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Provisional Mortality Data - United States, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 9;70(14):519-522. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

National Center for Health Statistics, CDC.

CDC's National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) collects and reports annual mortality statistics using data from U.S. death certificates. Read More

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COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality Among American Indian/Alaska Native and White Persons - Montana, March 13-November 30, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 9;70(14):510-513. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Geographic differences in infectious disease mortality rates have been observed among American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons in the United States (1), and aggregate analyses of data from selected U.S. states indicate that COVID-19 incidence and mortality are higher among AI/AN persons than they are among White persons (2,3). Read More

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Use of Stay-at-Home Orders and Mask Mandates to Control COVID-19 Transmission - Blackfeet Tribal Reservation, Montana, June-December 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 9;70(14):514-518. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

COVID-19 has disproportionately affected persons who identify as non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) (1). The Blackfeet Tribal Reservation, the northern Montana home of the sovereign Blackfeet Nation, with an estimated population of 10,629 (2), detected the first COVID-19 case in the community on June 16, 2020. Following CDC guidance,* and with free testing widely available, the Indian Health Service and Blackfeet Tribal Health Department began investigating all confirmed cases and their contacts on June 25. Read More

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Death Certificate-Based ICD-10 Diagnosis Codes for COVID-19 Mortality Surveillance - United States, January-December 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 9;70(14):523-527. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Approximately 375,000 deaths during 2020 were attributed to COVID-19 on death certificates reported to CDC (1). Concerns have been raised that some deaths are being improperly attributed to COVID-19 (2). Analysis of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnoses on official death certificates might provide an expedient and efficient method to demonstrate whether reported COVID-19 deaths are being overestimated. Read More

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Community Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Associated with a Local Bar Opening Event - Illinois, February 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 9;70(14):528-532. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

During February 2021, an opening event was held indoors at a rural Illinois bar that accommodates approximately 100 persons. The Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) and local health department staff members investigated a COVID-19 outbreak associated with this opening event. Overall, 46 COVID-19 cases were linked to the event, including cases in 26 patrons and three staff members who attended the opening event and 17 secondary cases. Read More

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Use of Real-Time PCR for Chlamydia psittaci Detection in Human Specimens During an Outbreak of Psittacosis - Georgia and Virginia, 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 9;70(14):505-509. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Psittacosis is typically a mild febrile respiratory illness caused by infection with the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci and usually transmitted to humans by infected birds (1). On average, 11 psittacosis cases per year were reported in the United States during 2000-2017. During August-October 2018, the largest U. Read More

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Gingival Recession after Surgical Endodontic Treatment and Quality of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Oral Health Prev Dent 2021 Jan;19(1):235-243

Purpose: This systematic review addressed flap designs in endodontic surgery which can have an impact on the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL).

Materials And Methods: Four electronic databases were searched (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus) to identify all studies up to November 2019 that investigated the effect of flap designs on gingival recession and quality of life among healthy adults.

Results: The initial search identified 2701 references. Read More

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January 2021

Comparative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of 40% Miswak Mouthwash and 0.12% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash in Treating Gingivitis: A Blinded, Randomised Clinical Trial.

Oral Health Prev Dent 2021 Jan;19(1):229-233

Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of a 40% miswak compared to a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash.

Materials And Methods: A total of 60 patients aged 20-55 years who attended the Periodontics Clinics at the College of Dentistry, Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq, were allocated into 2 groups to use either 40% miswak mouthwash or 0. Read More

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January 2021

Developing Clinical Practice Guidelines for Dental Caries Management for the Malaysian Population through the ADAPTE Trans-Contextual Adaptation Process.

Oral Health Prev Dent 2021 Jan;19(1):217-227

Purpose: To develop an evidence-based Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) on caries management for the Malaysian population using the ADAPTE trans-contextual adaptation framework.

Materials And Methods: A systematic search was conducted to identify all CPGs related to caries management on guideline repository websites and other platforms. The search findings were screened and the quality of the identified guidelines was evaluated using the AGREE II tool. Read More

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January 2021

[The Association Between Abdominal Obesity and Diabetes among Middle-aged and Older Adults with Normal BMI].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):340-344

Department of Health Behavior and Social Medicine, West China School of Public Health and West China Forth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To explore the relationship between abdominal obesity and diabetes among middle-aged and older adults with normal body mass index (BMI) and to provide reference information for formulating targeted diabetes prevention and control measures for this population.

Methods: Data were extracted from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) done in 2015. Middle-aged and older adults who were aged 45 and older and had normal BMI were included in the study. Read More

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[A Cross-sectional Study of Osteoporosis and Cardiovascular Calcification in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease at Different CKD Stages].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):334-339

Department of Nephrology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400042, China.

Objective: To investigate the status of osteoporosis and cardiovascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with different stages, and analyze the correlation between the stages and markers of bone metabolism To correlation.

Methods: A total of 368 CKD patients at stage 3-5 who were treated in First Affiliated Hospital Affiliate to Chongqing Medical University and Chongqing Fuling Central Hospital from July 2017 to January 2018 were enrolled. A total of 60 healthy people who underwent physical examination in the hospital during the same period were enrolled as control group. Read More

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[A Randomized Controlled Study of Intravesical Instillation Therapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vs. Epirubicinin Treating Non-muscular Invasive Bladder Cancer].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):326-333

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To explore the best treatment plan of intravesical instillation for patients with non-muscular invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), to explore recurrence-related clinicopathological factors after intravesical instillation, and to evaluate the value of the prognosis and prediction models currently used for NMIBC patients.

Methods: Starting from 2016, patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in our hospital and who received post-surgery diagnosis of having intermediate or high risks for NMIBC were enrolled in the study. They were randomly assigned to different group sat a ratio of 2∶2∶1 for receiving intravesical instillation therapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for 19 times, BCG for 15 times, and epirubicin (EPI) for 18 times. Read More

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[Application of Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization in Diagnostic Assessment of Abnormal Prenatal Serological Screening Results of Down's Syndrome].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):319-325

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To explore the application of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) technology in the prenatal diagnostic assessment of abnormal serological prenatal screening results of Down's syndrome (DS).

Methods: A total of 3 578 amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis solely due to abnormal serological prenatal screening results were selected. The samples were categorized into 3 groups, 2 624 in the high-risk group, 662 in the borderline-risk group, and 292 in the abnormal multiple of median (MoM) group. Read More

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[Application of MRI-based Radiomics Models in the Assessment of Hepatic Metastasis of Rectal Cancer].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):311-318

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Obejective: To explore the clinical value of using radiomics models based on different MRI sequences in the assessment of hepatic metastasis of rectal cancer.

Methods: 140 patients with pathologically confirm edrectal cancer were included in the study. They underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between April 2015 and May 2018 before receiving any treatment. Read More

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[The Clinical Effectiveness of Neural Network-based Boundary Recognition of Upper Abdominal Organs on CT Images].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):306-310

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To assess the clinical effectiveness of boundary recognition of upper abdomen organs on CT images based on neural network model and the combination of different slices.

Methods: A total of 2 000 patients who underwent upper abdomen enhanced CT scans from March 2018 to March 2019 were included in the study. The quality of the CT images met the requirements for clinical diagnosis. Read More

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[A Preliminary Study of Applying Geometric Deep Learning in Brain Morphometry for Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):300-305

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: A predictive model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was established based on brain surface meshes and geometric deep learning, and its performance was evaluated.

Methods: Seventy-six clinically diagnosed AD patients and 83 healthy older adults were enrolled and randomly assigned to the training set and the test set according to a 4-to-1 ratio. Brain surface mesh was constructed from 3-D T1-weighted high-resolution structural MR volumes of each participant. Read More

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[The Application Value of Artificial Intelligence-based Filtering and Interpolated Image Reconstruction Algorithm in Abdominal Magnetic Resonance Image Denoising].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):293-299

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To compare the noise reduction performance of conventional filtering and artificial intelligence-based filtering and interpolation (AIFI) and to explore for optimal parameters of applying AIFI in the noise reduction of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Sixty patients who underwent upper abdominal MRI examination in our hospital were retrospectively included. The raw data of T1-weighted image (T1WI), T2-weighted image (T2WI), and dualecho sequences were reconstructed with two image denoising techniques, conventional filtering and AIFI of different levels of intensity. Read More

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[Noise Reduction Effect of Deep-learning-based Image Reconstruction Algorithms in Thin-section Chest CT].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):286-292

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To evaluate the noise reduction effect of deep learning-based reconstruction algorithms in thin-section chest CT images by analyzing images reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and deep learning image reconstruction (DLIR) algorithms.

Methods: The chest CT scan raw data of 47 patients were included in this study. Images of 0. Read More

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[Prediction of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Based on Histomorphology Analysis of Needle Biopsy Images].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):279-285

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Big Data Analysis Technology, Nanjing University of Information and Science Technology, Nanjing 210044, China.

Objective: The deep learning method was used to automatically segment the tumor area and the cell nucleus based on needle biopsy images of breast cancer patients prior to receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and then, the features of the cell clusters in the tumor area were identified to predict the level of pathological remission of breast cancer after NAC.

Methods: 68 breast cancer patients who were to receive NAC at Jiangsu Province Hospital were recruited and the hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained preoperative biopsy sections of these patients were collected. Unet++ was used to establish a segmentation model and the tumor area and nucleus of the needle biopsy images were automatically segmented accordingly. Read More

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[Establishment of a New-generation High-throughput Proteomic Profiling of Transcription Factor in Human Atrial Tissue].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):274-278

Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830054, China.

Objective: To explore for the establishment of an experimental technique for profiling transcription factors, namely transcription factor response elements (TFRE), with high throughput and efficiency using human atrial tissue.

Methods: Postoperative right atrial tissues from 2 patients, one with preoperative atrial fibrillation and the one with no preoperative atrial fibrillation, were included in the study. The nucleus protein was extracted from the human atrial tissue, and the protein concentration was then measured. Read More

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[Longitudinal Study of the Association Between Handgrip Strength and Chronic Disease Multimorbidity among Middle-aged and Older Adults].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):267-273

Department of Health Policy and Management, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To investigate the potential association between multimorbidity and the handgrip strength of middle-aged and older adults.

Methods: The baseline (2011) and second-round follow-up (2015) data of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were used. Adults≥40 were selected as the subjects of the study. Read More

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[Population-based Study of the Effects of Adiponectin, Leptin and Soluble Leptin Receptor on Risks for Breast Cancer].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):259-266

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To explore the individual or combined effects of adiponectin, leptin, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) on risks for premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, and to provide evidence for revealing the molecular mechanism between obesity and breast cancer.

Methods: 469 newly-diagnosed breast cancer cases were sequentially recruited for the study and 469 age-frequency-matched healthy women were enrolled as the controls over the same period of time. The participant baseline information was collected with questionnaires, and plasmic levels of adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were checked with ELISA. Read More

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[Identification of Hub Genes for Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Properties with Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):248-258

Department of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To investigate the significance of stemness-related genes in the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer.

Methods: Key modules and genes were identified with weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). The signal pathways of high expression of key genes were analyzed by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and single cell sequencing data. Read More

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[Infectivity of Human Adenovirus Type 55 to Human Intestinal Cells].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):202-206

Department of Clinical Laboratory, the General Hospital of Western Theater Command, Chengdu 610083, China.

Objective: To examine the infectivity of human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) in human intestinal cells.

Methods: Caco-2 cells were cultured , and infected with HAdV-3, 7, 14 and 55. The expression of viral proteins in infected cells was detected with immunofluorescence method. Read More

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[A Review of Celluar Senescence and Tumor Treatment].

Authors:
Hao Liu Ying Hu

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):176-181

School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000, China.

Cellular senescence is a permanent state of cell cycle arrest, combined with the acquisition of a variety of secretory phenotypes. In addition to apoptosis, the induction of cellular senescence is an important mechanism that chemo- and radiotherapies and some targeted therapies rely on to produce an anti-tumor effect. However, being a self-protective mechanism of cells, cellular senescence can produce both positive and negative effects in tumor treatment. Read More

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[Bacteriophage Therapy: Retrospective Review and Future Prospects].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):170-175

Department of Respiratory and Intensive Care Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

At present, bacterial infections are mainly treated with antibiotics, but new treatment methods are urgently needed because of growing problems with antibiotic resistance. Therefore, phage therapy will be a potential solution to the problem of bacterial drug resistance, and the combined use of bacteriophage and antibiotics is also considered a potential treatment option. However, there has not been any well-designed clinical controlled trials on phage therapy. Read More

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[Application and Progress of Convolutional Neural Network-based Pathological Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):166-169

Department of Pathology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100000, China.

The incidence of gastric cancer is the highest among all kinds of malignant tumors in China. Because gastric cancer is very hard to identify in its early stage, the early diagnosis rate of gastric cancer in China is relatively low. At present, the pathological diagnosis of gastric cancer mainly depends on the diagnosis of pathologists. Read More

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[AI-assisted Prediction of Lymph Node Metastasis of Breast Cancer: Current and Prospective Research].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):162-165

Department of Pathology, the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050011, China.

One of the most important application of artificial intelligence (AI) in pathology is prediction, using morphological features, of patient prognosis and response to specific treatments. As one of the most common kinds of malignancies in the world and the crucial important cause of death due to malignant tumor among women, breast cancer has become the center of attention in clinical services. Axillary lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer. Read More

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[New Trends of Development in Precision Pathological Diagnosis Promoted by Artificial Intelligence].

Authors:
Hong Bu

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):153-155

Institute of Clinical Pathology/Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Precision pathological diagnosis plays a vital role in precision medicine. Both the limited resources available to pathologists and the incessant demands for further refinement and quantification of clinical diagnosis are posing new challenges for pathologists to meet the needs for precision pathological diagnosis. It is expected that artificial intelligence (AI) will be the powerful tool that will help find solutions to this problem from different angles. Read More

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[Intravenous immunoglobulin in combination with ibrutinib for the treatment of IgM-type M protein associated peripheral neuropathy complicated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2021 ;62(3):196-199

Department of Hematology, Oita Prefectural Hospital.

We report the case of a 79-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with IgM-kappa type monoclonal gammopathy according to immunophenotypes and a negative result for MYD88 L265P mutation of leukemic cells. Abnormal lymphocytes and IgM increased under observation, and he experienced paresthesia. The diagnosis of IgM-type M protein associated peripheral neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction test, and negativity of myelin-associated glycoprotein and glycolipid antibodies. Read More

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