18,796 results match your criteria genotoxic effects

Modeling the hydroxylation of estragole via human liver cytochrome P450.

J Mol Model 2021 Jun 11;27(7):199. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Molecular Modeling Lab, Department of Physics, School of Physical and Decision Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, UP, 226025, India.

Natural compounds derived from plants are generally regarded safe and devoid of adverse effects. However, there are individual ingredients that possess toxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic activities. These compounds when exposed at specific level become hazardous to health. Read More

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Comprehensive evaluation of two Astragalus species (A. campylosema and A. hirsutus) based on biological, toxicological properties and chemical profiling.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 8:112330. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius.

Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is an important genus with numerous species having various traditional medicinal uses making them of interest for scientific investigations to ascertain their therapeutic benefits. In the present study, the quantitative polyphenolic profiles of methanolic extracts from different parts (leaves, flowers, and roots) of two endemic Astragalus species growing in Turkey, i. Read More

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Relevant essential oil components: a minireview on increasing applications and potential toxicity.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2021 Jun 10:1-27. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València. Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.

Phenolic compounds carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and vanillin are four of the most thoroughly investigated essential oil components given their relevant biological properties. These compounds are generally considered safe for consumption and have been used in a wide range of food and non-food applications. Significant biological properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic or anti-carcinogenic activity, have been described for these components. Read More

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Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of lanthanides for Vicia faba L. are mediated by their chemical speciation in different exposure media.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 2;790:148223. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LIEC, F-57000 Metz, France.

A comprehensive study of the toxicity of lanthanides (LN) in relation to the media composition will enhance the prediction of their potential adverse effects for living organisms. Here we examined the effect of different media on the V. faba root elongation and on the cytotoxic (mitotic index) and the genotoxic (micronucleated cell number) effects from toxicity tests with Ce, Gd and Lu (100, 800 and 6400 μg L). Read More

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Evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in neuroblastoma cells.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 7;154:112323. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

University of Health Sciences Turkey, Gülhane Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Ankara, Turkey.

Neuroblastoma, a neoplasm of the sympathetic nervous system, is the second most common extracranial malignant tumor of childhood and the most common solid tumor of infancy. Paclitaxel (taxol), a diterpenoid pseudoalkaloid isolated from the shells of Taxus brevifolia, is the first taxane derivative used in the clinic for cancer treatment. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is one of the most successfully used biodegradable polymers for drug delivery which has a minimum systemic toxicity. Read More

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Hydrolytic stability of anticancer drugs and one metabolite in the aquatic environment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308, Gdańsk, Poland.

Due to the genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic mechanism of action, anticancer drugs are highly hazardous compounds. Their occurrence, fate, and effects in the environment have not been systematically studied as compared to other medicaments. Therefore, reliable data, including their stability and persistency, is required in order to assess it. Read More

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Exposure to pollutants present in Iguaçu River Southern Brazil affect the health of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758): Assessment histological, genotoxic and biochemical.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jun 6;87:103682. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Centro Politécnico, Curitiba, PO Box 19031, 81531990, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:

Urban sewage is a source of major contamination in aquatic systems and contributes to environmental and human health disturbances. This study investigates the effects of sewage-polluted waters from Iguaçu River on the health of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus. Two hundred four specimens were exposed to riverine water in four groups: no diluted, 25 and 50 % diluted water and a control group without tested water for 72 days. Read More

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Investigation of genotoxic effects of rhododendron honey using three mammalian bioassays .

Drug Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 8:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Duzce Vocational School, Duzce University, Duzce, Turkey.

Rhododendron honey (RH) is obtained from the rhododendron plants are grown in many regions around the world, causes poisoning in humans due to the grayanotoxin (GTX) compound in its structure. It is used by the public as a therapeutic for some diseases. It was aimed to study the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of RH in mouse bone-marrow and sperm cells by using three mammalian bioassays. Read More

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Synchrotron X-Ray Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect: An Impact of the Scattered Radiation, Distance From the Irradiated Site and p53 Cell Status.

Front Oncol 2021 21;11:685598. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Synchrotron radiation, especially microbeam radiotherapy (MRT), has a great potential to improve cancer radiotherapy, but non-targeted effects of synchrotron radiation have not yet been sufficiently explored. We have previously demonstrated that scattered synchrotron radiation induces measurable -H2AX foci, a biomarker of DNA double-strand breaks, at biologically relevant distances from the irradiated field that could contribute to the apparent accumulation of bystander DNA damage detected in cells and tissues outside of the irradiated area. Here, we quantified an impact of scattered radiation to DNA damage response in "naïve" cells sharing the medium with the cells that were exposed to synchrotron radiation. Read More

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Environmental Toxins Found Historically in the Polycythemia Vera Cluster Area and their Potential for Inducing DNA Damage.

J Environ Anal Toxicol 2021 Feb;8(1)

Icahn School of Medicine, Mt. Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

In 2006, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry received a request to determine whether a cluster of polycythemia vera patients existed in a northeast Pennsylvania community. A significant cluster of PV cases was identified at the nexus of three counties near several hazardous waste sites. The current study evaluated the potential for a select number of environmental contaminants previously detected in the cluster area to induce DNA damage using assays with hematopoietic stem-cell derived progenitor cells. Read More

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February 2021

The relationship between defects in DNA repair genes and autoinflammatory diseases.

Rheumatol Int 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Medical Biology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Tissue inflammation and damage with the abnormal and overactivation of innate immune system results with the development of a hereditary disease group of autoinflammatory diseases. Multiple numbers of DNA damage develop with the continuous exposure to endogenous and exogenous genotoxic effects, and these damages are repaired through the DNA damage response governed by the genes involved in the DNA repair mechanisms, and proteins of these genes. Studies showed that DNA damage might trigger the innate immune response through nuclear DNA accumulation in the cytoplasm, and through chronic DNA damage response which signals itself and/or by micronucleus. Read More

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Evidence-based meta-analysis of the genotoxicity induced by microplastics in aquatic organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 14;783:147076. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

CAS Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shandong Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai 264003, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, PR China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Qingdao 266071, PR China. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) attract global concern due to their ubiquitous existence in aquatic environments. However, the genotoxic effect of MPs on aquatic organisms in the natural environment remains controversial. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted by recompiling 44 individual studies from 12 publications to determine whether MPs could induce genotoxicity in aquatic organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations (≤1 mg/L, median = 0. Read More

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The hCOMET project: International database comparison of results with the comet assay in human biomonitoring. Baseline frequency of DNA damage and effect of main confounders.

Mutat Res 2021 Jan-Jun;787:108371. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Institute for Medical Chemistry, Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, Bratislava, Slovakia.

The alkaline comet assay, or single cell gel electrophoresis, is one of the most popular methods for assessing DNA damage in human population. One of the open issues concerning this assay is the identification of those factors that can explain the large inter-individual and inter-laboratory variation. International collaborative initiatives such as the hCOMET project - a COST Action launched in 2016 - represent a valuable tool to meet this challenge. Read More

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February 2021

Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of methyl ether dillapiole on the development of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

Med Vet Entomol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Graduate Program in Genetics, Conservation, and Evolutionary Biology - PPG - GCBEv, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

Dillapiole, extracted from Piper aduncum essential oil and its derivatives, has been shown to be a potential alternative to the control of Aedes aegypti, which has become resistant to synthetic insecticides. Methyl ether dillapiole (MED) and temephos (TM) were compared to complement the data on the genotoxicity and developmental changes of Ae. aegypti. Read More

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Childhood Cancer: Occurrence, Treatment and Risk of Second Primary Malignancies.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 26;13(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy, University Medical Centre of the Johannes Gutenberg University, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Cancer represents the leading cause of disease-related death and treatment-associated morbidity in children with an increasing trend in recent decades worldwide. Nevertheless, the 5-year survival of childhood cancer patients has been raised impressively to more than 80% during the past decades, primarily attributed to improved diagnostic technologies and multiagent cytotoxic regimens. This strong benefit of more efficient tumor control and prolonged survival is compromised by an increased risk of adverse and fatal late sequelae. Read More

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Proteins Marking the Sequence of Genotoxic Signaling from Irradiated Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to CD34+ Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 29;22(11). Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 68167 Mannheim, Germany.

Non-targeted effects (NTE) of ionizing radiation may initiate myeloid neoplasms (MN). Here, protein mediators (I) in irradiated human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as the NTE source, (II) in MSC conditioned supernatant and (III) in human bone marrow CD34+ cells undergoing genotoxic NTE were investigated. Healthy sublethal irradiated MSC showed significantly increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Read More

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Epigenetic Effects of Benzene in Hematologic Neoplasms: The Altered Gene Expression.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 14;13(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy.

Benzene carcinogenic ability has been reported, and chronic exposure to benzene can be one of the risk elements for solid cancers and hematological neoplasms. Benzene is acknowledged as a myelotoxin, and it is able to augment the risk for the onset of acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, aplastic anemia, and lymphomas. Possible mechanisms of benzene initiation of hematological tumors have been identified, as a genotoxic effect, an action on oxidative stress and inflammation and the provocation of immunosuppression. Read More

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The Genotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Activities of Advanced Glycation End-Products (MAGE) Measured with Micronuclei Assay Are Inhibited by Their Low Molecular Mass Counterparts.

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 13;12(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wrocław, Poland.

An association between the cancer invasive activities of cells and their exposure to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) was described early in some reports. An incubation of cells with BSA-AGE (bovine serum albumin-AGE), BSA-carboxymethyllysine and BSA-methylglyoxal (BSA-MG) resulted in a significant increase in DNA damage. We examined the genotoxic activity of new products synthesized under nonaqueous conditions. Read More

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Genotoxic Activity of Particulate Matter and In Vivo Tests in Children Exposed to Air Pollution.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 17;18(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, 11 Viale Europa, 25123 Brescia, Italy.

The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between micronuclei and DNA damage in children's buccal mucosa cells and the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the different sized fractions of particulate matter as well as the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and metals in particulate matter. Air particulate matter was collected by high volume samplers located near the schools attended by the children on the same days of biological samplings. The mutagenic activity was assessed in different cells in in vitro tests (Ames test on bacteria and comet test on leukocytes). Read More

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Interleukin-32θ Triggers Cellular Senescence and Reduces Sensitivity to Doxorubicin-Mediated Cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 7;22(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

The recently discovered interleukin (IL)- 32 isoform IL-32θ exerts anti-metastatic effects in the breast tumor microenvironment. However, the involvement of IL-32θ in breast cancer cell proliferation is not yet fully understood; therefore, the current study aimed to determine how IL-32θ affects cancer cell growth and evaluated the responses of IL-32θ-expressing cells to other cancer therapy. We compared the functions of IL-32θ in triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells that stably express IL-32θ, with MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with a mock vector. Read More

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Evaluation of the Preclinical Efficacy of Lurbinectedin in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 12;13(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Oncology, University of Torino, 10043 Orbassano, Italy.

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive cancer generally diagnosed at an advanced stage and characterized by a poor prognosis. The absence of alterations in druggable kinases, together with an immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment, limits the use of molecular targeted therapies, making the treatment of MPM particularly challenging. Here we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of MPM to lurbinectedin (PM01183), a marine-derived drug that recently received accelerated approval by the FDA for the treatment of patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. Read More

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Quercetin and Isorhamnetin Attenuate Benzo[a]pyrene-Induced Toxicity by Modulating Detoxification Enzymes through the AhR and NRF2 Signaling Pathways.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 16;10(5). Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Life Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, Biomedi Campus, 32 Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang 10326, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Benzo[a]pyrene, classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, is metabolized to B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), causing DNA mutations and eventually cancer. Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid abundant in fruits and vegetables. After quercetin intake, quercetin's metabolites isorhamnetin and miquelianin are more highly concentrated than quercetin in the human plasma. Read More

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Plasma Metabolomics Analysis of Polyvinyl Chloride Workers Identifies Altered Processes and Candidate Biomarkers for Hepatic Hemangiosarcoma and Its Development.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 11;22(10). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.

Background: High-level occupational vinyl chloride (VC) exposures have been associated with hepatic hemangiosarcoma, which typically develops following a long latency period. Although VC is genotoxic, a more comprehensive mode of action has not been determined and diagnostic biomarkers have not been established. The purpose of this study is to address these knowledge gaps through plasma metabolomics. Read More

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Lipoperoxide Nanoemulsion as Adjuvant in Cisplatin Cancer Therapy: In Vitro Study on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma DLD-1 Cells.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 21;11(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy.

Cisplatin is a first-choice chemotherapeutic agent used to treat solid tumors even though the onset of multi-drug resistance and the time-dose side-effects impair its mono-therapeutic application. Therefore, new drug-delivery approaches, based on nanomedicine strategies, are needed to enhance its therapeutic potential in favor of a dose-reduction of cisplatin. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolism-derived intermediates, as well as lipid peroxidation end-products, are used as adjuvants to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Read More

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A review on genotoxicity in connection to infertility and cancer.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 May 28;345:109531. Epub 2021 May 28.

Non-Communicable Disease, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

Genotoxicity has been identified as the main cause of infertility and a variety of cancers. The mechanisms affect the structure, quality of the information or the segregation of DNA and are not inherently correlated with mutagenicity. The concept of genotoxicity, the chemical classes that cause genetic damage and the associated mechanisms of action are discussed here. Read More

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Investigating aneuploidy-inducing effect of Nemacur, Rogor, and Dursban in human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, IUG, Gaza, Palestine.

For many years, organophosphate (OP) pesticides have been considered an attractive choice for pest control around the world. Excessive use of OPs is a concerning issue for human health. Although the genotoxic effect of these pesticides has been reported, studies that examined their aneuploidy-inducing effect are limited or absent. Read More

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A Review and Update with Perspective of Evidence that the Herbicide Glyphosate (Roundup) is a Cause of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA. Electronic address:

Glyphosate-based formulations (GBFs), such as Roundup, are the most heavily used herbicides in the world. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that glyphosate and GBFs are probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), mainly for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, this finding has been controversial, and most pesticide regulatory agencies have not followed their lead. Read More

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Occurrence, bioaccumulation and toxicological effect of drugs of abuse in aquatic ecosystem: A review.

Environ Res 2021 May 26;200:111362. Epub 2021 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Ecological Effect and Risk Assessment of Chemicals, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China. Electronic address:

Drugs of abuse are a group of emerging contaminants. As the prevalence of manufacture and consumption, there is a growing global environmental burden and ecological risk from the continuous release of these contaminants into environment. The widespread occurrence of drugs of abuse in waste wasters and surface waters is due to the incomplete removal through traditional wastewater treatment plants in different regions around the world. Read More

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Oxidative stress and cyto-genotoxicity induced by poly-d-glucosamine in human blood cells .

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

Poly-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (CH; chitin) is the main component of the insect skeleton, fungal cell wall, and many crustaceans, including crab and shrimp. CH is the most abundant in nature after cellulose, and it has a complex and hardly soluble structure. Poly-d-glucosamine (CHO; chitosan) is a soluble derivative of CH produced by deacetylation used in many fields, including human health. Read More

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Enzymatic, morphological, and genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden.

Fish have defense systems that are capable of repairing damages caused by xenobiotics like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), so the aims of this study were to identify BaP toxicity in melanomacrophages (MMs) cytoskeleton, evaluate the melanin area in MMs, and analyze genotoxicity. Rainbow trout juveniles (n = 24) were split in 48h and 7d treatments that received 2 mg/kg of BaP. After the experiment, blood samples were collected and liver was removed, to proceed with the analysis: EROD activity, MMs melanin area quantification, melanosomes movements, and a genotoxicity test. Read More

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