183,117 results match your criteria germ cells


The molecular mechanism underlying pathogenicity inhibition by sanguinarine in Magnaporthe oryzae.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Fuzhou Institute of Oceanography, Minjiang University, Fuzhou, 350108, China.

Background: Sanguinarine (SAN) is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid that broadly targets a range of pathways in mammalian and fungal cells. In this study we set to explore the molecular mechanism how sanguinarine inhibits fungal development and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae with the hope that sanguinarine will bolster the development of anti-blast agents.

Results: We found that the fungus exhibited a significant reduction in the vegetative growth and hyphal melanization while the spores produced long germ tubes on the artificial hydrophobic surface characteristic of a defect in thigmotropic sensing when exposed to 4 μM, 8 μM and 0. Read More

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Smart Giant Cells: A Missing Embryonic Link between McClintock's Unstable Heredity and Reproduction and Tumorigenesis throughout Millennia of Evolution of Earth.

Authors:
Jinsong Liu

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Anatomical Pathology, Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX, 77030, United States. Electronic address:

The "life code" theory postulates that egg cells, which are giant, are the first cells in reproduction and that damaged or aged giant somatic cells are the first cells in tumorigenesis. However, the hereditary basis for giant cells remains undefined. Here I propose that increase in cell size may be a response to environmental stress throughout evolution. Read More

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Testicular torsion-detorsion causes dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

Andrology 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Integrative Research Centre for Critical Care, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Semen quality impairment is a serious consequence of testicular torsion-detorsion (TD). Adequate germ-cell mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) plays a crucial role in male fertility. Changes in cellular OXPHOS in testicular tissues after testicular TD remain unclear. Read More

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Porcine Primordial Germ Cell-Like Cells Generated from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Under Different Culture Conditions.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Animal Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP, Brazil.

Culture conditions regulate the process of pluripotency acquisition and self-renewal. This study aimed to analyse the influence of the in vitro environment on the induction of porcine induced pluripotent stem cell (piPSCs) differentiation into primordial germ cell-like cells (pPGCLCs). piPSC culture with different supplementation strategies (LIF, bFGF, or LIF plus bFGF) promoted heterogeneous phenotypic profiles. Read More

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Germ cells of the mammalian female: A limited or renewable resource?

Biol Reprod 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University and Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal Canada.

In many non-mammalian organisms, a population of germ-line stem cells supports continuing production of gametes during most or all the life of the individual, and germ-line stem cells are also present and functional in male mammals. Traditionally, however, they have been thought not to exist in female mammals, who instead generate all their germ cells during fetal life. Over the last several years, this dogma has been challenged by several reports, while supported by others. Read More

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Overexpression of DAZL, STRA8, and BOULE Genes and Treatment With BMP4 or Retinoic Acid Modulate the Expression of MSC Overexpressing Germ Cell Genes.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:667547. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Animal Production Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

gamete derivation from stem cells has potential applications in animal reproduction as an alternative method for the dissemination of elite animal genetics, production of transgenic animals, and conservation of endangered species. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be suitable candidates for gamete derivation considering their differentiative capacity and their potential for cell therapy. Due to its relevance in gametogenesis, it has been reported that retinoic acid (RA) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 are able to upregulate the expression of specific markers associated to the early stages of germ cell (GCs) differentiation in bovine fetal MSCs (bfMSCs). Read More

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Integrating miRNA and mRNA Profiling to Assess the Potential miRNA-mRNA Modules Linked With Testicular Immune Homeostasis in Sheep.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:647153. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

Beyond its well-known role in spermatogenesis and androgen production, mammalian testes are increasingly recognized as an immune-privileged organ for protecting autoantigenic germ cells, especially meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells, from systemic immune responses. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation in mammals, including sheep, are far from known. In this study, we searched for the genes associated with testicular immune privilege and assessed their possible modulating mechanisms by analyzing systematic profiling of mRNAs and miRNAs on testicular tissues derived from prepubertal and postpubertal Tibetan sheep acquired by RNA sequencing. Read More

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Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line HPCASRi002-A from a patient with neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism caused by a compound heterozygous mutation in the CASR gene.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Jun 4;54:102414. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of calcium homeostasis that manifests shortly after birth with hypercalcemia and bone disease. NSHPT, in most cases, is attributed to mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene. We reprogrammed dermal fibroblasts derived from a patient with NSHPT carrying a compound heterozygous mutation in the CASR gene into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Read More

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Modeling leukemia with pediatric acute leukemia patient-derived iPSCs.

Stem Cell Res 2021 May 25;54:102404. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Hematology & Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Health Committee Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology, Shanghai 200127, China. Electronic address:

Objective: ediatric acute leukemia (AL) is the most common hematological malignancy in childhood. However, the limitation of clinical specimens hindered the progress of research. Therefore, new research platforms are urgently needed to establish and clarify the pathogenesis of pediatric AL, and it is necessary to try to find novel targeted therapies for the clinical use. Read More

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The gene regulatory system for specifying germ layers in early embryos of the simple chordate.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 9;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

In animal embryos, gene regulatory networks control the dynamics of gene expression in cells and coordinate such dynamics among cells. In ascidian embryos, gene expression dynamics have been dissected at the single-cell resolution. Here, we revealed mathematical functions that represent the regulatory logics of all regulatory genes expressed at the 32-cell stage when the germ layers are largely specified. Read More

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SALL-4 and Beta-Catenin Expression in Sinonasal Teratocarcinosarcoma.

Head Neck Pathol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Avenue South, MCN CC3322, Nashville, TN, 37232-2561, USA.

Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is a rare, aggressive malignancy that displays a heterogeneous combination of malignant blastema-like, epithelial and mesenchymal components. Its exact histogenesis is unknown with hypotheses ranging from true germ cell derivation to origin from pluripotent stem cells. However, despite this tumor's multiphenotypic histology, which includes frequent glandular, squamous, and neuroectodermal differentiation similar to adnexal germ cell tumors, SNTCS appears to have some differences from adnexal teratomas. Read More

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Spermatocytic Tumor of Testis in a Young Male.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Jun;30(6):722-724

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Spermatocytic tumor is a rare germ cell tumor not related to germ cell neoplasia in situ, and derived from postpubertal-type germ cells. It was previously called "Spermatocytic Seminoma" due to false belief of its origin from germ cell neoplasia in situ. The tumor usually occurs in an older age group and orchidectomy is curative. Read More

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Vasa expression is associated with sex differentiation in the Asian yellow pond turtle, Mauremys mutica.

J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Key Laboratory of Tropical & Subtropical Fishery Resource Application & Cultivation of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Vasa, one of the best-studied germ cell markers plays a critical role in germ cell development and differentiation in animals. Vasa deficiency would lead to male-specific sterility in most vertebrates, but female sterility in the fly. However, the role of the vasa gene involved in germ cell differentiation is largely elusive. Read More

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Dysregulation of Notch-FGF signaling axis in germ cells results in cystic dilation of the rete testis in mice.

J Cell Commun Signal 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of OB/GYN and Women's Health, MDR Building, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 511 South Floyd Street, Louisville, KY, 40292, USA.

Numb (Nb) and Numb-like (Nbl) are functionally redundant adaptor proteins that critically regulate cell fate and morphogenesis in a variety of organs. We selectively deleted Nb and Nbl in testicular germ cells by breeding Nb/Nbl floxed mice with a transgenic mouse line Tex101-Cre. The mutant mice developed unilateral or bilateral cystic dilation in the rete testis (RT). Read More

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Mouse EWSR1 is crucial for spermatid post-meiotic transcription and spermiogenesis.

Development 2021 Jun 8;148(11). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA.

Spermatogenesis is precisely controlled by complex gene-expression programs. During mammalian male germ-cell development, a crucial feature is the repression of transcription before spermatid elongation. Previously, we discovered that the RNA-binding protein EWSR1 plays an important role in meiotic recombination in mouse, and showed that EWSR1 is highly expressed in late meiotic cells and post-meiotic cells. Read More

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Spatio-temporal mRNA tracking in the early zebrafish embryo.

Nat Commun 2021 06 7;12(1):3358. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

Early stages of embryogenesis depend on subcellular localization and transport of maternal mRNA. However, systematic analysis of these processes is hindered by a lack of spatio-temporal information in single-cell RNA sequencing. Here, we combine spatially-resolved transcriptomics and single-cell RNA labeling to perform a spatio-temporal analysis of the transcriptome during early zebrafish development. Read More

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Sperm transcriptional state associated with paternal transmission of stress phenotypes.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Nash Family Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA

Paternal stress can induce long-lasting changes in germ cells potentially propagating heritable changes across generations. To date, no studies have investigated differences in transmission patterns between stress-resilient and -susceptible mice. We tested the hypothesis that transcriptional alterations in sperm during chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) transmit increased susceptibility to stress phenotypes to the next generation. Read More

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Spermidine induces cytoprotective autophagy of female germline stem cells in vitro and ameliorates aging caused by oxidative stress through upregulated sequestosome-1/p62 expression.

Cell Biosci 2021 Jun 7;11(1):107. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance of Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China.

Background: Autophagy is required for oogenesis and plays a critical role in response to aging caused by oxidative stress. However, there have been no reports on regulation of cytoprotective autophagy in female germline stem cells (FGSCs) in response to aging caused by oxidative stress.

Results: We found that Spermidine (SPD) significantly increased protein expression of autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta-II (MAP1LC3B-II/LC3B-II) and sequestosome-1/p62 (SQSTM1/p62), and evoked autophagic flux in FGSCs. Read More

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Aging and oxidative stress alter DNA repair mechanisms in male germ cells of superoxide dismutase-1 null mice.

Biol Reprod 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The efficiency of antioxidant defense system decreases with aging, thus resulting in high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in spermatozoa. This damage can lead to genetic disorders in the offspring. There are limited studies investigating the effects of the total loss of antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), in male germ cells as they progress through spermatogenesis. Read More

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Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (SMUSHi001-A) from a patient with 46, XX male sex reversal syndrome carrying the SRY gene.

Stem Cell Res 2021 May 24;54:102397. Epub 2021 May 24.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Viral Oncology, The Clinical Innovation & Research Centre, Shenzhen Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen 518110, China. Electronic address:

The 46, XX male sex reversal syndrome (SRS) is a rare disease with a gender dysplasia phenotype. Scientists concur that SRS is associated with translocation of the sex-determining region Y gene (SRY). We obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)from an 18-year-old male with SRS to generate an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line (SMUSHi001-A). Read More

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[Germline and Somatic Mutations in Archived Breast Cancer Specimens of Different Subtypes].

Mol Biol (Mosk) 2021 May-Jun;55(3):412-421

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia.

Molecular profiling of tumors may provide promising options for personalized treatment. We have examined the spectrum of germline and somatic mutations in 23 breast cancers (ВС) of various molecular subtypes, including tumors 1) with expression of estrogen, progesterone and/or epidermal growth factor receptor HER2/neu, and 2) with a triple negative phenotype. Genomic DNA specimens were isolated from archived tumor and normal tissue samples and subjected to targeted sequencing of the coding regions of 25 cancer-associated genes with a mean coverage of x 1000. Read More

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Protocol for genome-scale CRISPR screening in engineered lineage reporter hPSCs to study cell fate determination.

STAR Protoc 2021 Jun 20;2(2):100548. Epub 2021 May 20.

Translational Medical Center for Stem Cell Therapy, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120, China.

is a key determinant of human neuroectoderm cell fate. Here, we describe a protocol for genome-scale CRISPR screening for use in genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Using the germ layer reporter and an inducible CRISPR/Cas9 knockout system, we describe how to identify lineage-specific preventing genes. Read More

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Understanding Reproductive Aging in Wildlife to Improve Animal Conservation and Human Reproductive Health.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 19;9:680471. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

Similar to humans and laboratory animals, reproductive aging is observed in wild species-from small invertebrates to large mammals. Aging issues are also prevalent in rare and endangered species under human care as their life expectancy is longer than in the wild. The objectives of this review are to (1) present conserved as well as distinctive traits of reproductive aging in different wild animal species (2) highlight the value of comparative studies to address aging issues in conservation breeding as well as in human reproductive medicine, and (3) suggest next steps forward in that research area. Read More

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Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor of Infancy: A Clinicopathological and V600E Mutation Study of 11 Cases.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:668505. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Oral Pathology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, National Center for Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Research Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Regenerative Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To investigate the clinicopathological features and V600E mutation of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI).

Materials And Methods: Eleven cases of MNTI diagnosed at the Department of Oral Pathology were collected. Clinicopathological characteristics were obtained from the medical records. Read More

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Goat : Indel Mutation Detection, Association Analysis With Litter Size and Alternative Splicing Variant Expression.

Front Genet 2021 21;12:648256. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

A-kinase anchoring protein 12 () plays key roles in male germ cells and female ovarian granulosa cells, whereas its influence on livestock litter size remains unclear. Herein we detected the genetic variants of gene and their effects on litter size as well as alternative splicing variants expression in Shaanbei white cashmere (SBWC) goats, aiming at exploring theoretical basis for goat molecular breeding. We identified two Insertion/deletions (Indels) (7- and 13-bp) within the gene. Read More

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Identification of testicular Foxq1 as a critical modulator of lactate metabolism in mouse Sertoli cells.

Histochem Cell Biol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Pathology, Linyi Cancer Hospital, No. 6 Lingyuan East Rd., Linyi, 276034, China.

Postmeiotic germ cells require the lactate produced by the adjacent Sertoli cells (SCs) as their sole energy fuels. Lactate production in SCs is elaborately regulated by monitoring the transcription of the lactate dehydrogenase A (Ldha) gene. However, the transcription factors that are responsible for the control of Ldha transcription in SCs remain ill defined. Read More

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Molding immortality from a plastic germline.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2021 Jun 3;73:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Germ cells are uniquely capable of maintaining cellular immortality, allowing them to give rise to new individuals in generation after generation. Recent studies have identified that the germline state is plastic, with frequent interconversion between germline differentiation states and across the germline/soma border. Therefore, features that grant germline immortality must be inducible, with other cells undergoing some form of rejuvenation to a germline state. Read More

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E-Cadherin expression in human tumors: a tissue microarray study on 10,851 tumors.

Biomark Res 2021 Jun 5;9(1):44. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The E-Cadherin gene (CDH1, Cadherin 1), located at 16q22.1 encodes for a calcium-dependent membranous glycoprotein with an important role in cellular adhesion and polarity maintenance.

Methods: To systematically determine E-Cadherin protein expression in normal and cancerous tissues, 14,637 tumor samples from 112 different tumor types and subtypes as well as 608 samples of 76 different normal tissue types were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray format. Read More

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Influences of non-IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy-associated gut microbial dysbiosis on regulatory T cell-mediated intestinal immune tolerance and homeostasis.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 2;158:105020. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Child Health Care, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Child Health and Nutrition, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400014, China. Electronic address:

Gut microbial dysbiosis is closely associated with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) during infancy. Recent research has highlighted the crucial role of the commensal microbiota-induced intestinal regulatory T (Treg) cell response in the development of oral tolerance and protection against IgE-mediated food allergies. However, the influences of CMPA (particularly non-IgE-mediated CMPA)-associated microbial dysbiosis on Treg cell-mediated intestinal immune tolerance and homeostasis remain poorly characterized. Read More

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The inhibition of microtubule dynamics instability alters lipid homeostasis in TM4 Sertoli cells.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Jun 2;426:115607. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquıímicas de Bahía Blanca, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Sertoli cells (SC) structurally support and transport nutrients to germ cells during spermatogenesis facilitated by an active cytoskeleton. Chemical perturbation of SC microtubule (MT) dynamics instability leads to premature germ cell exfoliation demonstrating that this process is essential for male fertility, yet the effects of MT damaging drugs on SC lipid metabolism have been less explored. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of how adequate SC MT dynamicity is needed to finely tune lipid homeostasis. Read More

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