environ Res 2022 May 21:113503. Epub 2022 May 21.
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Munich, Germany; Institute for Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Diabetes Center at Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany; Forschergruppe Diabetes, Chair of Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes, Faculty of Medicine, Technical University Munich at Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany.
Objective: Incidence of early-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been increasing worldwide. Only few studies examined the relationship between geographical environmental variation and T1D incidence or its presymptomatic stage of islet autoimmunity. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of long-term environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life on childhood islet autoimmunity. Read More