706 results match your criteria generalization maintenance


Antipsychotic treatment and risk of discontinuation and hospitalization in first-episode schizophrenia: a nationwide population-based study.

Psychol Med 2021 Apr 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Current evidence on antipsychotic treatment and risk of psychiatric hospitalization in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) is largely based on the findings from randomized clinical trials (RCTs). However, the generalization of the findings to real-world patients is limited due to inherent caveats of the RCT. We aimed to investigate the treatment discontinuation and risk of psychiatric hospitalization using a nationwide population database. Read More

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Efficacy of the iDBT-Pain skills training intervention to reduce emotional dysregulation and pain intensity in people with chronic pain: protocol for a single-case experimental design with multiple baselines.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 14;11(4):e041745. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Centre for Pain IMPACT, Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia

Introduction: Difficulties in emotional regulation are key to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Recent evidence shows internet-delivered dialectic behaviour therapy (iDBT) skills training can reduce emotional dysregulation and pain intensity. However, further studies are needed to provide more definitive evidence regarding the efficacy of iDBT skills training in the chronic pain population. Read More

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Behavioural movement strategies in cyclic models.

Authors:
B Moura J Menezes

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 19;11(1):6413. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Caixa Postal 1524, Natal, RN, 59072-970, Brazil.

The spatial segregation of species is fundamental to ecosystem formation and stability. Behavioural strategies may determine where species are located and how their interactions change the local environment arrangement. In response to stimuli in the environment, individuals may move in a specific direction instead of walking randomly. Read More

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Pivotal response treatment for autism: A brief report on training for rural communities.

J Community Psychol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.

Many providers from rural communities feel ill-prepared to treat children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Cost-effective training in Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT), an evidence-based ASD treatment, can address unmet needs for rural communities. The current study examined a 1-day general PRT workshop for parents and professionals followed by a 3-day small, intensive training for professionals. Read More

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Dorsolateral Prefrontal Functional Connectivity Predicts Working Memory Training Gains.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 1;13:592261. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock, Germany.

Normal aging is associated with working memory decline. A decrease in working memory performance is associated with age-related changes in functional activation patterns in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Cognitive training can improve cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Read More

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Hippocampus and cortex are involved in the retrieval of a spatial memory under full and partial cue availability.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 26;405:113204. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Plaza Feijóo, s/n, E-33003, Oviedo, Spain; Instituto de Neurociencias del Principado de Asturias (INEUROPA), Oviedo, Spain. Electronic address:

Retaking routes after a period of time usually occurs in an environment which has suffered from spatial configuration modifications. Thus, the original visual stimuli that allowed us to establish cognitive mapping using an allocentric strategy during the acquisition phase may not remain physically identical at the time of retrieval. However, in the standard experimental paradigms the cues are typically maintained constant. Read More

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Compositional memory in attractor neural networks with one-step learning.

Neural Netw 2021 Jun 11;138:78-97. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Compositionality refers to the ability of an intelligent system to construct models out of reusable parts. This is critical for the productivity and generalization of human reasoning, and is considered a necessary ingredient for human-level artificial intelligence. While traditional symbolic methods have proven effective for modeling compositionality, artificial neural networks struggle to learn systematic rules for encoding generalizable structured models. Read More

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Effects of increased attention allocation to threat and safety stimuli on fear extinction and its recall.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2021 Feb 11;72:101640. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

School of Psychological Sciences and the Integrated Brain and Behavior Research Center, University of Haifa, Abba Hushi 199, Mt Carmel, Haifa, Israel. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Attention plays an important role in the treatment of anxiety. Increased attention to threat has been shown to yield improved treatment outcomes in anxious patients following exposure-based therapy. This study examined whether increasing attention to learned stimuli during fear extinction, an experimental analogue for exposure-based treatments, could improve extinction learning and its maintenance. Read More

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February 2021

Outcomes of semantic feature analysis treatment for aphasia with and without apraxia of speech.

Int J Lang Commun Disord 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: To date, studies have not explored whether a dual diagnosis of aphasia plus apraxia of speech (AOS) versus aphasia alone (APH) affects the response to language-based naming treatments.

Aims: To compare the effects of semantic feature analysis (SFA) treatment for individuals with APH versus aphasia plus AOS, and to test if the presence of AOS impacted the effects of treatment.

Methods And Procedures: A non-randomized experimental group study was conducted to explore the treatment, generalization and maintenance effects between the AOS and APH groups. Read More

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February 2021

Comparative Effects of Picture Symbol With Paired Text and Text-Only Augmentative and Alternative Communication Representations on Communication From Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 Mar 8;30(2):584-597. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Rehabilitation, Human Resources, and Communication Disorders, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.

Purpose Technology features that maximize communicative benefit while minimizing learning demands must be identified and prioritized to amplify the efficiency and effectiveness of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention. Picture symbols with paired text are a common representation feature in AAC systems for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who are preliterate, yet little research about their comparative benefit exists. Method Four school-age children with ASD and limited speech who were preliterate participated in two single-subject studies. Read More

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Effectiveness of a nurse-led temporal self-regulation theory-based program on heart failure self-care: A randomized controlled trial.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Mar 12;115:103872. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, Yong Loo Lin, School of Medicine, National University of Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Heart failure self-care is crucial for sustainable heart failure management but its adherence remains poor worldwide. Despite having an intention to change, individuals often face difficulties in modifying existing lifestyle habits and sustaining change motivations.

Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a novel theory-driven nurse-led self-regulation program on improving heart failure self-care behaviours, future-thinking and behavioural automaticity. Read More

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Feasibility of virtual reality behavior skills training for preservice clinicians.

J Appl Behav Anal 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Rutgers University.

Effective training procedures include behavioral skills training (BST), which involves providing written and verbal instructions, modeling of the skill, rehearsal of the skill, and feedback on the performance. This training typically involves in vivo experience in which trainees and students are exposed to risks such as proximity to infectious disease, behavioral issues such as aggression, and errors in teaching performance. Conducting BST in a virtual reality (VR) context involving virtual individuals with problem behavior may be an effective means of mitigating these risks. Read More

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January 2021

An Interprofessional Approach to Dialect-Shifting Instruction for Early Elementary School Students.

Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2021 01 18;52(1):139-148. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Communication Sciences and Special Education, University of Georgia, Athens.

Purpose Dialect-shifting has shown promise as an effective way to improve academic outcomes of students who speak nonmainstream dialects such as African American English (AAE); however, limited studies have examined the impacts of an interprofessional approach with multiple instructional methods. In this study, we developed a dialect-shifting curriculum for early elementary school students who speak AAE and evaluated the curriculum for feasibility and preliminary impacts. Method Forty-one kindergarten, first-, second-, and third-grade students and their teachers in one elementary school participated in a 7-week dialect-shifting instruction co-taught by the classroom teachers and a speech-language pathology graduate clinician. Read More

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January 2021

Myasthenia gravis: MuSK MG, late-onset MG and ocular MG.

Authors:
Feza Deymeer

Acta Myol 2020 Dec 1;39(4):345-352. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction which affects all striated muscles, resulting in fluctuating weakness. Approaching MG as a disease with subgroups having different clinical, serological and genetic features is crucial in predicting the progression and planning treatment. Three relatively less frequently seen subtypes of MG are the subject of this review: MG with anti-MuSK antibodies (MuSK MG), non-thymomatous late-onset MG (LOMG), and ocular MG (OMG). Read More

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December 2020

The Efficacy of Pivotal Response Treatment in Teaching Question-Asking Initiations to Young Turkish Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

In the present study, a concurrent multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the efficacy of pivotal response treatment (PRT) on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of the question-asking initiations by four children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The researchers also examined whether the implementation of PRT resulted in collateral changes in language development and other areas of development. The results of this study indicate that PRT is highly effective in teaching question-asking initiations. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of online instruction on volunteers who support people with complex communication needs in active recreation.

Augment Altern Commun 2020 12 24;36(4):214-225. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Social and Public Health, Child and Family Studies, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA.

This study was conducted to teach and evaluate the effectiveness of an online training called The CAPTURE & Share program. The program was taught using online instruction in an asynchronous manner with six volunteers who facilitate recreational participation for individuals with complex communication needs. The online training focused on teaching volunteers how to support opportunities for individuals to capture photos and videos from recreation and then share them across their social networks. Read More

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December 2020

Coaching Parents of Children With Developmental Disabilities to Implement a Modified Dialogic Reading Intervention Using Low Technology via Telepractice.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 01 22;30(1):119-136. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station.

Purpose Storybook reading provides a naturalistic context to promote bonding and increase oral communication between the reader and child. This study investigated the impact of modified dialogic reading procedures, which included a prompting component on the language skills of children with autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome in the children's homes. Method A multiple-probe-across-participants design was used to investigate the efficacy of the intervention for this population. Read More

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January 2021

Controversies in Ocular Myasthenia Gravis.

Front Neurol 2020 30;11:605902. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) with symptoms limited to eye muscles [ocular MG (OMG)] is a rare disease. OMG incidence varies according to ethnicity and age of onset. In recent years, both an increase in incidence rate, particularly in the elderly, and a lower risk for secondary generalization may have contributed to the growing disease prevalence in Western countries. Read More

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November 2020

[Effectiveness of Behavioral Activation for the Treatment of Severe Depression in Clinical Settings].

Sante Ment Que 2020 ;45(1):11-30

École de psychologie, Université Laval ; Centre de recherche sur les soins et les services de première ligne de l'Université Laval ; Centre de recherche CERVO.

Objectives Among interventions that have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of depression, behavioural activation (AC) is receiving increasing attention as the evidence supporting its effectiveness continues to accumulate. Although the efficacy of AC for the treatment of depression has been established through numerous randomized controlled trials, studies evaluating the effectiveness of AC when implemented in mental health settings are rare and there is insufficient supportive data. This step is, however, essential to the validity and the generalization of the treatment to the reality of clinical settings. Read More

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January 2020

Pavlovian Learning Processes in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: A Critical Review.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 04 12;89(7):690-696. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Deficits in associative and Pavlovian learning are thought to lie at the center of anxiety-related disorders. However, the majority of studies have been carried out in adult populations. The aim of this review was to critically examine the behavioral and neuroimaging literature on Pavlovian learning in pediatric anxiety disorders. Read More

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The effect of photographic activity schedules on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

J Appl Behav Anal 2020 Nov 8. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Utah State University, Logan, UT.

Regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) has been linked to improved bone health, muscular fitness, cognitive function, sleep, and a reduced risk of depression and obesity. Many children are not engaging in the recommended amount of physical activity. Furthermore, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were found to engage in less physical activity than their peers of typical development. Read More

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November 2020

Programmed neurocognitive training: proposal of a new approach.

Disabil Rehabil 2020 Nov 4:1-8. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Laboratory of Neuropsychophysiology, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Purpose: The efficacy studies of neurocognitive training have focused on the components of the programmes and general methodological questions, not presenting a for the individualization of the intervention, even though this is an essential factor for efficacy. The main objective of this manuscript is to propose a framework for the individual planning of neurocognitive training sessions based on the results of neuropsychological assessment.

Methods: The proposed framework is coined Branched Programmed Neurocognitive Training (BPNT). Read More

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November 2020

Importance of sex and trauma context on circulating cytokines and amygdalar GABAergic signaling in a comorbid model of posttraumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 Oct 21. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and anxiety disorders are frequently comorbid and share mechanisms that could be therapeutic targets. To facilitate mechanistic studies, we adapted an inhibitory avoidance-based "2-hit" rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and identified predictors and biomarkers of comorbid alcohol (ethanol)/PTSD-like symptoms in these animals. Stressed Wistar rats received a single footshock on two occasions. Read More

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October 2020

Pseudoword spelling ability predicts response to word spelling treatment in acquired dysgraphia.

Neuropsychol Rehabil 2020 Oct 13:1-37. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Cognitive Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Although rehabilitation of acquired dysgraphia can be quite effective, identifying predictors of responsiveness to treatment is useful for prognosis and individualization of treatment protocols. This study examined whether various features of treatment response were predicted by the integrity of one or more of the central cognitive components of spelling: orthographic long-term memory, orthographic working memory, and phoneme-grapheme conversion. Twenty dysgraphic individuals received 12 weeks of bi-weekly, individualized, lexically-based spelling rehabilitation using a spell-study-spell paradigm. Read More

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October 2020

A Phonomotor Approach to Apraxia of Speech Treatment.

Authors:
Lauren Bislick

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2020 11 30;29(4):2109-2130. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Central Florida, Orlando.

Purpose This study continued Phase I investigation of a modified Phonomotor Treatment (PMT) Program on motor planning in two individuals with apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia and, with support from prior work, refined Phase I methodology for treatment intensity and duration, a measure of communicative participation, and the use of effect size benchmarks specific to AOS. Method A single-case experimental design with multiple baselines across behaviors and participants was used to examine acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of treatment effects 8-10 weeks posttreatment. Treatment was distributed 3 days a week, and duration of treatment was specific to each participant (criterion based). Read More

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November 2020

A simple reaction-diffusion model for initial stages of biofouling in reverse osmosis membranes.

Environ Res 2020 11 6;190:110000. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P. O. Box, 31110, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:

Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes and consequently increases operational and maintenance costs. It is difficult to control this operational challenge, so the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control methods and strategies is a critical issue for membrane technology and applications. In this work, we develop a simulation approach for evaluating the operational time of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes based on a reaction-diffusion (RD) type of model. Read More

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November 2020

Outcomes of a practical approach for improving conversation skills in adults with autism.

J Appl Behav Anal 2021 Jan 31;54(1):309-333. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Clinical, Health, and Applied Sciences, University of Houston, Clear Lake.

Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have deficits in conversation skills that can interfere with the development of personal and professional relationships. Further research is needed on efficient interventions for targeting conversation skills in adults with ASD and for evaluating the social validity of the outcomes. In this study, 2 practitioners implemented a 4-week training program for 5 adults with ASD that combined individualized computer-based instruction (CBI) and practice with peers to promote the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of conversation skills. Read More

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January 2021

Discrete-trial training performance of behavior interventionists with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic replication and extension.

J Appl Behav Anal 2021 Jan 31;54(1):374-388. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Clinical, Health, and Applied Sciences, University of Houston-Clear, Lake.

Further research is needed on strategies to improve employment outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We replicated and extended prior research by examining the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of discrete-trial training (DTT) performance of adults with ASD who were interested in careers as behavior technicians. Three participants received training on how to implement DTT with children and we assessed the maintenance and generalization of DTT performance in the absence of feedback. Read More

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January 2021

Vagus nerve stimulation boosts the drive to work for rewards.

Nat Commun 2020 07 16;11(1):3555. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Calwerstraße 14, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Interoceptive feedback transmitted via the vagus nerve plays a vital role in motivation by tuning actions according to physiological needs. Whereas vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) reinforces actions in animals, motivational effects elicited by VNS in humans are still largely elusive. Here, we applied non-invasive transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS) on the left or right ear while participants exerted effort to earn rewards using a randomized cross-over design (vs. Read More

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