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Prognostic value of ferroptosis-related genes in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Lung Cancer Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: The prevalence of lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) has dramatically increased in recent decades. Ferroptosis is a process of iron-dependent regulatory cell death. It is still unclear whether the expression of ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs) is involved in the pathogenesis and survival of patients with LUAD. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 uses a multipronged strategy to impede host protein synthesis.

Nature 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 19 pandemic. Coronaviruses developed varied mechanisms to repress host mRNA translation to allow the translation of viral mRNAs and concomitantly block the cellular innate immune response. Although different SARS-CoV-2 proteins are implicated in host expression shutoff, a comprehensive picture of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cellular gene expression is lacking. Read More

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Comparative Cytogenetic Analysis of Three Eumeninae Species (Hymenoptera, Vespidae).

Cytogenet Genome Res 2021 May 12:1-10. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratório de Citogenética de Insetos, Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

Eumeninae represents the largest subfamily within Vespidae, with 3,600 species described. Of these, only 18 have been cytogenetically analysed. In the present study, we used both classical and molecular techniques to characterise and compare the karyotypes of 3 Eumeninae species, namely, Ancistrocerus sp. Read More

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Structural neuroimaging phenotypes of a novel multi-gene risk score in youth bipolar disorder.

J Affect Disord 2021 Apr 28;289:135-143. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) is among the most heritable psychiatric disorders, particularly in early-onset cases, owing to multiple genes of small effect. Here we examine a multi-gene risk score (MGRS), to address the gap in multi-gene research in early-onset BD.

Methods: MGRS was derived from 34 genetic variants relevant to neuropsychiatric diseases and related systemic processes. Read More

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Hyperprolactinemia using domperidone in prepubertal gilts: Effects on hormonal status, mammary development and mammary and pituitary gene expression.

Authors:
C Farmer M F Palin

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 Apr 14;76:106630. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke R & D Centre, Sherbrooke, QC, J1M 0C8, Canada.

Objectives of this experiment were to determine if the domperidone protocol previously used for gestating gilts can also lead to hyperprolactinemia in growing gilts, and to assess the effects of such a protocol on hormonal status, mammary development and gene expression in mammary and pituitary tissue of gilts at puberty. The impact on future lactation performance was also determined. At 75 ± 3 kg body weight (BW), gilts were divided between: 1) controls (CTL), receiving daily intramuscular (IM) injections of canola oil (1. Read More

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Feeding olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) with Lactococcus lactis BFE920 expressing the fusion antigen of Vibrio OmpK and FlaB provides protection against multiple Vibrio pathogens: a universal vaccine effect.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

School of Life Science, Handong University, 558 Handong-ro, Pohang-city, Gyeongbuk, 37554, South Korea. Electronic address:

Vibriosis, an illness caused by the Vibrio bacteria species, results in significant economic loss in olive flounder farms. Here we present a novel anti-Vibrio feed vaccine protecting multiple strains of Vibrio pathogens, a universal vaccine effect. The vaccine was generated by engineering Lactococcus lactis BFE920 to express the fusion antigens of Vibrio outer membrane protein K (OmpK) and flagellin B subunit (FlaB). Read More

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Salicylic acid treatment mitigates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulation of sucrose metabolism and soluble sugar content.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;358:129867. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, PR China. Electronic address:

Peach fruit stored in the cold are susceptible to chilling injury. A pre-storage treatment with the natural hormone salicylic acid can alleviate chilling damage, although the mechanism is unclear. We found that a treatment with 1 μmol L salicylic acid for 15 min prior to storage at 4 °C delayed and reduced fruit internal browning, a symptom of chilling injury. Read More

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De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Angelica dahurica and Characterization of Coumarin Biosynthesis Pathway Genes.

Gene 2021 May 9:145713. Epub 2021 May 9.

Anhui University of Chinese Medicine and Anhui Academy of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038, China; Synergetic Innovation Center of Anhui Authentic Chinese Medicine Quality Improvement, Hefei 230012, China. Electronic address:

Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook. Read More

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Screening and identification of microRNAs from plasma-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) of Dazu black goat (Capra hircus) in early pregnant stages.

Gene 2021 May 9:145706. Epub 2021 May 9.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Herbivores Resource Protection and Utilization, Chongqing 400715, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Previous studies have shown that extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and other biological components exist in all kinds of body fluids. EVs, as an intercellular communication carrier, regulate the functions of its target cells by transporting biomacromolecules between cells. In this study, a total of six female Dazu black goats were divided into NP group (NP, non-pregnant group) and P30 (P30, 30-day pregnant group). Read More

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Changes in phenotype and gene expression under lead stress revealed key genetic responses to lead tolerance in Medicago sativa L.

Gene 2021 May 9:145714. Epub 2021 May 9.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, Jilin, China. Electronic address:

Lead (Pb) is a serious heavy metal soil pollutant. It can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and impact plant growth. Medicago sativa L. Read More

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Interactions between maternal fluoxetine exposure, the maternal gut microbiome and fetal neurodevelopment in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 9:113353. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Integrative Biology & Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely used treatment by women experiencing depression during pregnancy. However, the effects of maternal SSRI use on early offspring development remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that SSRIs can modify the gut microbiota and interact directly with particular gut bacteria, raising the question of whether the gut microbiome impacts host responses to SSRIs. Read More

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Dynamic imaging of nascent RNA reveals general principles of transcription dynamics and stochastic splice site selection.

Cell 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

The activities of RNA polymerase and the spliceosome are responsible for the heterogeneity in the abundance and isoform composition of mRNA in human cells. However, the dynamics of these megadalton enzymatic complexes working in concert on endogenous genes have not been described. Here, we establish a quasi-genome-scale platform for observing synthesis and processing kinetics of single nascent RNA molecules in real time. Read More

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Development of potent and selective inhibitors targeting the papain-like protease of SARS-CoV-2.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Interdisciplinary Research Center on Biology and Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210, China. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 pandemic has been disastrous to society and effective drugs are urgently needed. The papain-like protease domain (PLpro) of SARS-CoV-2 (SCoV2) is indispensable for viral replication and represents a putative target for pharmacological intervention. In this work, we describe the development of a potent and selective SCoV2 PLpro inhibitor, 19. Read More

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Antioxidants resveratrol and SkQ1 attenuate praziquantel adverse effects on the liver in Opisthorchis felineus infected hamsters.

Acta Trop 2021 May 9:105954. Epub 2021 May 9.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 10 Lavrentiev Ave., Novosibirsk 630090, Russia; Department of Natural Sciences, Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova Str., Novosibirsk 630090, Russia; Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, 2/12, Timakov Str., Novosibirsk, 630117, Russia. Electronic address:

Anthelmintic praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of the choice for opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis and other trematodiases therapy for several decades. Despite its good therapeutic performance and effective control of trematode infections, PZQ has some shortcomings; its inability to counteract disease sequelae necessitates novel therapeutic strategies. Testing of antioxidants that have proven themselves in clinical practice, in combination with this anthelmintic drug, offers new opportunities for developing alternatives to PZQ monotherapy. Read More

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Integrated OMICs unveil the bone-marrow microenvironment in human leukemia.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109119

Haematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London NW1 1AT, UK. Electronic address:

The bone-marrow (BM) niche is the spatial environment composed by a network of multiple stromal components regulating adult hematopoiesis. We use multi-omics and computational tools to analyze multiple BM environmental compartments and decipher their mutual interactions in the context of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) xenografts. Under homeostatic conditions, we find a considerable overlap between niche populations identified using current markers. Read More

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Modeling genome-wide by environment interactions through omnigenic interactome networks.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109114

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China; Center for Statistical Genetics, Departments of Public Health Sciences and Statistics, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. Electronic address:

How genes interact with the environment to shape phenotypic variation and evolution is a fundamental question intriguing to biologists from various fields. Existing linear models built on single genes are inadequate to reveal the complexity of genotype-environment (G-E) interactions. Here, we develop a conceptual model for mechanistically dissecting G-E interplay by integrating previously disconnected theories and methods. Read More

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Large-scale analysis of 2,152 Ig-seq datasets reveals key features of B cell biology and the antibody repertoire.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109110

Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Rd., Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:

Antibody repertoire sequencing enables researchers to acquire millions of B cell receptors and investigate these molecules at the single-nucleotide level. This power and resolution in studying humoral responses have led to its wide applications. However, most of these studies were conducted with a limited number of samples. Read More

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Chromatin accessibility governs the differential response of cancer and T cells to arginine starvation.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109101

MRC Human Immunology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK.

Depleting the microenvironment of important nutrients such as arginine is a key strategy for immune evasion by cancer cells. Many tumors overexpress arginase, but it is unclear how these cancers, but not T cells, tolerate arginine depletion. In this study, we show that tumor cells synthesize arginine from citrulline by upregulating argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1). Read More

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A high-throughput genome-wide RNAi screen identifies modifiers of survival motor neuron protein.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109125

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. Electronic address:

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a debilitating neurological disorder marked by degeneration of spinal motor neurons and muscle atrophy. SMA results from mutations in survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), leading to deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Current therapies increase SMN protein and improve patient survival but have variable improvements in motor function, making it necessary to identify complementary strategies to further improve disease outcomes. Read More

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Six distinct NFκB signaling codons convey discrete information to distinguish stimuli and enable appropriate macrophage responses.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):916-930.e7

Institute for Quantitative and Computational Biosciences (QCBio), Molecular Biology Institute (MBI), and Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics (MIMG), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 611 Charles E. Young Dr S, Los Angeles, CA 90093. Electronic address:

Macrophages initiate inflammatory responses via the transcription factor NFκB. The temporal pattern of NFκB activity determines which genes are expressed and thus, the type of response that ensues. Here, we examined how information about the stimulus is encoded in the dynamics of NFκB activity. Read More

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Phragmunis A suppresses glioblastoma through the regulation of MCL1-FBXW7 by blocking ELK1-SRF complex-dependent transcription.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 9:105051. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, 3002# Sungang Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518035, China. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumour. During screening work, we found a new compound named phragmunis A (PGA), which is derived from the fruitbody of Trogia venenata, exhibits a potential cytotoxic effect on patient-derived recurrent GBM cells and temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant cell lines. The present study was designed to investigate the potential molecular mechanism of the anti-glioma effects of PGA in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Brain Somatic Mutation in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.

Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Somatic mutations arise postzygotically, producing genetic differences between cells in an organism. Well established as a driver of cancer, somatic mutations also exist in nonneoplastic cells, including in the brain. Technological advances in nucleic acid sequencing have enabled recent breakthroughs that illuminate the roles of somatic mutations in aging and degenerative diseases of the brain. Read More

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High-Throughput Screening of an Octanoic Acid Producer Strain Library Enables Detection of New Targets for Increasing Titers in .

ACS Synth Biol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue Straße 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Octanoic acid is an industrially relevant compound with applications in antimicrobials or as a precursor for biofuels. Microbial biosynthesis through yeast is a promising alternative to current unsustainable production methods. To increase octanoic acid titers in , we use a previously developed biosensor that is based on the octanoic acid responsive promotor coupled to GFP. Read More

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Analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis.

Acta Biochim Pol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

1Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Plovdiv, Bulgaria; 2Centre of Plant Systems Biology and Biotechnology, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Haberlea rhodopensis is a paleolithic tertiary relict species that belongs to the unique group of resurrection plants sharing remarkable tolerance to desiccation. When exposed to severe drought stress, this species shows an ability to maintain structural integrity of its deactivated photosynthetic apparatus, which easily reactivates upon rehydration. In addition to its homoiochlorophyllous nature, the resurrection capability of H. Read More

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Decreased HLF Expression Predicts Poor Survival in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 12;27:e929333. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a type of non-small cell carcinoma. Its pathogenesis is being explored and there is no cure for the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) was searched to obtain data on expression of messenger RNA. Read More

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Loss of dystrophin expression in skeletal muscle is associated with senescence of macrophages and endothelial cells.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Applied Human Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canadagrid.139596.1.

Cellular senescence is the irreversible arrest of normally dividing cells and is driven by cell cycle inhibitory proteins such as p16, p21 and p53. When cells enter senescence, they secrete a host of proinflammatory factors known as the senescence associated secretory phenotype which has deleterious effects on surrounding cells and tissues. Little is known of the role of senescence in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), the fatal X-linked neuromuscular disorder typified by chronic inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling and a progressive loss in muscle mass and function. Read More

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Truncation of the otoferlin transmembrane domain alters the development of hair cells and reduces membrane docking.

Mol Biol Cell 2021 May 12:mbcE20100657. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

Release of neurotransmitter from sensory hair cells is regulated by otoferlin. Despite the importance of otoferlin in the auditory and vestibular pathways, the functional contributions of the domains of the protein have not been fully characterized. Using a zebrafish model, we investigated a mutant otoferlin with a stop codon at the start of the transmembrane domain. Read More

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One-step multiplex toolkit for efficient generation of conditional gene silencing human cell lines.

Mol Biol Cell 2021 May 12:mbcE21020051. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Life Science, Center for Cancer Research, and State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong.

Loss-of-function analysis is one of the major arsenals we have for understanding gene functions in mammalian cells. For analysis of essential genes, the major challenge is to develop simple methodologies for tight and rapid inducible gene inactivation. One approach involves CRISPR-Cas9-mediated disruption of the endogenous locus in conjunction with the expression of a rescue construct, which can subsequently be turned off to produce a gene inactivation effect. Read More

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The α-Helical Cap Domain of a Novel Esterase from Gut Shaping the Substrate-Binding Pocket.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Biomanufacturing and Food Engineering, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.

The human gut microbiota regulates nutritional metabolism, especially by encoding specific ferulic acid esterases (FAEs) to release functional ferulic acid (FA) from dietary fiber. In our previous study, we observed seven upregulated FAE genes during fecal slurry fermentation using wheat bran. Here, a 29 kDa FAE (FAE) from of was characterized and identified as the type-A FAE. Read More

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Systems genetic analysis of binge-like eating in a C57BL/6J x DBA/2J-F2 cross.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 May 12:e12751. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Addiction Genetics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Binge eating is a heritable trait associated with eating disorders and refers to the rapid consumption of a large quantity of energy-dense food that is associated with loss of control and negative affect. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder in the US; however, the genetic basis is unknown. We previously identified robust mouse inbred strain differences between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J in binge-like eating of sweetened palatable food in an intermittent access, conditioned place preference paradigm (PF-CPP). Read More

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