92,233 results match your criteria gene knockout

Spatial Transcriptomics analysis of uterine gene expression in enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) conditional knockout mice.

Biol Reprod 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

Histone proteins undergo various modifications that alter chromatin structure, including addition of methyl groups. Enhancer of homolog 2 (EZH2), is a histone methyltransferase that methylates lysine residue 27, and thereby, suppresses gene expression. EZH2 plays integral role in the uterus and other reproductive organs. Read More

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R-loop modulated epigenetic regulation in T helper cells mechanistically associates coronary artery disease and non-small cell lung cancer.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jul 31;14(10):101189. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Biotechnology, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu 603203, India. Electronic address:

The effect of epigenetics in coronary artery disease and Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is presently developing as a significant vital participant at various levels from pathophysiology to therapeutics. We would like to find out the conjunction of some regular epigenetic regulations which decides the example of either acetylation/deacetylation or methylation/demethylation on various gene promoters associated with their pathogenesis. Expressions of some of the genes (e. Read More

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The effect of circadian rhythm on prolactin/PRLR-mediated intracellular signaling profiles in vivo and in vitro.

Tissue Cell 2021 Jun 4;73:101570. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Neurology and Pediatric Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

The circadian molecular Clock is an internal time-keeping system, which regulates various physiological processes. The circadian Clock may be involved in all biological processes. The circadian Clock is closely related to prolactin's activities. Read More

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FAM20C plays a critical role in the development of mouse vertebra.

Spine J 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University College of Dentistry, Dallas, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Background Context: Family with sequence similarity 20-member C (FAM20C) is a protein kinase that is responsible for the phosphorylation of many secretory proteins; however, its roles in spine or vertebra development have not be studied.

Purpose: The aim of this investigation is to analyze the roles of FAM20C in vertebra development.

Study Design/setting: A mouse study of the Fam20c gene using conditional knockout to assess the effects of its inactivation on vertebra development. Read More

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OsMADS23 phosphorylated by SAPK9 confers drought and salt tolerance by regulating ABA biosynthesis in rice.

PLoS Genet 2021 Aug 3;17(8):e1009699. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.

Some of MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) have been shown to play essential roles in the adaptation of plant to abiotic stress. Still, the mechanisms that MADS-box proteins regulate plant stress response are not fully understood. Here, a stress-responsive MADS-box TF OsMADS23 from rice conferring the osmotic stress tolerance in plants is reported. Read More

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Infantile spasms-linked Nedd4-2 mediates hippocampal plasticity and learning via cofilin signaling.

EMBO Rep 2021 Aug 3:e52645. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

Individuals affected by infantile spasms (IS), such as those carrying mutations in an IS-linked gene, neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-like (Nedd4-2), exhibit developmental delays and learning disabilities, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Using conditional Nedd4-2 knockout mice, we uncover that Nedd4-2 functions to maintain the excitatory synapses in hippocampal neurons and allows for late-phase long-term synaptic potentiation (L-LTP) at Schaffer collateral synapses in the hippocampus. We also find that Nedd4-2 is required for multiple forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Read More

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Tumor elastography and its association with cell-free tumor DNA in the plasma of breast tumor patients: a pilot study.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Aug;11(8):3518-3534

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Viral Oncology, Center for Clinical Research and Innovation (CCRI), Shenzhen Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Breast tumor stiffness, which can be objectively and noninvasively evaluated by ultrasound elastography (UE), has been useful for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions and the prediction of clinical outcomes. Liquid biopsy analyses, including cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA), exhibit great potential for personalized treatment. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between the UE and ctDNA for early breast cancer diagnosis. Read More

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Knockout of FER decreases cadmium concentration in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting the pathway related to iron uptake.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 28;798:149285. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Identifying the genes that affect cadmium (Cd) accumulation in plants is a prerequisite for minimizing dietary Cd uptake from contaminated edible parts of plants by genetic engineering. This study showed that Cd stress inhibited the expression of FERONIA (FER) gene in the roots of wild-type Arabidopsis. Knockout of FER in fer-4 mutants downregulated the Cd-induced expression of several genes related to iron (Fe) uptake, including IRT1, bHLH38, NRAMP1, NRAMP3, FRO2 andFIT. Read More

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Adenosine A receptor down-regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in astrocytes during postnatal development.

Glia 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Neuropharmacology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan.

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in astrocytes is a key molecule for controlling synapse remodeling. Although mGluR5 is abundant in neonatal astrocytes, its level is gradually down-regulated during development and is almost absent in the adult. However, in several pathological conditions, mGluR5 re-emerges in adult astrocytes and contributes to disease pathogenesis by forming uncontrolled synapses. Read More

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OsaR (PA0056) functions as a repressor of the gene encoding an important motility regulator in .

J Bacteriol 2021 Aug 2:JB0014521. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

The Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

FleQ plays a crucial role in motility and biofilm formation by regulating flagellar and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in . It has been reported that the expression of FleQ is transcriptionally downregulated by the virulence factor regulator Vfr. Herein we demonstrated that a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, OsaR, is also capable of binding to the promoter region of and repressing its transcription. Read More

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Transcript pattern analysis of Arf-family genes in the phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici reveals the role of Arl3 in the virulence.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Laboratorio de Diferenciación Celular, Instituto de Investigaciones Químico Biológicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, 58038, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is an important plant pathogen that has been used to understand the virulence mechanisms that soil inhabiting fungi exhibit during the infection process. Read More

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ELAC2/RNaseZ linked cardiac hypertrophy in Drosophila melanogaster.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University, Bronx, NY, 10458, USA.

A severe form of infantile cardiomyopathy (CM) has been linked to ELAC2 gene mutations. ELAC2 is a highly conserved human gene. It encodes RNaseZL endoribonuclease that plays an essential role in the production of mature tRNAs. Read More

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Overexpression of ABCG2 Confers Resistance to MLN7243, a Ubiquitin-Activating Enzyme (UAE) Inhibitor.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 14;9:697927. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University, Queens, NY, United States.

Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), is known as a major mechanism mediating multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. MLN7243 is a small-molecule ubiquitin activating enzyme inhibitor currently under clinical investigation. The aim of the current study is to determine if MLN7243 is a substrate of MDR-related ABCG2 transporter. Read More

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Knockout Gene-Based Evidence for PIWI-Interacting RNA Pathway in Mammals.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 14;9:681188. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway mainly consists of evolutionarily conserved protein factors. Intriguingly, many mutations of piRNA pathway factors lead to meiotic arrest during spermatogenesis. The majority of piRNA factor-knockout animals show arrested meiosis in spermatogenesis, and only a few show post-meiosis male germ cell arrest. Read More

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Ablation of lncRNA attenuates pathological hypertrophy and heart failure.

Theranostics 2021 6;11(16):7995-8007. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Molecular Cardiology Program, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Medicine and School of Engineering, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

The conserved long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) myocardial infarction associate transcript () was identified for its multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are strongly associated with susceptibility to MI, but its role in cardiovascular biology remains elusive. Here we investigated whether regulates cardiac response to pathological hypertrophic stimuli. Both an angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion model and a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model were used in adult WT and -null knockout (-KO) mice to induce pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Read More

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A Temporal Activity of CA1 Neurons Underlying Short-Term Memory for Social Recognition Altered in PTEN Mouse Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 15;15:699315. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, and Laboratory of Learning and Memory, and KIZ-SU Joint Laboratory of Animal Model and Drug Development, Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Memory-guided social recognition identifies someone from previous encounters or experiences, but the mechanisms of social memory remain unclear. Here, we find that a short-term memory from experiencing a stranger mouse lasting under 30 min interval is essential for subsequent social recognition in mice, but that interval prolonged to hours by replacing the stranger mouse with a familiar littermate. Optogenetic silencing of dorsal CA1 neuronal activity during trials or inter-trial intervals disrupted short-term memory-guided social recognition, without affecting the ability of being sociable or long-term memory-guided social recognition. Read More

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The Light-Inducible Genes Per2, Cry1a, and Cry2a Regulate Oxidative Status in Zebrafish.

Biol Pharm Bull 2021 ;44(8):1160-1165

Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU).

The circadian clock is a highly conserved 24 h biological oscillation mechanism and is affected by environmental stimuli such as light, food and temperature. Disruption of the circadian clock results in disorders of diverse biological processes, including the sleep-wake cycle and metabolism. Although we previously identified several components of the circadian clock in zebrafish, our understanding of the relationship between light-inducible clock genes and metabolism remains incomplete. Read More

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January 2021

Mutations in a β-group of solute carrier gene are responsible for egg and eye coloration of the brown egg 4 (b-4) mutant in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jul 29:103624. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. Electronic address:

The brown egg 4 (b-4) is a recessive mutant in the silkworm (Bombyx mori), whose egg and adult compound eyes exhibit a reddish-brown color instead of normal purple and black, respectively. By double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) analysis, we narrowed down a region linked to the b-4 phenotype to approximately 1.1 Mb that contains 69 predicted gene models. Read More

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Loss-of-function mutations in BCOR contribute to chemotherapy resistance in acute myeloid leukemia.

Exp Hematol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo; Department of Cell Therapy and Transplantation Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital. Electronic address:

Primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is unresponsive to conventional chemotherapy and has a poor prognosis. Despite the recent identification of novel driver mutations and advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, little is known about the relationship between genetic abnormalities and chemoresistance in AML. In this study, we subjected 39 samples from primary refractory AML patients to whole-exome and targeted sequencing analyses to identify somatic mutations contributing to chemoresistance in AML. Read More

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Nrf2 for cardiac protection: pharmacological options against oxidative stress.

Qin M Chen

Trends Pharmacol Sci 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Electronic address:

Myocardial ischemia or reperfusion increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from damaged mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, xanthine oxidase, and inflammation. ROS can be removed by eight endogenous antioxidant and redox systems, many components of which are expressed under the influence of the activated Nrf2 transcription factor. Transcriptomic profiling, sequencing of Nrf2-bound DNA, and Nrf2 gene knockout studies have revealed the power of Nrf2 beyond the antioxidant and detoxification response, from tissue recovery, repair, and remodeling, mitochondrial turnover, and metabolic reprogramming to the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines. Read More

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Loss of Foxc1 and Foxc2 function in chondroprogenitor cells disrupts endochondral ossification.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 28:101020. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Medical Genetics, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB Canada; Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Endochondral ossification initiates the growth of the majority of the mammalian skeleton and is tightly controlled through gene regulatory networks. The forkhead box transcription factors Foxc1 and Foxc2 have been demonstrated to regulate aspects of osteoblast function in the formation of the skeleton but their roles in chondrocytes to control endochondral ossification are less clear. Here we demonstrate that Foxc1 expression is directly regulated by the activity of SOX9, one of the earliest transcription factors to specify the chondrocyte lineage. Read More

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Blockade of CHRNB2 signaling with a therapeutic monoclonal antibody attenuates the aggressiveness of gastric cancer cells.

Oncogene 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of antibodies (Abs) targeting cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 2 subunit (CHRNB2) in gastric cancer. To investigate the effects of these Abs on malignant phenotypes in vitro and in mouse xenograft models, we generated gene knockouts through genome editing, performed RNA interference-mediated knockdown of gene expression, and ectopically expressed CHRNB2 in gastric cancer cells. The effects of anti-CHRNB2 Abs on the proliferation of cancer cells were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Exites in Cambrian arthropods and homology of arthropod limb branches.

Nat Commun 2021 07 30;12(1):4619. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Yunnan Key Laboratory for Palaeobiology, Institute of Palaeontology, Yunnan University, Kunming, China.

The last common ancestor of all living arthropods had biramous postantennal appendages, with an endopodite and exopodite branching off the limb base. Morphological evidence for homology of these rami between crustaceans and chelicerates has, however, been challenged by data from clonal composition and from knockout of leg patterning genes. Cambrian arthropod fossils have been cited as providing support for competing hypotheses about biramy but have shed little light on additional lateral outgrowths, known as exites. Read More

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Enhancement of Mast Cell Degranulation Mediated by Purinergic Receptors' Activation and PI3K Type δ.

J Immunol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

Mast cells express multiple metabotropic purinergic P2Y receptor (P2YR) subtypes. Few studies have evaluated their role in human mast cell (HMC) allergic response as quantified by degranulation induced by cross-linking the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI). We have previously shown that extracellular nucleotides modify the FcεRI activation-dependent degranulation in HMCs derived from human lungs, but the mechanism of this action has not been fully delineated. Read More

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Selective progesterone receptor blockade prevents BRCA1-associated mouse mammary tumors through modulation of epithelial and stromal genes.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Pharmacological approaches to breast cancer risk-reduction for BRCA1 mutation carriers would provide an alternative to mastectomy. BRCA1-deficiency dysregulates progesterone signaling, promoting tumorigenesis. Selective progesterone receptor (PR) modulators (SPRMs) are therefore candidate prevention agents. Read More

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Identification of a rice metallochaperone for cadmium tolerance by an epigenetic mechanism and potential use for clean up in wetland.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 22;288:117837. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that initiates diverse chronic diseases through food chains. Developing a biotechnology for manipulating Cd uptake in plants is beneficial to reduce environmental and health risks. Here, we identified a novel epigenetic mechanism underlying Cd accumulation regulated by an uncharacterized metallochaperone namely Heavy Metal Responsive Protein (HMP) in rice plants. Read More

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FIP200 restricts RNA virus infection by facilitating RIG-I activation.

Commun Biol 2021 Jul 29;4(1):921. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) senses viral RNA and instigates an innate immune signaling cascade to induce type I interferon expression. Currently, the regulatory mechanisms controlling RIG-I activation remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that the FAK family kinase-interacting protein of 200 kDa (FIP200) facilitates RIG-I activation. Read More

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Myeloid-IL4Rα is an indispensable link in IL-33-ILCs-IL-13-IL4Rα axis of eosinophil recruitment in murine lungs.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15465. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, 1909 Skip Bertman Drive, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA.

Increased eosinophil recruitment is a hallmark feature of eosinophilic disorders. Here, we delineated the key molecular and cellular players involved in physiological eosinophilic recruitment during normal postnatal lung development in mice. Physiological eosinophilic recruitment was consistently present in 7-, 10-, and 15-day-old neonatal mice, but not in 42-day-old mice. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic screen of SCNT-reprogramming resistant genes identifies critical genes for male germ cell development in mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15438. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Bioresource Engineering Division, Bioresource Research Center, RIKEN, 3-1-1 Koyadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0074, Japan.

Male germ cells undergo complex developmental processes eventually producing spermatozoa through spermatogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. We have previously identified somatic cell nuclear transfer-reprogramming resistant genes (SRRGs) that are highly enriched for genes essential for spermatogenesis, although many of them remain uncharacterized in knockout (KO) mice. Here, we performed a CRISPR-based genetic screen using C57BL/6N mice for five uncharacterized SRRGs (Cox8c, Cox7b2, Tuba3a/3b, Faiml, and Gm773), together with meiosis essential gene Majin as a control. Read More

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The requirement of mitochondrial RNA polymerase for non-small cell lung cancer cell growth.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 29;12(8):751. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

POLRMT (RNA polymerase mitochondrial) is responsible for the transcription of mitochondrial genome encoding key components of oxidative phosphorylation. This process is important for cancer cell growth. The current study tested expression and potential functions of POLRMT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Read More

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