11,175 results match your criteria generated sufficient

Decontamination of respirators amid shortages due to SARS-CoV-2.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294-0022, USA.

The pandemic created by SARS-CoV-2 has caused a shortage in the supplies of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs), disposable respirators with at least 95% efficiency to remove non-oily airborne particles, due to increasing cases all over the world. The current article reviewed various possible decontamination methods for FFR reuse including ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV), microwave-generated steam (MGS), hydrogen peroxide gas plasma (HPGP), and 70% or higher ethanol solution. HPV decontamination was effective against bacterial spores (6 log reduction of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores) on FFRs and viruses (> 4 log reduction of various types of viruses) on inanimate surfaces, and no degradation of respirator materials and fit has been reported. Read More

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Neuronal post-developmentally acting SAX-7S/L1CAM can function as cleaved fragments to maintain neuronal architecture in C. elegans.

Genetics 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Université du Québec à Montréal, Department of Biological Sciences, CERMO-FC Research Center, 141 President Kennedy Avenue, Montréal, QC H2X 1Y4, Canada.

Whereas remarkable advances have uncovered mechanisms that drive nervous system assembly, the processes responsible for the lifelong maintenance of nervous system architecture remain poorly understood. Subsequent to its establishment during embryogenesis, neuronal architecture is maintained throughout life in the face of the animal's growth, maturation processes, the addition of new neurons, body movements, and aging. The C. Read More

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Metronomic capecitabine as adjuvant therapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma have a high risk of disease relapse, despite a high proportion of patients attaining complete clinical remission after receiving standard-of-care treatment (ie, definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy). Additional adjuvant therapies are needed to further reduce the risk of recurrence and death. However, the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains controversial, highlighting the need for more effective adjuvant treatment options. Read More

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Developing a reference protocol for structured expert elicitation in health-care decision-making: a mixed-methods study.

Health Technol Assess 2021 Jun;25(37):1-124

Leeds University Business School, Leeds, UK.

Background: Many decisions in health care aim to maximise health, requiring judgements about interventions that may have higher health effects but potentially incur additional costs (cost-effectiveness framework). The evidence used to establish cost-effectiveness is typically uncertain and it is important that this uncertainty is characterised. In situations in which evidence is uncertain, the experience of experts is essential. Read More

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The N-terminal domain of the prion protein is required and sufficient for liquid-liquid phase separation; a crucial role of the Aβ-binding domain.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 5:100860. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department Biochemistry of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Institute of Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany; Cluster of Excellence RESOLV, Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

Formation of biomolecular condensates through liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has been described for several pathogenic proteins linked to neurodegenerative diseases and is discussed as an early step in the formation of protein aggregates with neurotoxic properties. In prion diseases, neurodegeneration and formation of infectious prions is caused by aberrant folding of the cellular prion protein (PrP). PrP is characterized by a large intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain and a structured C-terminal globular domain. Read More

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Estimating the tolerance of brachial plexus to hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy: a modelling-based approach from clinical experience.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Jun 7;16(1):98. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Geisinger Cancer Institute, 100 N Academy Ave, Danville, PA, 17822, USA.

Background: Brachial plexopathy is a potentially serious complication from stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) that has not been widely studied. Therefore, we compared datasets from two different institutions and generated a brachial plexus dose-response model, to quantify what dose constraints would be needed to minimize the effect on normal tissue while still enabling potent therapy for the tumor.

Methods: Two published SBRT datasets were pooled and modeled from patients at Indiana University and the Richard L. Read More

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Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat substrains show differences in model traits for addiction risk and cocaine self-administration: Implications for a novel rat reduced complexity cross.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jun 5;411:113406. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Departments of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; Center for Systems Neuroscience, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

Forward genetic mapping of F2 crosses between closely related substrains of inbred rodents - referred to as a reduced complexity cross (RCC) - is a relatively new strategy for accelerating the pace of gene discovery for complex traits, such as drug addiction. RCCs to date were generated in mice, but rats are thought to be optimal for addiction genetic studies. Based on past literature, one inbred Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat substrain, SHR/NCrl, is predicted to exhibit a distinct behavioral profile as it relates to cocaine self-administration traits relative to another substrain, SHR/NHsd. Read More

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Redox chemistry and H-atom abstraction reactivity of a terminal zirconium(iv) oxo compound mediated by an appended cobalt(i) center.

Chem Sci 2020 Sep 4;11(39):10729-10736. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University 100 W. 18th Ave Columbus OH 43210 USA

The reactivity of the terminal zirconium(iv) oxo complex, O[triple bond, length as m-dash]Zr(MesNPPr)CoCN Bu (), is explored, revealing unique redox activity imparted by the pendent redox active cobalt(i) center. Oxo complex can be chemically reduced using Na/Hg or PhC to afford the Zr/Co complexes [(μ-Na)OZr(MesNPPr)CoCN Bu] () and PhCOZr(MesNPPr)CoCN Bu (), respectively. Based on the cyclic voltammogram of , Ph˙ should not be sufficiently reducing to achieve the chemical reduction of , but sufficient driving force for the reaction is provided by the nucleophilicity of the terminal oxo fragment and its affinity to bind PhC. Read More

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September 2020

Safety enhancement of a genetically modified live rabies vaccine strain by introducing an attenuating Leu residue at position 333 in the glycoprotein.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Laboratory of Zoonotic Diseases, Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.

To improve the safety of genetically modified live rabies vaccine strains, most studies have utilized an attenuating Arg-to-Glu mutation at position 333 in the glycoprotein (G333), which is responsible for attenuation of the live vaccine strain SAG2. The Glu residue requires two nucleotide substitutions to revert to pathogenic Arg, thus significantly lowering the probability of pathogenic reversion caused by the Glu-to-Arg mutation at G333. However, only one nucleotide substitution is sufficient to convert the Glu residue to another pathogenic residue, Lys, and thereby to cause pathogenic reversion. Read More

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Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of Alpha-v-Beta-3 integrin expression in tumors with ultrasound microbubbles.

Biomaterials 2021 May 27;275:120896. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen University, 52074, Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

Microbubbles (MB) are used as ultrasound (US) contrast agents and can be efficiently targeted against markers of angiogenesis and inflammation. Due to their gas core, MB locally alter susceptibilities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but unfortunately, the resulting contrast is low and not sufficient to generate powerful molecular MRI probes. Therefore, we investigated whether a potent molecular MR agent can be generated by encapsulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in the polymeric shell of poly (n-butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) MB and targeted them against αβ integrins on the angiogenic vasculature of 4T1 murine breast carcinomas. Read More

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Response characteristics of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials recorded over splenius capitis in young adults and adolescents.

Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Archie's Cochlear Implant Laboratory, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background And Objectives: Examine vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses recorded from surface electrodes over Splenius Capitis (SPC) in a seated position.

Specific Aims: (1) validate response characteristics of VEMP recordings from surface electrodes over Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and over SCP and (2) assess age effects on responses in adolescents and young adults.

Materials And Methods: Simultaneous surface VEMP was recorded bilaterally from electrodes placed over the dorsal neck musculature at a location known from previous work to record from SPC in 15 healthy participants during trials with head rotation toward and away from the stimulated ear. Read More

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How to take representative samples to quantify microplastic particles in soil?

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 21;784:147166. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Crop & Soil Sciences, WSU Puyallup Research & Extension Center, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371, USA; Department of Crop & Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. Electronic address:

The amount of plastic particles in terrestrial ecosystems is not well known, not only because it is difficult to extract and identify plastic particles from terrestrial samples, but also because it is challenging to take representative samples from soils or sediments. Here, we numerically simulated how to take representative terrestrial samples to quantify plastic particles, and we evaluated the accuracy (error) of reported plastic concentrations in the literature. Fields with randomly distributed plastic particles (uniform and clustered) were numerically generated and sampled to determine the representative elementary volume (REV) and the required number of samples to quantify plastic concentrations (10 to 10 particles/m) with different relative errors (5%, 10%, 15%). Read More

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Engineering a Macroporous Oxygen-generating Scaffold for Enhancing Islet Cell Transplantation within an Extrahepatic Site.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, Gainesville, FL, USA; University of Florida Diabetes Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Insufficient oxygenation is a serious issue arising within cell-based implants, as the hypoxic period between implantation and vascularization of the graft is largely unavoidable. In situ oxygen supplementation at the implant site should significantly mitigate hypoxia-induced cell death and dysfunction, as well as improve the transplant efficacy, particularly for highly metabolically active cells such as pancreatic islets. One promising approach is the use of an oxygen generating material created through the encapsulation of calcium peroxide within polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), termed OxySite. Read More

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Characterising Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Clinical Samples Using Nanopore Sequencing.

Front Vet Sci 2021 17;8:656256. Epub 2021 May 17.

Vesicular Disease Reference Laboratory, The Pirbright Institute, Woking, United Kingdom.

The sequencing of viral genomes provides important data for the prevention and control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks. Sequence data can be used for strain identification, outbreak tracing, and aiding the selection of the most appropriate vaccine for the circulating strains. At present, sequencing of FMD virus (FMDV) relies upon the time-consuming transport of samples to well-resourced laboratories. Read More

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A simple vapor-diffusion method enables protein crystallization inside the HARE serial crystallography chip.

Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol 2021 Jun 19;77(Pt 6):820-834. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department for Atomically Resolved Dynamics, Max-Planck-Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany.

Fixed-target serial crystallography has become an important method for the study of protein structure and dynamics at synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers. However, sample homogeneity, consumption and the physical stress on samples remain major challenges for these high-throughput experiments, which depend on high-quality protein microcrystals. The batch crystallization procedures that are typically applied require time- and sample-intensive screening and optimization. Read More

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Discovery and Characterization of Actively Replicating DNA and Retro-Transcribing Viruses in Lower Vertebrate Hosts Based on RNA Sequencing.

Viruses 2021 May 31;13(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518107, China.

In a previous study, a metatranscriptomics survey of RNA viruses in several important lower vertebrate host groups revealed huge viral diversity, transforming the understanding of the evolution of vertebrate-associated RNA virus groups. However, the diversity of the DNA and retro-transcribing viruses in these host groups was left uncharacterized. Given that RNA sequencing is capable of revealing viruses undergoing active transcription and replication, we collected previously generated datasets associated with lower vertebrate hosts, and searched them for DNA and retro-transcribing viruses. Read More

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Multiplex PCR-Based Nanopore Sequencing and Epidemiological Surveillance of in , Republic of Korea.

Viruses 2021 05 6;13(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

BK21 Graduate Program, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Whole-genome sequencing of infectious agents enables the identification and characterization of emerging viruses. The MinION device is a portable sequencer that allows real-time sequencing in fields or hospitals. (Hantaan virus, HTNV), harbored by , causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and poses a critical public health threat worldwide. Read More

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Evaluation of Arterial Spin Labeling MRI-Comparison with O-Water PET on an Integrated PET/MR Scanner.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 May 1;11(5). Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden.

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements are of high clinical value and can be acquired non-invasively with no radiation exposure using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL). The aim of this study was to evaluate accordance in resting state CBF between ASL (CBF) and O-water positron emission tomography (PET) (CBF) acquired simultaneously on an integrated 3T PET/MR system. The data comprised ASL and dynamic O-water PET data with arterial blood sampling of eighteen subjects (eight patients with focal epilepsy and ten healthy controls, age 21 to 61 years). Read More

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Loss of Fis1 impairs proteostasis during skeletal muscle aging in Drosophila.

Aging Cell 2021 Jun 1:e13379. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan.

Increased levels of dysfunctional mitochondria within skeletal muscle are correlated with numerous age-related physiopathological conditions. Improving our understanding of the links between mitochondrial function and muscle proteostasis, and the role played by individual genes and regulatory networks, is essential to develop treatments for these conditions. One potential player is the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Fis1, a crucial fission factor heavily involved in mitochondrial dynamics in yeast but with an unknown role in higher-order organisms. Read More

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Mapping the human auditory cortex using spectrotemporal receptive fields generated with magnetoencephalography.

Neuroimage 2021 May 29;238:118222. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Canada. Electronic address:

We present a novel method to map the functional organization of the human auditory cortex noninvasively using magnetoencephalography (MEG). More specifically, this method estimates via reverse correlation the spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRF) in response to a temporally dense pure tone stimulus, from which important spectrotemporal characteristics of neuronal processing can be extracted and mapped back onto the cortex surface. We show that several neuronal populations can be found examining the spectrotemporal characteristics of their STRFs, and demonstrate how these can be used to generate tonotopic gradient maps. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas9 uPAR Gene Knockout Results in Tumor Growth Inhibition, EGFR Downregulation and Induction of Stemness Markers in Melanoma and Colon Carcinoma Cell Lines.

Front Oncol 2021 14;11:663225. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio", University of Florence, Firenze, Italy.

uPAR is a globular protein, tethered to the cell membrane by a GPI-anchor involved in several cancer-related properties and its overexpression commonly correlates with poor prognosis and metastasis. We investigated the consequences of uPAR irreversible loss in human melanoma and colon cancer cell lines, knocking out its expression by CRISPR/Cas9. We analyzed through flow cytometry, western blotting and qPCR, the modulation of the most known cancer stem cells-associated genes and the EGFR while we observed the proliferation rate exploiting 2D and 3D cellular models. Read More

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Multimodal cues facilitate ripe-fruit localization and extraction in free-ranging pteropodid bats.

Behav Processes 2021 May 25;189:104426. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu, 636011, India. Electronic address:

Sensory cues play an important role in any plant-animal interaction. Yet, we know very little about the cues used by wild mammals during fruit selection. Existing evidence mainly comes from captive studies and suggests that the pteropodid bats rely on olfaction to find fruits. Read More

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Nitrergic modulation of neuronal excitability in the mouse hippocampus is mediated via regulation of Kv2 and voltage-gated sodium channels.

Hippocampus 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, School of Life Sciences, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK.

Regulation of neuronal activity is a necessity for communication and information transmission. Many regulatory processes which have been studied provide a complex picture of how neurons can respond to permanently changing functional requirements. One such activity-dependent mechanism involves signaling mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Read More

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The Influence of Contextual Factors on the Process of Formulating Strategies to Improve the Adoption of Care Manager Activities by Primary Care Nurses.

Int J Integr Care 2021 May 19;21(2):20. Epub 2021 May 19.

Facult de mdecine et des sciences de la sant, Dpartement de mdecine de famille et de mdecine durgence, Universit de Sherbrooke, Qubec, Canada; Centre de recherche du centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke, Canada.

Background: Primary care nurses are well-suited to provide care management for common mental disorders, but their practices depend on context. Various strategies can be considered to improve the adoption of nursing care manager activities, but data from implementation studies rarely address strategy formulation.

Aim: To analyze the influence of contextual factors on strategy formulation to improve the adoption of care manager activities by primary care nurses. Read More

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Production of poly-hydroxy-butyrate using nitrogen removing methanotrophic mixed culture bioreactor.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Civil Engineering, Lassonde School of Engineering, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Electronic address:

Methanotrophic biotechnologies for methane mitigation and nitrogen removal are becoming more apparent. However, the sludge produced during these processes is often underutilized and instead can be applied for resources recovery. Fortunately, methanotrophic bacteria can utilize methane while also producing poly-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB), bioplastics, under nutrients deficient conditions. Read More

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Chimeric HP-PRRSV2 containing an ORF2-6 consensus sequence induces antibodies with broadly neutralizing activity and confers cross protection against virulent NADC30-like isolate.

Vet Res 2021 May 27;52(1):74. Epub 2021 May 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu, China.

Due to the substantial genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), commercial PRRS vaccines fail to provide sufficient cross protection. Previous studies have confirmed the existence of PRRSV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). However, bnAbs are rarely induced by either natural infection or vaccination. Read More

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DSPP dosage affects tooth development and dentin mineralization.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(5):e0250429. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Cariology, Restorative Sciences and Endodontics, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP) and phosphophoryn (PP) are two most dominant non-collagenous proteins in dentin, which are the cleavage products of the DSPP (dentin sialophosphoprotein) precursor protein. The absence of the DSPP gene in DSPP knock-out (KO) mice results in characteristics that are consistent with dentinogenesis imperfecta type III in humans. Symptoms include thin dentin, bigger pulp chamber with frequent pulp exposure as well as abnormal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and the appearance of chondrocyte-like cells in dental pulp. Read More

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Aerosol Generation During Peak Flow Testing: Clinical Implications for COVID-19.

Respir Care 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Peak flow testing is a common procedure performed in ambulatory care. There are currently no data regarding aerosol generation during this procedure. Given the ongoing debate regarding the potential for aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2, we aimed to quantify and characterize aerosol generation during peak flow testing. Read More

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Patterns of Health Care Services During Pediatric Concurrent Hospice Care: A National Study.

Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2021 May 25:10499091211018661. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Nursing, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Background: Children at end of life have unique and complex care needs. Although there is increasing evidence about pediatric concurrent hospice care, the health care services received while in hospice have not received sufficient attention.

Objectives: To examine the health care services, unique clusters of health care services, and characteristics of the children in the clusters. Read More

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Zika virus employs the host antiviral RNase L protein to support replication factory assembly.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(22)

Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104;

Infection with the flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) can result in tissue tropism, disease outcome, and route of transmission distinct from those of other flaviviruses; therefore, we aimed to identify host machinery that exclusively promotes the ZIKV replication cycle, which can inform on differences at the organismal level. We previously reported that deletion of the host antiviral ribonuclease L (RNase L) protein decreases ZIKV production. Canonical RNase L catalytic activity typically restricts viral infection, including that of the flavivirus dengue virus (DENV), suggesting an unconventional, proviral RNase L function during ZIKV infection. Read More

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