123,942 results match your criteria gene silencing

Unravelling HP1 functions: post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell fate.

Chromosoma 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology "C. Darwin", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a non-histone chromosomal protein first identified in Drosophila as a major component of constitutive heterochromatin, required for stable epigenetic gene silencing in many species including humans. Over the years, several studies have highlighted additional roles of HP1 in different cellular processes including telomere maintenance, DNA replication and repair, chromosome segregation and, surprisingly, positive regulation of gene expression. In this review, we briefly summarize past research and recent results supporting the unexpected and emerging role of HP1 in activating gene expression. Read More

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A methyl esterase 1 (PvMES1) promotes the salicylic acid pathway and enhances Fusarium wilt resistance in common beans.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN, 37209, USA.

Key Message: Methyl esterase (MES), PvMES1, contributes to the defense response toward Fusarium wilt in common beans by regulating the salicylic acid (SA) mediated signaling pathway from phenylpropanoid synthesis and sugar metabolism as well as others. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important food legume. Read More

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RNAi of a Putative Grapevine Susceptibility Gene as a Possible Downy Mildew Control Strategy.

Front Plant Sci 2021 28;12:667319. Epub 2021 May 28.

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete , is one of the diseases causing the most severe economic losses to grapevine () production. To date, the application of fungicides is the most efficient method to control the pathogen and the implementation of novel and sustainable disease control methods is a major challenge. RNA interference (RNAi) represents a novel biotechnological tool with a great potential for controlling fungal pathogens. Read More

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Chromatin-directed proteomics-identified network of endogenous androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells.

Oncogene 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Biomedicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Treatment of prostate cancer confronts resistance to androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies. AR-associated coregulators and chromatin proteins hold a great potential for novel therapy targets. Here, we employed a powerful chromatin-directed proteomics approach termed ChIP-SICAP to uncover the composition of chromatin protein network, the chromatome, around endogenous AR in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells. Read More

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A human isogenic iPSC-derived cell line panel identifies major regulators of aberrant astrocyte proliferation in Down syndrome.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 14;4(1):730. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Astrocytes exert adverse effects on the brains of individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Although a neurogenic-to-gliogenic shift in the fate-specification step has been reported, the mechanisms and key regulators underlying the accelerated proliferation of astrocyte precursor cells (APCs) in DS remain elusive. Here, we established a human isogenic cell line panel based on DS-specific induced pluripotent stem cells, the XIST-mediated transcriptional silencing system in trisomic chromosome 21, and genome/chromosome-editing technologies to eliminate phenotypic fluctuations caused by genetic variation. Read More

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The lncRNA PAHRF functions as a competing endogenous RNA to regulate MST1 expression by sponging miR-23a-3p in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Vascul Pharmacol 2021 Jun 11:106886. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmacy, The First People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang 222061, China; Department of Pharmacy, The Affiliated Lianyungang Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University/The First People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang 222061, China.

Background: Emerging evidence has shown that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays important roles in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, some new lncRNAs in patients with PAH are still lacking research. Herein, we examined the expression and role of lncRNA (pulmonary arterial hypertension related factor, PAHRF) in PAH. Read More

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RNA-directed DNA methylation prevents rapid and heritable reversal of transposon silencing under heat stress in Zea mays.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jun 14;17(6):e1009326. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.

In large complex plant genomes, RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) ensures that epigenetic silencing is maintained at the boundary between genes and flanking transposable elements. In maize, RdDM is dependent on Mediator of Paramutation 1 (Mop1), a putative RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Here we show that although RdDM is essential for the maintenance of DNA methylation of a silenced MuDR transposon in maize, a loss of that methylation does not result in a restoration of activity. Read More

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Responder analysis for neuropathic impairment and quality-of-life assessment in patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy in the NEURO-TTR study.

J Neurol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Akcea Therapeutics, a Subsidiary of Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (ATTRv-PN) is a rare disease characterized by rapid neuropathic progression. In pivotal studies of gene-silencing treatments, the modified Neuropathy Impairment Score + 7 tests (mNIS + 7) and Norfolk-Quality of Life (QOL)-Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) questionnaire assessed treatment impact on neuropathic progression. Establishing responder definition (RD) thresholds for these measures would enable evaluation of clinically meaningful treatment benefit. Read More

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Tumor suppressor function of Gata2 in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

Blood 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States.

Most patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) can be cured with combined All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) and Arsenic Trioxide therapy, which induce the destruction of PML-RARA, the initiating fusion protein for this disease1. However, the underlying mechanisms by which PML-RARA initiates and maintains APL cells are still not clear. We therefore identified genes that are dysregulated by PML-RARA in mouse and human APL cells, and prioritized GATA2 for functional studies because 1) it is highly expressed in pre-leukemic cells expressing PML-RARA, 2) its high expression persists in transformed APL cells, and 3) spontaneous somatic mutations of GATA2 occur during APL progression in both mice and humans. Read More

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Sp1 Targeted PARP1 Inhibition Protects Cardiomyocytes From Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Downregulation of Autophagy.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:621906. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), characterized by post-ischemic cardiomyocytes death and reperfusion myocardial damage, is a lethal yet unresolved complication in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Previous studies have demonstrated that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) participates in the progression of various cardiovascular diseases, and various reports have proved that PARP1 can be a therapeutic target in these diseases, but whether it plays a role in MIRI is still unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to explore the role and mechanism of PARP1 in the development of MIRI. Read More

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Targeted and direct intracellular delivery of native DNAzymes enables highly specific gene silencing.

Chem Sci 2020 Aug 7;11(33):8966-8972. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Key Laboratory of Luminescence Analysis and Molecular Sensing, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University Chongqing 400715 P. R. China

DNAzymes exhibit high potential as gene silencing agents for therapeutic applications. Such purposes, however, are significantly challenged by the targeted and successful delivery of unmodified DNAzymes into cells with minimal side effects. Here, we set out to formulate and demonstrate a new stimuli-responsive and constrained aptamer/DNAzyme (Apt/Dz) catenane nanostructure for highly specific gene silencing. Read More

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Effect of BRAF-mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway on biological characteristics and chemosensitivity of NSCLC A549/DDP cells.

Oncol Lett 2021 Aug 3;22(2):584. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050053, P.R. China.

The present study aimed to explore the biological characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and the mechanism of chemosensitivity through the role of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway mediated by BRAF gene silencing. Following cell transfection and grouping, an MTT assay detected the activity of NSCLC cells, a scratch wound test assessed the migration ability, flow cytometry using PI staining detected the cell cycle phase, TUNEL and flow cytometry through Annexin V-PI staining assessed the apoptosis, and colony formation was used to detect the sensitivity of lung cancer cells to cisplatin chemotherapy. Furthermore, the relative expression levels of BRAF, PTEN, PI3K, mTOR mRNA were assessed by RT-qPCR, and the protein expression levels of BRAF, PTEN, PI3K, phosphorylated (p)-PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, mTOR, p-mTOR, cisplatin resistance-related enzymes ERCC1 and BRCA1, apoptotic proteins Bax and Bcl-2 were assessed by western blotting. Read More

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MicroRNAs Regulating Mitochondrial Function in Cardiac Diseases.

Front Pharmacol 2021 28;12:663322. Epub 2021 May 28.

The State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guizhou Medical University, Guizhou, China.

Mitochondria are the key organelles that supply cellular energy. As the most active organ in the body, the energy required to maintain the mechanical function of the heart requires a high quantity of high-quality mitochondria in cardiomyocytes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded noncoding RNAs, approximately 22 nt in length, which play key roles in mediating post-transcriptional gene silencing. Read More

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MicroRNAs: Harbingers and shapers of periodontal inflammation.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Texas A&M Center for Craniofacial Research and Diagnosis and Department of Periodontics, TAMU College of Dentistry, 75246 Dallas, TX USA. Electronic address:

Periodontal disease is an inflammatory reaction of the periodontal tissues to oral pathogens. In the present review we discuss the intricate effects of a regulatory network of gene expression modulators, microRNAs (miRNAs), as they affect periodontal morphology, function and gene expression during periodontal disease. These miRNAs are small RNAs involved in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation and affect all stages of periodontal disease, from the earliest signs of gingivitis to the regulation of periodontal homeostasis and immunity and to the involvement in periodontal tissue destruction. Read More

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Navigating the DNA methylation landscape of cancer.

Trends Genet 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Cancer Cell Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Electronic address:

DNA methylation is a chemical modification that defines cell type and lineage through the control of gene expression and genome stability. Disruption of DNA methylation control mechanisms causes a variety of diseases, including cancer. Cancer cells are characterized by aberrant DNA methylation (i. Read More

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Functional examination of lncRNAs in allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 13;22(1):443. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, 210058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: An evolutionary model using diploid and allotetraploid cotton species identified 80 % of non-coding transcripts in allotetraploid cotton as being uniquely activated in comparison with its diploid ancestors. The function of the lncRNAs activated in allotetraploid cotton remain largely unknown.

Results: We employed transcriptome analysis to examine the relationship between the lncRNAs and mRNAs of protein coding genes (PCGs) in cotton leaf tissue under abiotic stresses. Read More

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Hyperactivation of RAP1 and JAK/STAT Signaling Pathways Contributes to Fibrosis during the Formation of Nasal Capsular Contraction.

Eur Surg Res 2021 Jun 11:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laser Center of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Silicone implant-based augmentation rhinoplasty or mammoplasty induces capsular contracture, which has been acknowledged as a process that develops an abnormal fibrotic capsule associated with the immune response to allogeneic materials. However, the signaling pathways leading to the nasal fibrosis remain poorly investigated. We aimed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of nasal capsular contracture, with a specific research interest in the signaling pathways involved in fibrotic development at the advanced stage of contracture. Read More

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Polymorphisms at the 3'end of the movement protein (MP) gene of grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) affect virus titre and small interfering RNA accumulation in GLMD disease.

Virus Res 2021 Jun 10:198482. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, Udine 33100, Italy; Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Grapevine Leaf Mottling and Deformation (GLMD) is a grapevine disease that has been associated with a trichovirus, the grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV). A wide diversity in the severity of GLMD disease symptoms has been recorded worldwide, but the relationship of this diversity to the sequence variation in the GPGV genome is still a matter of debate. Results from comparative analysis of GPGV genomic sequences have suggested an association of polymorphisms at the 3'-end of the movement protein (MP) with GLMD severity. Read More

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Silent information regulator 1 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells via its regulation of mitochondria status.

Life Sci 2021 Jun 10;280:119716. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Toxicology, The Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, Shaanxi Key Lab of Free Radical Biology and Medicine, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, cell metabolism, and mitochondrial functions. Given that it acts as both a tumor promoter and suppressor, the complex mechanisms underlying SIRT1 signaling in cancer remain controversial. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in the progression of carcinogenesis and tumors metastasis. Read More

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Transcript level is a key factor affecting RNAi efficiency.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jul 6;176:104872. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Plant Diseases and Insects / Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

Efficiency is the basis for the application of RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Actually, RNAi efficiency varies greatly among insect species, tissues and genes. Previous efforts have revealed the mechanisms for variation among insect species and tissues. Read More

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The mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae, as a screening model for exogenous RNAi-based control of coleopteran pests.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jul 11;176:104870. Epub 2021 May 11.

Bayer AG, Crop Science Division, R&D, Pest Control, Alfred-Nobel-Str. 50, 40789 Monheim, Germany. Electronic address:

RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising, selective pest control technology based on the silencing of targeted genes mediated by the degradation of mRNA after the ingestion of double-stranded (ds) RNA. However, the identification of the best target genes remains a challenge, because large scale screening is only feasible in lab model systems and it remains unclear, to what degree such data can be transferred to pest species. Here, we report on our efforts to transfer target genes found in a lab model to the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Read More

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The biogenesis and biological function of PIWI-interacting RNA in cancer.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Jun 12;14(1):93. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, 211166, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are vital regulators of biological activities, and aberrant levels of small ncRNAs are commonly found in precancerous lesions and cancer. PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a novel type of small ncRNA initially discovered in germ cells that have a specific length (24-31 nucleotides), bind to PIWI proteins, and show 2'-O-methyl modification at the 3'-end. Numerous studies have revealed that piRNAs can play important roles in tumorigenesis via multiple biological regulatory mechanisms, including silencing transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene processes and accelerating multiprotein interactions. Read More

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Fatty acids activate the transcriptional coactivator YAP1 to promote liver fibrosis via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Liver Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Patients with simple steatosis (SS) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can develop progressive liver fibrosis, which is associated with liver-related mortality. The mechanisms contributing to liver fibrosis development in SS, however, are poorly understood. SS is characterized by hepatocellular free fatty acid (FFA) accumulation without lobular inflammation seen in NASH. Read More

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CCHamide2-receptor regulates feeding behavior in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

Peptides 2021 Jun 9:170596. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Crop Pest Management of Shandong Province, College of Plant Health and Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, 700 Changcheng Road, Qingdao, Shandong, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Neuropeptide CCHamide-2 is a recently discovered peptide presents in many arthropods and it is the ligand of the CCHamide-2 receptor (CCHa2-R), which is playing a regulatory role in diverse physiological processes, such as feeding, insulin production, lipid metabolism, growth and reproduction, however, the function of this gene in aphids is still unknown. Here, we characterized and determined the presumed role of CCHa2-R signaling in the wingless pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed the expression levels of CCHa2-R transcripts in different development stages and different tissues, which indicates that the CCHa2-R expression was high in the first instar as compared to the upcoming nymphal instars and adult and was predominantly high in the brain. Read More

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Targeting the Mitochondrial Genome Via a MITO-Porter : Evaluation of mtDNA and mtRNA Levels and Mitochondrial Function.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2275:227-245

Laboratory for Molecular Design of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Genetic mutations and defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with certain types of mitochondrial dysfunctions, ultimately resulting in the emergence of a variety of human diseases. To achieve an effective mitochondrial gene therapy, it will be necessary to deliver therapeutic agents to the innermost mitochondrial space (the mitochondrial matrix), which contains the mtDNA pool. We recently developed a MITO-Porter, a liposome-based nanocarrier that delivers cargo to mitochondria via a membrane-fusion mechanism. Read More

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January 2021

Silencing of transcription factor E93 inhibits adult morphogenesis and disrupts cuticle, wing and ovary development in Locusta migratoria.

Insect Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China.

Ecdysone-induced protein 93F (E93) plays important roles during the metamorphosis process in insects. In this study, a cDNA of the LmE93 gene was identified from the transcriptome of Locusta migratoria, which consists of the 3378-nucleotide open-reading frame (ORF) and encodes 1125 amino acids with helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that LmE93 was highest expressed in ovary. Read More

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Argonaute proteins: structures and their endonuclease activity.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Argonaute proteins are highly conserved and widely expressed in almost all organisms. They not only play a critical role in the biogenesis of small RNAs but also defend against invading nucleic acids via small RNA or DNA-mediated gene silencing pathways. One functional mechanism of Argonaute proteins is acting as a nucleic-acid-guided endonuclease, which can cleave targets complementary to DNA or RNA guides. Read More

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The LINC00922 aggravates ovarian cancer progression via sponging miR-361-3p.

J Ovarian Res 2021 Jun 11;14(1):77. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Henan Province, Zhengzhou, 450052, China.

Background: Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) LINC00922 has been reported to promote tumorigenesis of lung and breast cancer. However, the functions and mechanisms of LINC00922 in ovarian cancer (OC) remain unclarified. The current study aims to clarify the detailed functions and underlying mechanisms of LINC00922 in the progression of OC. Read More

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Dynamic transcriptome analysis and Methoprene-tolerant gene knockdown reveal that juvenile hormone regulates oogenesis and vitellogenin synthesis in Propylea Japonica.

Genomics 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang, Henan 455000, China; Zhengzhou Research Base, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Propylea japonica has been regarded as one of the most remarkable natural enemies against aphid in China. However, the mechanism of juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of reproduction in P. japonica is still unclear. Read More

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Cloning and characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) from Litopenaeus vannamei, and its roles in biogenic amines synthesis, immune regulation, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus by RNA interference.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 8:104167. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Aquaculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, 91201, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

The biogenic amines, tyramine and octopamine, in the octopaminergic synthesis pathway play critical roles in regulating physiological and immunological homeostasis in Litopenaeus vannamei. Tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) is an enzyme catalyzing the first decarboxylation step in the biosynthesis of tyramine and octopamine. The full-length gene sequence of TDC cloned from the brain of L. Read More

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