271,038 results match your criteria general population


Facial Soft Tissue Injuries in Pediatric Patients.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Otolaryngology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, New York.

Soft tissue injuries of the head and neck are a common reason for medical evaluation and treatment in pediatric populations with some unique and important considerations when compared with adults. The incidence and type of injuries continue to evolve with the adoption of new safety measures, technology advancements, and education of the general population. The goal of this article is to provide the reader with a thorough understanding of the evaluation and management of pediatric soft tissue trauma including the initial workup, physical examination, appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy, and setting for surgical repair. Read More

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Incidence rates of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers among men: a comparison of active-duty military and general populations.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

John P. Murtha Cancer Center Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc. Department of Surgery Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Objectives: This study compared oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence rates and trends among men in the active-duty military and the general population of the USA.

Methods: Data were from the Department of Defenses' Automated Central Tumor Registry (ACTUR) and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER-9) registries. Age-adjusted oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence rates among men aged 20-59 from 1990-2013 were compared between ACTUR and SEER populations. Read More

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Effects of stereotactic radiosurgery versus conventional radiotherapy on body mass index in patients with craniopharyngioma.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 May 14:1-7. Epub 2021 May 14.

1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute.

Objective: Hypothalamic obesity is common among patients with craniopharyngioma. This study examined whether precise stereotactic radiosurgery reduces the risk of hypothalamic obesity in cases of craniopharyngioma with expected long-term survival.

Methods: This cohort study included 40 patients who had undergone Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; n = 22) or fractionated radiotherapy (FRT; n = 18) for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma. Read More

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Epidemiology of disturbing dreams in a diverse US sample.

Sleep Med 2021 Apr 29;83:5-12. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, USA.

Study Objectives: Disturbing dreams are a common complaint among trauma survivors, but little epidemiological research exists to document the frequency in the general population. In addition, information about their occurrence in diverse adults is lacking.

Methods: Using the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys we had the unique opportunity to examine disturbing dreams in a diverse sample of adults in the US. Read More

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Local Anesthesia is Associated with Fewer Complications in Umbilical Hernia Repair in Frail Veterans.

J Surg Res 2021 May 11;266:88-95. Epub 2021 May 11.

North Texas VA Healthcare System, Department of Surgery, Dallas, Texas; Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; University of Texas Southwestern, Surgical Center for Outcomes, Implementation, and Novel Interventions (S-COIN), Dallas, Texas.

Background: The optimal anesthesia modality for umbilical hernia repair is unclear. We hypothesized that using local rather than general anesthesia would be associated with improved outcomes, especially for frail patients.

Methods: We utilized the 1998-2018 Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program to identify patients who underwent elective, open umbilical hernia repair under general or local anesthesia. Read More

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Meningiomas in patients with long-term exposition to progestins: Characteristics and outcome.

Neurochirurgie 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Aix Marseille Univ, APHM, INSERM, MMG, Department of Neursurgery, CHU Timone, Marseille, France.

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe progestin-associated meningiomas' characteristics, outcome and management.

Material And Methods: We included 53 patients operated on and/or followed in the department for meningioma with progestin intake longer than one year and with recent drug discontinuation.

Results: Cyproterone acetate (CPA), nomegestrol acetate (NomA), and chlormadinone acetate (ChlA) were involved in most cases. Read More

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COVID-19 and the Blitz compared: mental health outcomes in the UK.

Authors:
Edgar Jones

Lancet Psychiatry 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

The Blitz narrative of resilience stands in contrast to the mental health risks identified as consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although evidence from then-classified studies of World War 2 showed that most people managed the stress of bombing, those vulnerable and exposed to substantial trauma had lasting or severe mental illness. Studies of different towns and occupational groups identified the proportion of people killed and wounded, the percentage of housing destroyed, and the loss of paid employment as risk factors for psychological breakdown. Read More

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Ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs for obesity based on type 2 diabetes risk in England: a population-based cohort study.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Background: National and global recommendations for BMI cutoffs to trigger action to prevent obesity-related complications like type 2 diabetes among non-White populations are questionable. We aimed to prospectively identify ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs for obesity based on the risk of type 2 diabetes that are risk-equivalent to the BMI cutoff for obesity among White populations (≥30 kg/m).

Methods: In this population-based cohort study, we used electronic health records across primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) linked to secondary care records (Hospital Episodes Statistics) from a network of general practitioner practices in England. Read More

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Increased Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity in Depressed Adolescents: Results From a Clinical Cross-Sectional Study in Comparison to the General Pediatric Population.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 Feb 23;82(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Laboratory Research, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Objective: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of subclinical and overt thyroid dysfunction as well as thyroid autoimmunity in depressed adolescents in comparison to the general pediatric population. Additionally, the relationship between parameters of thyroid function and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores was examined.

Methods: Parameters of thyroid function (thyrotropin, free thyroxine, thyroid peroxidase antibodies) and prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity were determined in 360 adolescents (11-19 years) with at least mild depression (BDI-II score > 13) between June 2016 and December 2019 and in a representative reference cohort without evidence of impaired mental health from a nationwide survey (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents [KiGGS], 2003-2006). Read More

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February 2021

Breaking potentially bad news of cancer workup to well-informed patients by telephone versus in-person: A randomised controlled trial on psychosocial consequences.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2021 May 14:e13435. Epub 2021 May 14.

The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen K, Denmark.

Background: The use of telephone in delivering cancer care increases, but not in cancer workup. Current protocols for breaking bad news assume a single in-person meeting. Cancer workup involves multiple opportunities for patient information. Read More

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The prevalence of mental health problems in sub-Saharan adolescents: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251689. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Social Work, University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Most research regarding child and adolescent mental health prevention and promotion in low-and middle-income countries is undertaken in high-income countries. This systematic review set out to synthesise findings from epidemiological studies, published between 2008 and 2020, documenting the prevalence of mental health problems in adolescents from across sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: A systematic search of multiple databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus) and Google Scholar was conducted guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Reviewer's manual for systematic reviews of observational epidemiological studies. Read More

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Demographic History, Not Mating System, Explains Signatures of Inbreeding and Inbreeding Depression in a Large Outbred Population.

Am Nat 2021 Jun 19;197(6):658-676. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

AbstractInbreeding depression is often found in small, inbred populations, but whether it can be detected in and have evolutionary consequences for large, wide-ranging populations is poorly known. Here, we investigate the possibility of inbreeding in a large population to determine whether mild levels of inbreeding can still have genetic and phenotypic consequences and how genomically widespread these effects can be. We apply genome-wide methods to investigate whether individual and parental heterozygosity is related to morphological, growth, or life-history traits in a pelagic seabird, Leach's storm-petrel (). Read More

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Estimated assessment of dietary exposure to artificial sweeteners from processed food in Nanjing, China.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2021 May 14:1-13. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Nanjing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of three intensity sweeteners (Acesulfame-K, cyclamate and saccharin) in different categories of food available on the Nanjing market, and to investigate whether the Nanjing general population was at risk for exceeding the ADI of sweeteners. A set of 1885 foods was collected and analysed using the National Food Safety Standard procedure in order to establish the concentration levels of the sweeteners. Dietary exposure was estimated using probabilistic modelling software and compared directly with each sweetener's ADI. Read More

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Subcuticular Sutures versus Staples in Reducing Surgical Site Infections after Open Abdominal Digestive Surgery: A System Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Wound complications, primarily surgical site infections (SSIs), impose heavy a heavy burden on public health. This study aimed to compare the difference in the abilities of subcuticular sutures and staples to prevent SSIs after open abdominal surgery on the digestive system. A comprehensive search in Ovid-MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library (Central Register of Controlled Trials) was performed in January 2021. Read More

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COVID-19 and incarcerated older adults: a commentary on risk, care and early release in Australia.

Int J Prison Health 2021 May;ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)

School of Population Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Purpose: The purpose of this commentary is to draw upon available literature and practices related to COVID-19 and management of older incarcerated adults in Australia to highlight key matters for better risk management and care of this population during this and future infectious disease pan/epidemics.

Design/methodology/approach: The present commentary draws on current policies, practices and literature regarding the health, needs and management of older incarcerated adults in Australia to discuss risk, care and early release for this population during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Findings: Incarcerated persons experience poorer health and accelerated age-related decline compared to those in the general community. Read More

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Association Between Tetralogy of Fallot and Psychiatric Disorders: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 Feb 23;82(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Objective: The tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) has been reported to be associated with some neurodevelopmental impairment and psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, a nationwide study to clarify the risk between TOF and comorbid psychiatric disorders is lacking. Using a nationwide database in Taiwan, this study aimed to explore the role of TOF in various psychiatric disorders and analyze whether there are patient-related risk factors. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of a 4-year intervention on hand hygiene compliance and incidence of healthcare associated infections: a longitudinal study.

Infection 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, 100 Kexue Avenue, Gaoxin District, Zhengzhou, 450001, China.

Purpose: Studies have demonstrated improvements in hand hygiene (HH) compliance through interventions, noting the negative association of HH and healthcare associated infections (HAIs), but how to sustain long-term improvement is still unknown in the Chinese population. This study sought to determine the extent of change in HH compliance after multimodal HH interventions, and to evaluate the relationship between that change and HAI incidence.

Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a general teaching hospital in China from 2017 to 2020. Read More

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Venous thromboembolism in non-COVID-19 population during the pandemic: a nationwide multicenter retrospective survey.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanjing First Hospital, 68 Changle Rd., Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Impact of pandemic on the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in non-COVID-19 patients is undetermined. Thus, a nationwide multicenter retrospective survey was conducted to evaluate the disease burden in non-COVID-19 population. This multi-center survey involved 94 hospitals from 24 provinces in the mainland of China, and collected data on non-COVID-19 patients admitted to the radiology departments due to VTE between January 24 and April 16, 2020. Read More

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Unifying Frequency Combs in Active and Passive Cavities: Temporal Solitons in Externally Driven Ring Lasers.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(17):173903

Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02134, USA.

Frequency combs have become a prominent research area in optics. Of particular interest as integrated comb technology are chip-scale sources, such as semiconductor lasers and microresonators, which consist of resonators embedding a nonlinear medium either with or without population inversion. Such active and passive cavities were so far treated distinctly. Read More

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The Magnitude and Functionality of SARS-CoV-2 Reactive Cellular and Humoral Immunity in Transplant Population Is Similar to the General Population Despite Immunosuppression.

Transplantation 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

1Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, and Institute of Medical Immunology, Germany 2Center for Translational Medicine and Immune Diagnostics Laboratory, Medical Department I, Marien Hospital Herne, University Hospital of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany 3Department of Infectious Diseases, West German Centre of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany 4Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany 5Department of Immunology, Labor Berlin GmbH, Berlin, Germany 6Ruhr-University Bochum, University Hospital Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum, Department of Surgery, Bochum, Germany.

Background: The ability of transplant (Tx)-patients to generate a protective antiviral response under immunosuppression is pivotal in COVID-19 infection. However, analysis of immunity against SARS-COV-2 is currently lacking.

Methods: Here, we analyzed T cell immunity directed against SARS-CoV-2 spike-, membrane-, and nucleocapsid-protein by flow cytometry and spike-specific neutralizing antibodies in ten Tx in comparison to 26 nonimmunosuppressed (non-Tx) COVID-19 patients. Read More

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The Vobarno study.

Panminerva Med 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Introduction: The Vobarno study represents the first observational study aimed to assess in a general population sample the relationship between parameters of cardiac and vascular structure (and function) and blood pressure values, measured in the clinic and during the 24 hours.

Evidence Acquisition And Synthesis: In the frame of the Vobarno study blood samples for hematochemistry and DNA extraction, clinic and 24-hour blood pressure measurements, cardiac and carotid ultrasound, and aortic stiffness were measured in all subjects, living in a small town (Vobarno) between Brescia and the Garda lake, and randomly selected from electoral roles. In this sample of a general population an extensive evaluation of organ damage, including left ventricular (LV) mass and hypertrophy, LV systolic function, left atrial dimensions and aortic root diameters, carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and carotid plaques, carotid and aortic stiffness were performed. Read More

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A real world investigation on prevalence, clinical features, and therapy of inflammatory bowel disease in the city of Messina, Italy.

Acta Biomed 2021 May 12;92(2):e2021161. Epub 2021 May 12.

Clinical Unit for Chronic Bowel Disorders, Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina.

Background: The absence of a national register of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) hinders effective health care planning in Italy.

Aims: to investigate prevalence of IBD in the city of Messina, Italy, based on General Practitioner (GP) records, and to establish current treatments prescribed by different health care providers.

Methods: data were extracted from GP databases with the help of disease-specific healthcare cost exemption codes combined with ICD9 codes for ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), and prescription for mesalazine. Read More

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Unprecedented increase of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease, Spain, summer 2020.

Euro Surveill 2021 May;26(19)

Ministry of Health, Coordinating Center of Health Alerts and Emergencies, Madrid, Spain.

Cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Spain increased in summer 2020. Here we report on this increase and the local, regional and national public health measures taken in response. We analysed data from regional surveillance networks and the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network, both for human and animal West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Read More

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Adaptation of the COV19-QoL Scale to Turkish culture: Its psychometric properties in diagnosed and undiagnosed individuals.

Death Stud 2021 May 14:1-8. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Public Health Nursing, Kumluca Faculty of Health Sciences, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey.

This study was conducted to adapt the COV19-QoL scale to Turkish culture and to examine its psychometric properties in individuals diagnosed with and without COVID-19. A total of 1069 people aged between 18 and 65 years participated in the study. The COV19-QoL scale has six items, and it was confirmed to be one-dimensional in the Turkish sample (participants diagnosed with and without COVID-19 and the general population). Read More

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Evaluation of thyroid disease and thyroid malignancy in acromegalic patients.

Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Public Health, İzmir Kâtip Çelebi University, Atatürk Training and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey.

Background: Differences in epidemiological data from different geographical regions have made the prevalence of thyroid disease and thyroid cancer controversial. No previous study has investigated whether thyroid disease and thyroid cancer prevalence are higher in acromegalic patients than in the general population in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of thyroid disease and thyroid cancer in acromegaly and to compare it with the control group. Read More

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Advanced Paternal Age and Sperm DNA Fragmentation: A Systematic Review.

World J Mens Health 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Urology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose: Male ageing is often associated with defective sperm DNA remodeling mechanisms that result in poorly packaged chromatin and a decreased ability to repair DNA strand breaks. However, the impact of advanced paternal age on DNA fragmentation remains inconclusive. The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the impact of advancing paternal age (APA) on DNA fragmentation. Read More

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Resilience and associated characteristics in adults with spina bifida.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Aim: To measure resilience and identify associated demographic and clinical factors in individuals with spina bifida.

Method: An anonymous survey was distributed via Facebook advertising to individuals with congenital urological conditions. Respondents 18 years or older with spina bifida were included in this study. Read More

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Outcomes that Matter: High-Needs Patients' and Primary Care Leaders' Perspectives on an Intensive Primary Care Pilot.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for the Study of Healthcare Innovation, Implementation & Policy (CSHIIP), VA Greater Los Angeles HSR&D, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Quantitative evaluations of the effectiveness of intensive primary care (IPC) programs for high-needs patients have yielded mixed results for improving healthcare utilization, cost, and mortality. However, IPC programs may provide other value.

Objective: To understand the perspectives of high-needs patients and primary care facility leaders on the effects of a Veterans Affairs (VA) IPC program on patients. Read More

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