26,511 results match your criteria generally decreased

Depth sequence distribution of water extractable colloidal phosphorus and its phosphorus speciation in intensively managed agricultural soils.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 23;286(Pt 1):131665. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 61801, USA. Electronic address:

Legacy phosphorus (P) has accelerated the subsurface transport of colloidal P (CP) in intensively managed agricultural soils in the Midwestern U.S. Because of its high P sorption capacity and mobility, understanding the depth sequence distribution of mobile CP and its speciation in the soil profile is critical in assessing total P (TP) loss to protect the water quality of adjacent water bodies. Read More

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Modulation of fatty acid elongation in cockroaches sustains sexually dimorphic hydrocarbons and female attractiveness.

PLoS Biol 2021 Jul 27;19(7):e3001330. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas and Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in Northwestern Loess Plateau, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) serve as important intersexual signaling chemicals and generally show variation between the sexes, but little is known about the generation of sexually dimorphic hydrocarbons (SDHCs) in insects. In this study, we report the molecular mechanism and biological significance that underlie the generation of SDHC in the German cockroach Blattella germanica. Sexually mature females possess more C29 CHCs, especially the contact sex pheromone precursor 3,11-DimeC29. Read More

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Effects of rotation grazing time on the characteristics of soil seed bank in desert steppe.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Jul;32(7):2378-2388

Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science, Science and Technology Bureau of Yanchi County, Ningxia 751500, China.

Exploring the characteristics of soil seed bank under seasonal grazing plays an important role in the reasonable use of desert steppe. We examined seed bank species composition, density, vertical distribution, diversity in the soil of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 cm soil layers and the relationship with vegetation and soil environmental factors in Ningxia desert steppe. The treatments included enclosure (FY), traditional time rotation grazing (FG), delayed to start rotation grazing (YG), early to end rotation grazing (TG), delayed to start and early to end rotation grazing (YT) and free grazing (ZY). Read More

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The expression of diacylglycerol kinase isoforms α and ζ correlates with the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats.

Histochem Cell Biol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of Cellular Physiology (Shanxi Medical University), Ministry of Education, and the Department of Physiology, Shanxi Medical University, No.56 Xinjiannan Road, Taiyuan, 030001, Shanxi, China.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, whose precise processes are not fully understood. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) isozymes of α, β, γ and ζ expressed abundantly in the brain and/or the immune system, may be regulatory targets for MS. In this study, we analyzed the four DGK isozymes along the induction, peak and recovery phases in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model of MS. Read More

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Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage with undetectable plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels in a patient receiving intravitreal injection of aflibercept for bilateral diabetic macular edema: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Jul 27;15(1):403. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Teishin Hospital, 2-14-23 Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-8798, Japan.

Background: Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor are commonly used to treat macular diseases, including diabetic macular edema. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs can enter the systemic circulation after intravitreal injections and appear to suppress circulating vascular endothelial growth factor levels. However, whether this can cause any systemic adverse events remains unknown. Read More

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How Ready Are Young Adults to Participate in Community Service? An Application of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change.

Am J Health Promot 2021 Jul 23:8901171211034742. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.

Purpose: Engaging in community service, or unpaid work intended to help people in a community, is generally associated with greater overall well-being. However, the process of beginning and maintaining community service engagement has been sparsely examined. The current study applied the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change to understanding community service readiness among young adults. Read More

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Comparison of the modulatory effects of three structurally similar potential prebiotic substrates on an in vitro multi-species oral biofilm.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):15033. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Oral Health Sciences, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Kapucijnenvoer 33, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Previous research identified potential prebiotic substrates for oral health like the structural analogues N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (NADM) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NADG). The main hypothesis of the current study was twofold. Firstly, it was hypothesized that the modulatory effects of NADM are not limited to changes in multi-species oral biofilm composition, but also include effects on metabolism, virulence, and inflammatory potential. Read More

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Pathways and mechanisms by which biochar application reduces nitrogen and phosphorus runoff losses from a rice agroecosystem.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 21;797:149193. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China.

Biochar application has the potential to reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses in agricultural runoff, but little is known about how and to what extent biochar is effective in rice agroecosystems. In this study, in a typical double-rice cropping system, N and P runoff losses and soil carbon (C), N, and P contents (soil CNP contents) were observed under three different biochar application rates (0, 24, and 48 t ha, which were defined as CK, LB, and HB, respectively) from 2017 to 2019. The results showed that the two-year averages of soil total organic C (TOC), total N (TSN), total P (TSP), available P (Olsen P), microbial biomass N (MBN), and microbial biomass P (MBP) contents were generally higher in the biochar treatments than in CK (P < 0. Read More

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Insight into the substrate-dependent anti-aflatoxigenic effects of nanosized ZnO film: Electron transfer directed oxidative stress mechanisms.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jul 23;207:111997. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

College of Life Sciences, Chongqing Normal University, No. 37 Chengzhong Road, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 401331, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Exploring new anti-aflatoxigenic materials and their mechanisms are critical to reduce the prevalence of drug-resistant fungi and the contamination of aflatoxins. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are promising antifungal candidates but supporting substrates generally affect their antifungal activities. In this study, ZnONPs with a three-dimensional flower-like hierarchical microstructure bound to different substrates as anti-aflatoxigenic composites were prepared using a facile deposition method. Read More

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[Migration, Transformation Characteristics, and Ecological Risk Evaluation of Heavy Metal Fractions in Cultivated Soil Profiles in a Typical Carbonate-Covered Area].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Aug;42(8):3913-3923

Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Langfang 065000, China.

In China, high heavy metal concentrations in cultivated soil are mainly distributed in carbonate-covered areas. The migration and transformation of heavy metals in such soils are influenced by interactions between natural processes and human activities. This study examined the profiles of nine paddy soils, derived from carbonate rocks in Guangxi. Read More

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Leaf density and chemical composition explain variation in leaf mass area with spectral composition among 11 widespread forbs in a common garden.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Ibaraki, Japan.

Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a key leaf functional trait correlated with plant strategies dictating morphology, physiology, and biochemistry. Although sunlight is generally accepted as a dominant factor driving LMA, the contribution of each spectral region of sunlight in shaping LMA is poorly understood. In the present study, we grew 11 widespread forb species in a common garden and dissected the traits underpinning differences in LMA, such as its morphological components (leaf density (LD), and leaf thickness (LT)), macroelement and metabolite composition under five spectral-attenuation treatments: (1) transmitting c. Read More

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Iron Depletion, Iron Deficiency, and Iron Deficiency Anaemia Among Children Under 5 Years Old in Kilimanjaro, Northern Tanzania: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

East Afr Health Res J 2019 30;3(1):42-47. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania.

Background: Iron depletion results from reduced iron stores, and it is an early stage of disease progression before iron deficiency, which leads to iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). IDA is associated with delayed infant growth and development, diminished cognitive function, poor academic performance, decreased exercise tolerance, and impaired immune function. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of iron depletion and IDA and factors associated with low ferritin levels among children under 5-years-old receiving care at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Moshi, Tanzania. Read More

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A Description of Handgrip Strength in the Very Older Adult People Living in Rural Vietnam and Its Association with Daily Functions.

Biomed Res Int 2021 8;2021:1237547. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.

Objective: To describe handgrip strength (HGS) and identify associated factors in community-dwelling older adults in rural Vietnam.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in community-dwelling older adults 80 years and over in five rural communities in Hanoi, Vietnam. Age-gender-BMI stratified HGS values were reported as means and standard deviations. Read More

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Dry Eye and Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 8;8:649030. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

To evaluate whether dry eye deteriorates after phacoemulsification cataract surgery, and to explore the influential factors. Studies published before February 2020 indexed on PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were retrieved. A meta-analysis, including meta-regression, a sensitivity analysis, and a subgroup analysis, were performed. Read More

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Case Report: Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Caused by Extremely Skewed X-Chromosome Inactivation in a Chinese Girl.

Front Pediatr 2021 8;9:691524. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked immunodeficiency disorder caused by abnormal expression of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein due to gene mutation, which is generally characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and high risk of autoimmune complications and hematological malignancies. Although affected males with WAS usually manifest severe symptoms, female carriers have no significant clinical manifestations. Here, we describe a Chinese girl diagnosed with WAS carrying a heterozygous missense mutation in exon 2 of the gene. Read More

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Southern introgression increases adaptive immune gene variability in northern range margin populations of Fire-bellied toad.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 27;11(14):9776-9790. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Unit of Evolutionary Biology/Systematic Zoology Institute of Biochemistry and Biology University of Potsdam Potsdam Germany.

Northern range margin populations of the European fire-bellied toad () have rapidly declined during recent decades. Extensive agricultural land use has fragmented the landscape, leading to habitat disruption and loss, as well as eutrophication of ponds. In Northern Germany (Schleswig-Holstein) and Southern Sweden (Skåne), this population decline resulted in decreased gene flow from surrounding populations, low genetic diversity, and a putative reduction in adaptive potential, leaving populations vulnerable to future environmental and climatic changes. Read More

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α-Mangostin Alleviated Inflammation in Rats With Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis by Disrupting Adipocytes-Mediated Metabolism-Immune Feedback.

Front Pharmacol 2021 7;12:692806. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (Yijishan Hospital), Wuhu, China.

A previously identified anti-rheumatic compound -mangostin (MAN) possesses notable metabolism regulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the immune implication of MAN-altered fat metabolism on adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. Seven days after AIA induction, the rats received oral treatment of MAN at 50 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Read More

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Evaluation of fetal cardiac functions in the setting of maternal diabetes: Application of the global spherical index, global strain and fractional area change by the speckle tracking technique.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Jul 7;264:162-167. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate ventricular contractility and profile heart deformations in fetuses of hyperglycemic mothers using the Speckle tracking imaging (STI). The fractional area change (FAC), global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global sphericity index (GSI) of the 4-chamber view (4-CV) were computed.

Study Design: Dynamic 4-CV images of 60 fetuses exposed to maternal diabetes (MD) and 60 controls were retrospectively collected between 19 and 37 weeks of gestation. Read More

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First results about ProAKAP4 concentration in stallion semen after cryopreservation in two different freezing media.

Cryobiology 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Centre Européen Du Cheval, Département Reproduction, Mont-le-Soie, 1, Vielsalm, 6698, Belgium; Center for Oxygen Research and Development (CORD), University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; Equine Clinic, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

The quality of fresh or thawed sperm in stallions has been generally determined by the viability and total and progressive motility of the sperm. Today, the expression of ProAKAP4, a protein present in the flagellum of spermatozoa, appears to be an innovative and relevant functional marker to assess semen quality and male fertility. This study aims to compare the concentration of ProAKAP4 in the semen from 5 stallions frozen with two different extenders immediately after thawing (T0) and 4 hours post-thawing (T4). Read More

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Training set design in genomic prediction with multiple biparental families.

Plant Genome 2021 Jul 24:e20124. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute of Plant Breeding, Seed Science and Population Genetics, Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, 70593, Germany.

Genomic selection is a powerful tool to reduce the cycle length and enhance the genetic gain of complex traits in plant breeding. However, questions remain about the optimum design and composition of the training set. In this study, we used 944 soybean [Glycine max (L. Read More

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Epileptiform activity in mouse hippocampal slices induced by moderate changes in extracellular Mg, Ca, and K.

BMC Neurosci 2021 Jul 23;22(1):46. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Rodent brain slices-particularly hippocampal slices-are widely used in experimental investigations of epileptiform activity. Oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) is used to maintain slices in vitro. Physiological or standard ACSF containing 3-3. Read More

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Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of High-Ductility Concrete against Combined Sulfate Attack and Dry-Wet Cycles.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 19;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China.

Concrete will deteriorate and damage under sulfate attack.In order to study the degradation characteristics of HDC under sulfate attack, the mechanical properties of high-ductility concrete (HDC) were investigated using the uniaxial compressive strength test of HDC specimens soaked in different concentrations of sulfate solution and subjected to different times of dry-wet cycles. The variations in the compressive strength, loss rate of compressive strength, and the max compressive strength under the action of sulfate attack and dry-wet cycles were analyzed. Read More

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Immobilization of Potentially Toxic Elements in Contaminated Soils Using Thermally Treated Natural Zeolite.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 6;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

INCDO-INOE 2000, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, 67 Donath Street, 400296 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Rehabilitation of contaminated soils is a complex and time-consuming procedure. One of the most cost-effective and easy-to-use soil remediation approaches is the use of amendments that stabilize the potential toxic elements (PTE) in soil by reducing their mobility and bioavailability. The stabilization of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni in a contaminated soil using 5% and 10% amendment with thermally treated natural zeolite was investigated using a sequential extraction procedure, contamination and environmental risk factors. Read More

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The Performance of Post-Fall Detection Using the Cross-Dataset: Feature Vectors, Classifiers and Processing Conditions.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 6;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493, Korea.

In this study, algorithms to detect post-falls were evaluated using the cross-dataset according to feature vectors (time-series and discrete data), classifiers (ANN and SVM), and four different processing conditions (normalization, equalization, increase in the number of training data, and additional training with external data). Three-axis acceleration and angular velocity data were obtained from 30 healthy male subjects by attaching an IMU to the middle of the left and right anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS). Internal and external tests were performed using our lab dataset and SisFall public dataset, respectively. Read More

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Mental Health and Psychological Wellbeing during the COVID-19 Lockdown: A Longitudinal Study in the Balearic Islands (Spain).

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 20;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Primary Care Research Unit of Mallorca, Balearic Health Service, 07002 Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain.

Confining the entire population to a lockdown after the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 was an unprecedented measure designed to protect the health of those living in Spain. The objective of the present study is to assess the evolution of mental health and psychological wellbeing during lockdown. To do this, we carried out a longitudinal study, via an online survey over the eight weeks of lockdown (weekly assessments). Read More

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Hormone Replacement Therapy in Endometrial Cancer Survivors: A Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 18;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, DINOGMI, IRCCS San Martino Hospital, University of Genova, 16122 Genova, GE, Italy.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hormone therapy (HT) on the oncological outcomes of endometrial cancer (EC) survivors. A systematic literature review was conducted in July 2021 to identify studies detailing the effect size for the relationship between HT use in EC and oncological outcomes (survival and disease recurrence). This included studies that evaluated the different recurrence rates among women treated for EC who subsequently underwent HT and those who did not. Read More

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Socioeconomic Health Inequalities in Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome and Depression: No Mediation by Parental Depression and Parenting Style.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 20;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Health Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

We assessed to what extent parental depression and parenting style mediate the relationships between different measures of parental socioeconomic status (SES) and both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents, and whether sex moderates these mechanisms. Data were from the prospective multigenerational Dutch Lifelines Cohort Study. Our sample consisted of 1217 adolescents with an average follow-up of 33. Read More

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Effect of Single and Dual Hydrothermal Treatments on the Resistant Starch Content and Physicochemical Properties of Lotus Rhizome Starches.

Molecules 2021 Jul 17;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan.

Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) changed the morphology and the degree of molecular ordering in lotus rhizome ( Gaertn.) starch granules slightly, leading to some detectable cavities or holes near hilum, weaker birefringence and granule agglomeration, accompanied with modified XRD pattern from C- to A-type starch and lower relative crystallinity, particularly for high moisture HMT modification. In contrast, annealing (ANN) showed less impact on granule morphology, XRD pattern and relative crystallinity. Read More

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Probing the Energetic Metabolism of Resting Cysts under Different Conditions from Molecular and Physiological Perspectives in the Harmful Algal Blooms-Forming Dinoflagellate .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 7;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China.

Energetic metabolism is essential in maintaining the viability of all organisms. Resting cysts play important roles in the ecology of dinoflagellates, particularly for harmful algal blooms (HABs)-causative species. However, the energetic metabolism underlying the germination potency maintenance of resting cysts of dinoflagellate have been extremely scarce in studies from physiological and, particularly, molecular perspectives. Read More

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Triple Culture of Primary Human Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts and Osteocytes as an In Vitro Bone Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 7;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Centre for Translational Bone, Joint- and Soft Tissue Research, Medical Faculty and University Hospital, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany.

In vitro evaluation of bone graft materials is generally performed by analyzing the interaction with osteoblasts or osteoblast precursors. In vitro bone models comprising different cell species can give specific first information on the performance of those materials. In the present study, a 3D co-culture model was established comprising primary human osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. Read More

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