Neuroimage Clin 2021 Sep 3;32:102811. Epub 2021 Sep 3.
Institute of Medical Science, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Margaret and Wallace McCain Centre for Child, Youth & Family Mental Health and Azrieli Adult Neurodevelopmental Centre, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Neurosciences & Mental Health Program, SickKids Research Institute, Toronto, Canada; Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
Our current understanding of autism is largely based on clinical experiences and research involving male individuals given the male-predominance in prevalence and the under-inclusion of female individuals due to small samples, co-occurring conditions, or simply being missed for diagnosis. There is a significantly biased 'male lens' in this field with autistic females insufficiently understood. We therefore conducted a systematic review to examine how sex and gender modulate brain structure and function in autistic individuals. Read More