1,614 results match your criteria generate universal


Generating Intervention Concepts for Reducing Adolescent Relationship Abuse Inequities Among Sexual and Gender Minority Youth: Protocol for a Web-Based, Longitudinal, Human-Centered Design Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Apr 12;10(4):e26554. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Background: Sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY; eg, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth) are at greater risk than their cisgender heterosexual peers for adolescent relationship abuse (ARA; physical, sexual, or psychological abuse in a romantic relationship). However, there is a dearth of efficacious interventions for reducing ARA among SGMY. To address this intervention gap, we designed a novel web-based methodology leveraging the field of human-centered design to generate multiple ARA intervention concepts with SGMY. Read More

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Convalescent Plasma for the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Analysis.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 04 7;7(4):e25500. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus termed SARS-CoV-2, has spread quickly worldwide. Convalescent plasma (CP) obtained from patients following recovery from COVID-19 infection and development of antibodies against the virus is an attractive option for either prophylactic or therapeutic treatment, since antibodies may have direct or indirect antiviral activities and immunotherapy has proven effective in principle and in many clinical reports.

Objective: We seek to characterize the latest advances and evidence in the use of CP for COVID-19 through a systematic review and quantitative analysis, identify knowledge gaps in this setting, and offer recommendations and directives for future research. Read More

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Intestinal Sulfation is Essential to Protect Against Colitis and Colonic Carcinogenesis.

Gastroenterology 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Center for Pharmacogenetics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania;; Department of Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Sulfation is a conjugation reaction essential for numerous biochemical and cellular functions in mammals. The 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthase 2 (PAPSS2) is the key enzyme to generate PAPS, which is the universal sulfonate donor for all sulfation reactions. The goal of this study is to determine whether and how PAPSS2 plays a role in colitis and colonic carcinogenesis. Read More

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The Role of Canalization and Plasticity in the Evolution of Musical Creativity.

Authors:
Piotr Podlipniak

Front Neurosci 2021 16;15:607887. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Musicology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poznań, Poland.

Creativity is defined as the ability to generate something new and valuable. From a biological point of view this can be seen as an adaptation in response to environmental challenges. Although music is such a diverse phenomenon, all people possess a set of abilities that are claimed to be the products of biological evolution, which allow us to produce and listen to music according to both universal and culture-specific rules. Read More

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Porous Structure Engineering of Iridium Oxide Nanoclusters on Atomic Scale for Efficient pH-Universal Overall Water Splitting.

Small 2021 Apr 1:e2100121. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia.

Water electrolysis, which is a promising high-purity H production method, lacks pH-universality; moreover, highly efficient electrocatalysts that accelerate the sluggish anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are scarce. Geometric structure engineering and electronic structure modulation can be efficiently used to improve catalyst activity. Herein, a facile Ar plasma treatment method to fabricate a composite of uniformly dispersed iridium-copper oxide nanoclusters supported on defective graphene (DG) to form IrCuO @DG, is described. Read More

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Replicating bacterium-vectored vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-2 Membrane and Nucleocapsid proteins protects against severe COVID-19-like disease in hamsters.

NPJ Vaccines 2021 Mar 30;6(1):47. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 37-121 Center for Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California - Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

To generate an inexpensive readily manufactured COVID-19 vaccine, we employed the LVS ΔcapB vector platform, previously used to generate potent candidate vaccines against Select Agent diseases tularemia, anthrax, plague, and melioidosis. Vaccines expressing SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins are constructed using the LVS ΔcapB vector, a highly attenuated replicating intracellular bacterium, and evaluated for efficacy in golden Syrian hamsters, which develop severe COVID-19-like disease. Hamsters immunized intradermally or intranasally with a vaccine co-expressing the Membrane and Nucleocapsid proteins and challenged 5 weeks later with a high dose of SARS-CoV-2 are protected against severe weight loss and lung pathology and show reduced viral loads in the oropharynx and lungs. Read More

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Why It Hurts: The Mechanisms of Pain in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2021 May 27;47(2):229-244. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Pain is a near-universal feature of rheumatoid arthritis, but peripheral joint inflammation may not suffice to explain the etiology of pain in all patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis releases several algogens that may generate pain. Also, central nervous system processes may play a crucial role in the regulation and perpetuation of pain. Read More

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A universal power law for modelling the growth and form of teeth, claws, horns, thorns, beaks, and shells.

BMC Biol 2021 Mar 30;19(1):58. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, 3800, Australia.

Background: A major goal of evolutionary developmental biology is to discover general models and mechanisms that create the phenotypes of organisms. However, universal models of such fundamental growth and form are rare, presumably due to the limited number of physical laws and biological processes that influence growth. One such model is the logarithmic spiral, which has been purported to explain the growth of biological structures such as teeth, claws, horns, and beaks. Read More

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Creating an Aligned Interface between Nanoparticles and MOFs by Concurrent Replacement of Capping Agents.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 29;143(13):5182-5190. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Chemistry, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, United States.

Applying metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) on the surface of other materials to form multifunctional materials has recently attracted great attention; however, directing the MOF overgrowth is challenging due to the orders of magnitude differences in structural dimensions. In this work, we developed a universal strategy to mediate MOF growth on the surface of metal nanoparticles (NPs), by taking advantage of the dynamic nature of weakly adsorbed capping agents. During this colloidal process, the capping agents gradually dissociate from the metal surface, replaced by the MOF. Read More

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Setting research priorities for sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health in humanitarian settings.

Confl Health 2021 Mar 26;15(1):16. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Center for Child Health Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Background: An estimated 70.8 million people are forcibly displaced worldwide, 75% of whom are women and children. Prioritizing a global research agenda to inform guidance, service delivery, access to and quality of services is essential to improve the survival and health of women, children and adolescents in humanitarian settings. Read More

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Universal Automated Immunoaffinity Purification-CE-MS Platform for Accelerating Next Generation Biologic Design.

Anal Chem 2021 04 25;93(13):5562-5569. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Amgen Research, Amgen Inc., 1120 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco 94080, California, United States.

As the pharmaceutical industry places greater emphasis on pairing biological pathways with appropriate therapeutic intervention, an increase in the use of biologic drugs has emerged. With increasing complexity of biotherapeutics, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies have also become increasingly complex. The characterization of ADME properties is critical to tuning the pharmacokinetic profiles of next generation biologics (NGBs). Read More

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Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to Measure Public Transportation Barriers among Older Adults.

Proc Hum Factors Ergon Soc Annu Meet 2021 Feb;64(1):1171-1175

Department of Industrial & Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is a universal framework used to classify human functioning in clinical and rehabilitative domains. The objective of this study was to examine the utility of the ICF as a framework to categorize and measure barriers to public transportation reported by older adults. ICF coding techniques were applied to sixty paratransit applications for analyzing user-reported barriers to public transportation. Read More

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February 2021

The architectural design of CD8+ T cell responses in acute and chronic infection: Parallel structures with divergent fates.

J Exp Med 2021 Apr;218(4)

NOMIS Center for Immunobiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA.

In response to infection, T cells adopt a range of differentiation states, creating numerous heterogeneous subsets that exhibit different phenotypes, functions, and migration patterns. This T cell heterogeneity is a universal feature of T cell immunity, needed to effectively control pathogens in a context-dependent manner and generate long-lived immunity to those pathogens. Here, we review new insights into differentiation state dynamics and population heterogeneity of CD8+ T cells in acute and chronic viral infections and cancer and highlight the parallels and distinctions between acute and chronic antigen stimulation settings. Read More

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Large metabolic rewiring from small genomic changes between strains of .

J Bacteriol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA

The instability of genomes has been described, but how this instability causes phenotypic differences within the species is largely unknown and likely variable. We describe herein the genome of strain PE577, originally a clinical isolate, which exhibits several phenotypic differences compared to the model strain 2457T. Like many previously described strains of , PE577 lacks discernible, functional CRISPR and restriction-modification systems. Read More

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A Taxonomy of Reported Harms in Pediatric Autism Spectrum Disorder Screening: Provider and Parent Perspectives.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Rutgers School of Public Health, 683 Hoes Lane West, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) report on screening for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) highlighted the need for research that examines the harms potentially associated with screening so as to assess the overall net benefit of universal screening. Read More

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Business models for primary health care delivery in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping study of nine social entrepreneurs.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Mar 9;21(1):211. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Yale School of Management, New Haven, USA.

Background: Social enterprises are organizations created to address social problems that use business models to sustain themselves financially. Social enterprises can help increase access to primary health care in low resource settings. Research on social enterprises in health care have focused either on high-income countries, or on secondary and tertiary care in low- and middle-income countries, where common business models include differential pricing to cross-subsidize low income populations. Read More

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Calibration-free regional RF shims for MRS.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Purpose: Achieving a desired RF transmit field ( ) in small regions of interest is critical for single-voxel MRS at ultrahigh field. Radio-frequency (RF) shimming, using parallel transmission, requires mapping and optimization, which limits its ease of use. This work aimed to generate calibration-free RF shims for predefined target regions of interest, which can be applied to any participant, to produce a desired absolute magnitude (| |). Read More

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A comprehensive influenza reporter virus panel for high-throughput deep profiling of neutralizing antibodies.

Nat Commun 2021 03 19;12(1):1722. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been developed as potential countermeasures for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Deep characterization of these bnAbs and polyclonal sera provides pivotal understanding for influenza immunity and informs effective vaccine design. However, conventional virus neutralization assays require high-containment laboratories and are difficult to standardize and roboticize. Read More

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Internally Stressed and Positionally Disordered Minimal Complexes Yield Glasslike Nonphononic Excitations.

Authors:
Avraham Moriel

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Feb;126(8):088004

Chemical & Biological Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.

Glasses, unlike their crystalline counterparts, exhibit low-frequency nonphononic excitations whose frequencies ω follow a universal D(ω)∼ω^{4} density of states. The process of glass formation generates positional disorder intertwined with mechanical frustration, posing fundamental challenges in understanding the origins of glassy nonphononic excitations. Here we suggest that minimal complexes-mechanically frustrated and positionally disordered local structures-embody the minimal physical ingredients needed to generate glasslike excitations. Read More

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February 2021

Compact and evenly distributed k-mer binning for genomic sequences.

Bioinformatics 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Lifematics Inc., Kanda Jinbocho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0051, Japan.

Motivation: The processing of k-mers (subsequences of length k) is at the foundation of many sequence processing algorithms in bioinformatics, including k-mer counting for genome size estimation, genome assembly, and taxonomic classification for metagenomics. Minimizers-ordered m-mers where m < k - are often used to group k-mers into bins as a first step in such processing. However, minimizers are known to generate bins of very different sizes, which can pose challenges for distributed and parallel processing, as well as generally increase memory requirements. Read More

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Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Graft (In)Compatibility in Apricot ( L.).

Front Plant Sci 2021 19;12:622906. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

The Schatz Center for Tree Molecular Genetics, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States.

Graft incompatibility (GI) between the most popular rootstocks and apricot cultivars is one of the major problems for rootstock usage and improvement. Failure in producing long-leaving healthy grafts greatly affects the range of available rootstocks for apricot cultivation. Despite recent advances related to the molecular mechanisms of a graft-union formation between rootstock and scion, information on genetic control of this trait in woody plants is essentially missing because of a lack of hybrid crosses, segregating for the trait. Read More

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February 2021

Balancing Microalgae and Nitrifiers for Wastewater Treatment: Can Inorganic Carbon Limitation Cause an Environmental Threat?

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Mar 3;55(6):3940-3955. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale (DICA), Politecnico di Milano, 32, Piazza L. da Vinci, 20133 Milan, Italy.

The first objective of this study is to assess the predictive capability of the ALBA (ALgae-BActeria) model for a pilot-scale (3.8 m) high-rate algae-bacteria pond treating agricultural digestate. The model, previously calibrated and validated on a one-year data set from a demonstrative-scale raceway (56 m), successfully predicted data from a six-month monitoring campaign with a different wastewater (urban wastewater) under different climatic conditions. Read More

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Health Equity and the Circle of Human Concern.

AMA J Ethics 2021 02 1;23(2):E166-174. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Researcher and policy analyst at the Othering & Belonging Institute at the University of California, Berkeley.

Using the inequality exposed by the COVID-19 pandemic as a vivid example, this article focuses on health equity from the standpoint of structural marginalization-here, described as being marked as an "other" outside of the circle of human concern. This process leads to tension between the principles of liberty and equality and contributes to the creation of systemic disadvantage as manifested in health disparities. Creating an equitable health system must begin with this root understanding and generate greater belonging through the policy process of targeted universalism. Read More

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February 2021

Universal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol for mapping repetitive DNAs in insects and other arthropods.

Mol Genet Genomics 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Entomology, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Repetitive DNAs comprise large portion of eukaryote genomes. In genome projects, the assembly of repetitive DNAs is challenging due to the similarity between repeats, which generate ambiguities for alignment. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful technique for the physical mapping of various sequences on chromosomes. Read More

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February 2021

Ex Vivo Manufacture of Megakaryocytes and Platelets from Stem Cells: Recent Advances Toward Transfusion in Humans.

Stem Cells Dev 2021 Apr;30(7):351-362

Hematology and Transfusion Medicine Center, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

The generation of ex vivo functional megakaryocytes (MK) and platelets is an important issue in transfusion medicine as donor dependence implies in limitations, such as shortage of eligible volunteers. Indeed, platelet transfusion is still a procedure that saves the lives of patients with defective platelet production. Recent technological development has enabled the isolation and expansion of stem cells that can be used as a source for the production of functional platelets for transfusion. Read More

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Atomic structure of the SAGA complex and it's interaction with TBP.

C R Biol 2021 Feb 4;343(3):247-255. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR7104, Illkirch, France.

The transcription of eukaryotic protein genes is controlled by a plethora of proteins which act together in multi-component complexes to facilitate the DNA dependent RNA polymerase II (Pol II) enzyme to bind to the transcription start site and to generate messenger RNA from the gene's coding sequence. The protein that guides the transcription machinery to the exact transcription start site is called TATA-box Binding Protein, or TBP. TBP is part of two large protein complexes involved in Pol II transcription, TFIID and SAGA. Read More

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February 2021

Disruption of innate defense responses by endoglycosidase HPSE promotes cell survival.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 8;6(7). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology.

The drive to withstand environmental stresses and defend against invasion is a universal trait extant in all forms of life. While numerous canonical signaling cascades have been characterized in detail, it remains unclear how these pathways interface to generate coordinated responses to diverse stimuli. To dissect these connections, we followed heparanase (HPSE), a protein best known for its endoglycosidic activity at the extracellular matrix but recently recognized to drive various forms of late-stage disease through unknown mechanisms. Read More

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