48,612 results match your criteria general cognitive

Nutritional Risk at intensive care unit admission and outcomes in survivors of critical illness.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 11;40(6):3868-3874. Epub 2021 May 11.

Critical Illness, Brain Dysfunction, and Survivorship (CIBS) Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus OH, USA; Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Risk factors for poor outcomes after critical illness are incompletely understood. While nutritional risk is associated with mortality in critically ill patients, its association with disability, cognitive, and health-related quality of life is unclear in survivors of critical illness. This study's objective was to determine whether greater nutritional risk at ICU admission is associated with greater disability, worse cognition, and worse HRQOL at 3 and 12-month follow-up. Read More

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Implementation of a digital cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia pathway in primary care.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jun 12;107:106484. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

The Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health, A Centre of Research Excellence and Flinders Health and Medical Research Institute, Sleep Health, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; National Centre for Sleep Health Services Research, A NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background Insomnia is a prevalent and debilitating disorder commonly managed by family physicians. Insomnia guidelines recommend cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) as the 'first-line' treatment. However, family physicians report limited time, knowledge, access, support, and referral options to manage patients with CBTi. Read More

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What Is the Risk of Intraoperative Cerebral Oxygen Desaturation in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Surgery in the Beach Chair Position?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 06 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Previous studies have shown that intraoperative cerebral desaturation in patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the beach chair position varies widely, from 0% to 80%. To our knowledge, the risk of intraoperative cerebral desaturation is not known after all identified intraoperative modifiable physiologic parameters that influence cerebral blood flow have been controlled for.

Questions/purposes: (1) What is the risk of intraoperative cerebral desaturation during shoulder surgery with the patient in the beach chair position when patients received combined general anesthesia and an interscalene block, and what other factors associated with intraoperative cerebral desaturation can be identified? (2) Is intraoperative cerebral desaturation associated with 24-hour cognitive decline? (3) What factors are associated with intraoperative hypotension?

Methods: Between April and December 2020, 51 patients underwent elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position at one center. Read More

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EMS Program Graduates Who Did Not Retest After Initial Attempt on The National Certification Exam.

Prehosp Emerg Care 2021 Jun 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians, Columbus, Ohio.

Becoming an EMS professional in most of the United States requires successful completion of the National Certification process. While multiple attempts are allowed, some candidates who are unsuccessful on their first cognitive examination attempt do not return despite personal investment. We describe the demographic and testing characteristics of EMT and paramedic candidates that do not return for a second examination attempt after an initial unsuccessful attempt on the National EMS Certification Cognitive Examination. Read More

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Could Improved Microcirculation Reverse the Effects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome? A Review.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):173

University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, (FASDs) are a spectrum of neurodevelopmental and cognitive conditions, caused by the consumption of alcohol in varying amounts in utero that affect an estimated 1 - 5% of the general population in the United States. The effects of the spectrum of disorders are lifelong, resulting in often significant learning difficulties, cognitive deficits, and behavioral issues. It is known that blood flow and microcirculation to the brain are affected by the consumption of alcohol in utero, and that microcirculation and neurology are intimately linked, with changes in the former having drastic effects on the latter. Read More

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Differential effects of risk factors on the cognitive trajectory of early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 Jun 14;13(1):113. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although few studies have shown that risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with cognitive decline in AD, not much is known whether the impact of risk factors differs between early-onset AD (EOAD, symptom onset < 65 years of age) versus late-onset AD (LOAD). Therefore, we evaluated whether the impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors on cognitive trajectories differ in EOAD and LOAD.

Methods: We followed-up 193 EOAD and 476 LOAD patients without known autosomal dominant AD mutation for 32. Read More

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Clinical Efficacy and Safety Profile of Anterior Thalamic Stimulation for Intractable Epilepsy.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warszawa, Poland.

Introduction:  Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT DBS) is a neuromodulation therapy for patients with refractory partial seizures. The ANT is the structure of a limbic system with abundant neuronal connections to temporal and frontal brain regions that participate in seizure propagation circuitry.

State Of The Art:  We have performed a literature search regarding the clinical efficacy of ANT DBS. Read More

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Orexin 1 and 2 receptors in the prelimbic cortex modulate threat valuation.

Neuroscience 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Sciences, Humanities and Languages of the São Paulo State University (UNESP), Assis, São Paulo, Brazil; Behavioural Neuroscience Institute (INeC), Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; NAP-USP-Neurobiology of Emotions Research Centre (NuPNE), Ribeirão Preto Medical School of the University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The ability to distinguish between threatening (repulsors), neutral and appetitive stimuli (attractors) stimuli is essential for survival. The orexinergic neurons of hypothalamus send projections to the limbic structures, such as different subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), suggesting that the orexinergic mechanism in the prelimbic cortex (PL) is involved in the processing of fear and anxiety. We investigated the role of orexin receptors type 1 (OXR) and type 2 (OXR) in the PL in such processes upon confrontation with an erratically moving robo-beetle in mice. Read More

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Interpretation bias modification for hostility: A randomized clinical trial.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2021 May;89(5):421-434

Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University.

Hostility is a transdiagnostic phenomenon that can have a profound negative impact on interpersonal functioning and psychopathological severity. Evidence suggests that cognitive bias modification for interpretation bias (CBM-I) potentially reduces hostility. However, stringent efficacy studies in people with clinical levels of hostility are currently lacking. Read More

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Dispositional factors account for age differences in self-reported mind-wandering.

Psychol Aging 2021 Jun;36(4):421-432

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences.

The present study investigated the contribution of dispositional factors in accounting for the perplexing negative relationship between aging and mind-wandering (MW). First, we sought to examine whether experimentally manipulating participants' motivation during a modified Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) would modulate sustained attention performance and MW reports for younger and older adults. Results indicated that a performance-based motivational incentive influenced self-reported motivation and objective measures of sustained attention performance for younger, but not older, adults as compared to a control block. Read More

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Asymmetric Dopamine Transporter Loss Affects Cognitive and Motor Progression in Parkinson's Disease.

Mov Disord 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Background: Asymmetric hemispheric loss of dopaminergic neurons is one of the characteristic features of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is still debated if right or left asymmetry differently affects cognitive and motor progression.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the relevance of dopamine transporter (DAT) asymmetry on cognitive and motor manifestations at onset and at 4-year progression in drug-naïve PD. Read More

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Pediatric emergency department shift experiences and moods: An exploratory sequential mixed-methods study.

AEM Educ Train 2021 Jul 5;5(3):e10572. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Emergency and Transport Medicine Children's Hospital Los Angeles Los Angeles California USA.

Objective: The objective was to investigate the impact of affective, social, behavioral, and cognitive factors on pediatric emergency department (PED) provider mood changes during clinical shifts, with the introduction of a novel on-shift measure.

Methods: The nominal group technique was used to generate the ED experience survey (EDES), encompassing factors that may influence PED provider mood. Providers were alerted via experience sampling method to complete the EDES and positive and negative affect schedule at randomly generated times. Read More

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Myoclonus and Cerebellar Ataxia Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2021 6;8(5):002531. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Switzerland.

The current SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global health crisis. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic infection to critical illness affecting almost every organ including the central and peripheral nervous systems. Myoclonus, a less expected and relatively unusual neurological complication, together with ataxia, has lately been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response self-reporters showed higher scores for cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy.

PeerJ 2021 26;9:e11474. Epub 2021 May 26.

Escuela de Psicología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, RM, Chile.

Background: Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) describes the experience of a pleasant tingling sensation along the back of the head, accompanied with a feeling of well-being and relaxation, in response to specific audio-visual stimuli, such as whispers, soft sounds, and personal attention. Previous works have assessed individual variations in personality traits associated with ASMR, but no research to date has explored differences in emotion regulation associated with ASMR. This omission occurred even when ASMR, a sensory-emotional experience, has been proposed to be located in a sound sensitivity spectrum as the opposite end of misophonia, a phenomenon associated with difficulties regulating emotions. Read More

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Accessibility and Historical Change: An Emergent Cluster Led to Become .

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:662884. Epub 2021 May 26.

Psychology Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, United States.

There are times when a curiously odd relic of language presents us with a thread, which when pulled, reveals deep and general facts about human language. This paper unspools such a case. Prior to 1930, English speakers uniformly preferred male-before-female word order in conjoined nouns such as . Read More

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Learning From Instructional Videos: Learner Gender Does Matter; Speaker Gender Does Not.

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:655720. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of General Psychology, Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Science, Magdeburg, Germany.

One crucial design characteristic of auditory texts embedded in instructional videos is the speaker gender, which has received some attention from empirical researcher in the recent years. Contrary to the theoretical assumption that similarity between the speaker's and the learner's gender might positively affect learning outcomes, the findings have often been mixed, showing null to contrary effects. Notwithstanding the effect on the outcomes, a closer look at how the speaker's gender and speaker-learner similarities further determine cognitive variables, such as different cognitive load types, is overdue. Read More

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Acupuncture Combined With Emotional Therapy of Chinese Medicine Treatment for Improving Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Patients With Alcohol Dependence During the COVID-19 Epidemic.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:635099. Epub 2021 May 26.

Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

We aimed to analyze the characteristics and psychological mechanism of depressive symptoms in elderly patients with alcohol dependence under the COVID-19 epidemic and to observe the effect of acupuncture combined with emotional therapy of Chinese medicine treatment on depressive symptoms in elderly patients with alcohol dependence. Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated by a set of emotional therapy of Chinese medicine treatment for 12 weeks (control group). Read More

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Text4Support Mobile-Based Programming for Individuals Accessing Addictions and Mental Health Services-Retroactive Program Analysis at Baseline, 12 Weeks, and 6 Months.

Front Psychiatry 2021 28;12:640795. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Where traditional approaches fall short, widely accessible and accepted, yet under leveraged, digital technologies such as text messaging present novel opportunities to solve a range of health care solutions. The following provides a preliminary analysis of the Text4Support program, a text-messaging intervention using the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy, which seeks to support the health and well-being of individuals seeking support for addiction or mental health concerns. The goal of this study was to assess whether the Text4Support program improved the perceived overall mental well-being of participants. Read More

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Disrupted Regional Homogeneity in Major Depressive Disorder With Gastrointestinal Symptoms at Rest.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:636820. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are prominent in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous studies have reported brain structural and functional changes in both MDD and digestive system diseases but it remains unclear whether MDD patients with GI symptoms have brain imaging changes. We recruited 35 MDD patients with GI symptoms, 17 MDD patients without GI symptoms and 28 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls. Read More

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Better Identification of Cognitive Decline With Interleukin-2 Than With Amyloid and Tau Protein Biomarkers in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 28;13:670115. Epub 2021 May 28.

Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

The rate of cognitive decline among patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) varies, and it is thus crucial to accurately predict the probability of cognitive deterioration in patients with MCI. We compared the potential of cytokines with amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau biomarkers for predicting cognitive decline in patients with aMCI or Alzheimer's disease (AD). All participants (controls, aMCI, and AD patients) underwent plasma biomarker examinations for Aβ, Aβ, total tau (t-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 [-Tau181]), and 29 cytokines and baseline cognitive tests, including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Read More

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The Role of Plasma Neurofilament Light Protein for Assessing Cognitive Impairment in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 28;13:657794. Epub 2021 May 28.

TMU Research Center of Cancer Translational Medicine, Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is defined as the irreversible loss of renal function, necessitating renal replacement therapy. Patients with ESRD tend to have more risk factors for cognitive impairment than the general population, including hypertension, accumulative uremic toxin, anemia, and old age. The association between these risk factors and the pathologic protein was lacking. Read More

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Dl-3-n-Butylphthalide Alleviates Behavioral and Cognitive Symptoms Via Modulating Mitochondrial Dynamics in the A53T-α-Synuclein Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurosci 2021 28;15:647266. Epub 2021 May 28.

Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Aggregation and neurotoxicity of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein and the progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons are believed to be the key hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). A53T mutant α-synuclein causes early onset PD and more severe manifestations. A growing body of evidence shows that misfolding or deposition of α-synuclein is linked to the maintenance of mitochondrial dynamics, which has been proven to play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. Read More

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Clinicians' Views on the Need for Cultural Adaptation of Intervention for Children with ADHD from the Ultraorthodox Community.

Occup Ther Int 2021 24;2021:5564364. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Nursing, Jerusalem College of Technology (Campus Tal), Jerusalem, Israel.

Culture is a core context within occupational therapy, with a recent literature emphasizing the importance of cultural competence, as well as culturally sensitive assessment and intervention. The recent literature has indicated the efficacy of the Cognitive-Functional intervention (Cog-Fun) for children with ADHD among the general Israeli population, yet no studies to date have examined the necessity of cultural adaptations for minority groups. The current study examines the necessity of adapting the intervention protocol and process to the Ultraorthodox (UO) population, as perceived by occupational therapists. Read More

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Effect of mental resilience of left-behind children on self-esteem and emotional processing bias and social coping styles.

Yaju Ma

Work 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

College of Education Science, Weinan Normal University, China Weinan, China E-mail:

Background: The long-term separation of parents and children as well as the incomplete family structure affect the mental health development of left-behind children and the formation of healthy personality, good interpersonal relationships and positive coping styles in adulthood. At present, there is insufficient empirical investigations on the mental resilience of left-behind children.

Objective: It is aimed to understand the mental health of left-behind children and explore the characteristics of mental resilience, self-esteem and emotional processing bias, as well as social coping styles. Read More

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Time to Diagnosis in Young Onset Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Study from Central Norway.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science (INB), NTNU, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Trondheim, Norway.

Background: Young onset dementia is associated with a longer time to diagnosis compared to late onset dementia. Earlier publications have indicated that atypical presentation is a key contributing factor to the diagnostic delay. Our hypothesis was that even the most common presentation of Alzheimer's disease is associated with a substantial diagnostic delay in patients <  65 years. Read More

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Nothing so practical as theory: a rapid review of the use of behaviour change theory in family planning interventions involving men and boys.

Reprod Health 2021 Jun 13;18(1):126. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

School of Nursing and Midwifery and Centre for Evidence and Social Innovation, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

Background: There is growing recognition of the need for interventions that effectively involve men and boys to promote family planning behaviours. Evidence suggests that the most effective behavioural interventions in this field are founded on theoretical principles of behaviour change and gender equality. However, there are few evidence syntheses on how theoretical approaches are applied in this context that might guide best practice in intervention development. Read More

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Efficacy of exercise-based interventions in preventing falls among community-dwelling older persons with cognitive impairment: is there enough evidence? An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

Age Ageing 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

Objective: Exercise prevents falls in the general older population, but evidence is inconclusive for older adults living with cognitive impairment. We performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the potential effectiveness of interventions for reducing falls in older persons with cognitive impairment.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, CENTRAL and PEDro were searched from inception to 10 November 2020. Read More

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Linking inhibitory control to math achievement via comparison of conflicting decimal numbers.

Cognition 2021 Jun 11;214:104767. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Newark, USA; Behavioral Neural Sciences Graduate Program, Rutgers University, Newark, USA. Electronic address:

The relationship between executive functions (EF) and academic achievement is well-established, but leveraging this insight to improve educational outcomes remains elusive. Here, we propose a framework for relating the role of specific EF on specific precursor skills that support later academic learning. Starting from the premise that executive functions contribute to general math skills both directly - supporting the execution of problem solving strategies - and indirectly - supporting the acquisition of precursor mathematical content, we hypothesize that the contribution of domain-general EF capacities to precursor skills that support later learning can help explain relations between EF and overall math skills. Read More

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Validation of "Care of the Dying Evaluation" in Emergency Medicine (CODE-EM): pilot phase of end-of-life management protocol offered within emergency room (EMPOWER) study.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Emergency Medicine Department, National University Hospital, National University Health System, Singapore; Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Background: An increasing number of patients who present to emergency departments are at their endof-life phase and have significant palliative care needs such as in symptom control for pain and dyspnoea. Evaluating quality of care provided is imperative, yet there is no suitable tool validated in the emergency and Asian settings. We aim to examine the face and construct validity, and reliability of a newly developed questionnaire, Care of the Dying Evaluation - Emergency Medicine, for measuring the quality of end-of-life care in an Asian emergency context. Read More

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Mental health status and quality of life in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study aimed to identify the association of factors and poorer mental health status and examinate the correlation between mental health status and quality of life (QOL) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

Methods: A total of 190 patients were included in this observational, cross-sectional study. Psychological states of ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were evaluated by the Chinese version symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90) and QOL was assessed using the Chinese Version Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF). Read More

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