4,235 results match your criteria gender-based

A Population Based Study of Liver Function amongst Adults with Hyperuricemia and Gout in the United States.

Diseases 2021 Sep 17;9(3). Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Clinical and Administrative Sciences, Roosevelt University College of Science, Health and Pharmacy, Schaumburg, IL 60173, USA.

To examine the association between uric acid levels and liver enzyme functions amongst adults with hyperuricemia and gout in the United States. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2007 to 2016 was used to study the research objective. Data were analyzed for descriptive statistics and for differences using the t test, Chi-square test and ANOVA. Read More

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September 2021

Gender differences in prevalence and clinical correlates of anxiety symptoms in first-episode and drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder.

Compr Psychiatry 2021 Sep 17;111:152275. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Aim: Gender differences in major depressive disorder (MDD) are commonly reported; however, gender differences in first-episode and drug-naïve (FEDN) patients with major depressive disorder remain unclear. This study aimed to examine potential gender differences in the prevalence and clinical correlates of comorbid anxiety in FEDN patients with MDD.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with1718 FEDN patients with MDD. Read More

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September 2021

Disparities in Physician Compensation by Gender in Ontario, Canada.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2126107. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Ontario Medical Association, Toronto, Canada.

Importance: Men and women should earn equal pay for equal work. An examination of the magnitude of pay disparities could inform strategies for remediation.

Objective: To examine gender-based differences in pay within a large, comprehensive physician population practicing within a variety of payment systems. Read More

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September 2021

Working Against Gender-Based Violence in the American South: An Analysis of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality in Advocacy.

Qual Health Res 2021 Sep 18:10497323211041327. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.

Non-profit organizations that address gender-based violence must create diverse, inclusive, and equitable workplaces for advocates so that they can adequately serve diverse survivors. Despite recent efforts, differential treatment and high turnover among minority advocates continue. Further strategies to eliminate discriminative organizational practices are needed. Read More

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September 2021

Opiate prescribing patterns in the adolescent population following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

J Opioid Manag 2021 Jul-Aug;17(4):321-325

Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Objective: We sought to determine prescribing patterns for opioid analgesia following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction among age- and gender-stratified adolescents in a nationally representative database.

Design: A retrospective study.

Setting: PearlDiver Patient Records. Read More

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September 2021

Preventing Gender-Based Homelessness in Canada During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond: The Need to Account for Violence Against Women.

Violence Against Women 2021 Sep 17:10778012211034202. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Women's Shelters Canada, Ottawa, Canada.

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to increases in intimate partner violence (IPV), a leading cause of women's homelessness. Although the Canadian Government provided emergency funding to the violence against women and housing and homelessness sectors in response to COVID-19, Canada lacks a national legislative and funding framework to support coordinated prevention efforts. We review the context of IPV and homelessness among women and international policy exemplars. Read More

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September 2021

"We are Forgotten": Forced Migration, Sexual and Gender-Based Violence, and Coronavirus Disease-2019.

Violence Against Women 2021 Sep 17:10778012211030943. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Baobab Women's Project, Birmingham, UK.

Adopting a structural violence approach, this article explores, with survivors and practitioners, how early coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic conditions affected forced migrant sexual and gender-based violence survivors' lives. Introducing a new analytical framework combining violent abandonment, slow violence, and violent uncertainty, we show how interacting forms of structural violence exacerbated by pandemic conditions intensified existing inequalities. Abandonment of survivors by the state increased precarity, making everyday survival more difficult, and intensified prepandemic slow violence, while increased uncertainty heightened survivors' psychological distress. Read More

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September 2021

Health and Health Care of Sexual and Gender Minorities.

J Health Soc Behav 2021 Sep;62(3):318-333

Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Research on the social dimensions of health and health care among sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) has grown rapidly in the last two decades. However, a comprehensive review of the extant interdisciplinary scholarship on SGM health has yet to be written. In response, we offer a synthesis of recent scholarship. Read More

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September 2021

Update: Gender differences in CABG outcomes-Have we bridged the gap?

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0255170. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Background: Appreciation of unique presentation, patterns and underlying pathophysiology of coronary artery disease in women has driven gender based risk stratification and risk reduction efforts over the last decade. Data regarding whether these advances have resulted in unequivocal improvements in outcomes of CABG in women is conflicting. The objective of our study was to assess gender differences in post-operative outcomes following CABG. Read More

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September 2021

Client-perpetrated gender-based violence among female sex workers in conflict-affected Northern Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 13;11(9):e046894. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Study Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of client-perpetrated gender-based violence among female sex workers in conflict-affected Northern Uganda.

Design And Settings: We conducted a cross-sectional study among female sex workers in Gulu district in conflict-affected Northern Uganda.

Participants: The study participants included 300 female sex workers aged 18+ years. Read More

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September 2021

Gendered Attributions of Blame and Failure to Protect in Child Welfare Responses to Sexual Abuse: A Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis.

Corry Azzopardi

Violence Against Women 2021 Sep 13:10778012211024263. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect Program, Division of Paediatric Medicine, 7979The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Gender-based relations of power and attributions of blame for child sexual abuse have been longstanding in child welfare policy and practice. Nonoffending mothers continue to be ascribed responsibility through the ideologically and institutionally entrenched doctrine of failure to protect. Feminist critical discourse analysis was used to (a) expose and disrupt dominant discourses of gender, motherhood, and risk that operate to construct and reinforce notions of blame and failure to protect, as enacted by way of child welfare text in context; and (b) build a credible case for social and organizational change grounded in an alternative discourse with greater explanatory power. Read More

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September 2021

Use of different strategies to make one's bisexual+ identity visible: Associations with dimensions of identity, minority stress, and health.

Stigma Health 2021 May 19;6(2):184-191. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University.

Bisexual+ people (i.e., those who are attracted to more than one gender or regardless of gender) use a variety of strategies to make their identity visible to others, but little is known about the extent to which using different strategies is related to other dimensions of identity, minority stress, and health. Read More

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Sex as Boys' Fame, But Girls' Shame: Adversarial Adolescent Gender Roles and Gender-based Violence in Guyana.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Sep 11:8862605211043585. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Western University, ON, Canada.

Gender-based violence (GBV) is a significant issue for youth in Guyana, particularly among young women. Yet, discussions about sex, dating, and violence rarely occur at the community level. To understand the heightened risk for GBV with youth in Guyana, we utilized a critical qualitative design to explore adolescent dating violence with adolescents (14-16 years old), parents, and school officials in a public secondary school in Guyana. Read More

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September 2021

Gender-based differences in community-wide screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: an observational study of 311 732 individuals undergoing screening.

Thorax 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

We describe gender-based differences in a community-wide TB screening programme in Karachi, Pakistan, in which 311 732 individuals were screened in mobile camps using symptom questionnaires and van-mounted digital chest X-ray, between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2019. Only 22.4% (69 869) of camp attendees were women. Read More

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September 2021

Sex/gender differences in the human autistic brains: A systematic review of 20 years of neuroimaging research.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Sep 3;32:102811. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Institute of Medical Science, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Margaret and Wallace McCain Centre for Child, Youth & Family Mental Health and Azrieli Adult Neurodevelopmental Centre, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Neurosciences & Mental Health Program, SickKids Research Institute, Toronto, Canada; Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Our current understanding of autism is largely based on clinical experiences and research involving male individuals given the male-predominance in prevalence and the under-inclusion of female individuals due to small samples, co-occurring conditions, or simply being missed for diagnosis. There is a significantly biased 'male lens' in this field with autistic females insufficiently understood. We therefore conducted a systematic review to examine how sex and gender modulate brain structure and function in autistic individuals. Read More

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September 2021

A scoping review of the determinants of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in South Africa: an intersectional perspective.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535, Cape Town, Republic of South Africa.

Foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) affects babies born to mothers who consume alcohol while pregnant. South Africa has the highest prevalence of FASD in the world. We review the social determinants underpinning FASD in South Africa and add critical insight from an intersectional feminist perspective. Read More

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September 2021

When "Stay at Home" Can Be Dangerous: Data on Domestic Violence in Italy during COVID-19 Lockdown.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 25;18(17). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

The global pandemic caused by a new strain of Coronavirus has brought the Italian government to adopt quarantine, isolation, and lockdown strategies as restrictive measures to reduce the virus spread. Being forced to stay at home could significantly increase the likelihood of episodes of home-based violence and could also be accompanied by a limited possibility of complaints or defense by the victim. The present study aimed to document, through the use of newspaper articles, the characteristics of domestic violence during the lockdown period related to COVID-19 in Italy (from 9 March 2020 up to 18 May 2020) and compare the results with the same period in 2019. Read More

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Challenges Faced by Lady Surgeons during Professional Progress in Pakistan.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Sep;31(9):1123-1125

Department of Physical Therapy, Riphah College of Rehabilitation and Allied Health Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the professional challenges faced by lady surgeons in Pakistan. This qualitative exploratory phenomenological study was conducted from April 2019 to June 2019. Four lady surgeons participated in in-depth interviews, based on four questions: challenges during training; perceptions of gender-based professional treatment; perceptions of relationships with peers; and perception of gender on the quality of training. Read More

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September 2021

Bioinformatics and Immune Infiltration Analyses Reveal the Key Pathway and Immune Cells in the Pathogenesis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 23;8:696321. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

This study was designed to identify the key pathway and immune cells for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) via bioinformatics analyses of public datasets and evaluate the significance of immune infiltration in the pathogenesis of HCM. Expressional profiling from two public datasets (GSE36961 and GSE141910) of human HCM and healthy control cardiac tissues was obtained from the GEO database. After data preprocessing, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were then screened between HCM and healthy control cardiac tissues in parallel. Read More

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Measuring gender-based violence risk mitigation in humanitarian settings: results from a comprehensive desk review and systematic mapping.

BMJ Open 2021 09 8;11(9):e050887. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard University T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: To systematically document measurement approaches used in the monitoring and evaluation of gender-based violence (GBV) risk mitigation activities, categorise the types of available literature produced by sector, identify existing tools and measures and identify knowledge gaps within the humanitarian sector.

Design: Systematic mapping and in-depth review.

Data Sources: Pubmed, Global Health, PsychInfo, ReliefWeb, OpenGrey (grey literature), Google Scholar, Web of Science (Social Science Index)Eligibility criteria: a structured search strategy was systematically applied to 17 databases as well as registers, websites and other resources to identify materials published between 1 January 2005 and 15 May 2019. Read More

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September 2021

"Validation of a cyberbullying questionnaire as a screening tool for other forms of intimate-partner violence towards young women".

BMC Public Health 2021 09 8;21(1):1639. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Epidemiology Area, General Subdirectorate of Epidemiology, General Directorate of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Community of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The use of electronic media is widespread among young people and is a potential tool for the perpetration of intimate-partner violence (IPV) towards women. The aim of this study is to validate two questions focused on harassment and control by electronic tools (HCE-2) as a screening tool for the detection of IPV in young women.

Methods: The data source was the third Community of Madrid IPV survey in 2014. Read More

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September 2021

Women's understanding of economic abuse in North-Western Tanzania.

Womens Health (Lond) 2021 Jan-Dec;17:17455065211042180

Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München, Germany.

Introduction: Economic abuse is a form of intimate partner violence that still lacks a clear conceptualization and therefore is often overlooked next to physical, sexual and psychological abuse. While existing categorizations recognize economic intimate partner violence as economic control, economic exploitation and employment sabotage, current measurements of economic abuse rarely capture all its forms, and the issue has not been widely explored in low- and middle-income country settings.

Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 18 women in Mwanza, Tanzania to understand local perceptions and experiences of economic intimate partner violence. Read More

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September 2021

The End of Compulsory Gender Verification: Is It Progress for Inclusion of Women in Sports?

Arch Sex Behav 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación y del Deporte, University of Vigo, Vigo, Spain.

Recently, the so-called Semenya case has brought the problem of gender in sports competitions back into the spotlight. But the fact is that it is not a unique case; rather, it seems a recurrent and inconclusive problem in the history of sports. In this context, the Spanish athlete Martínez-Patiño is an important figure in the history of sport and gender verification, as well as the Indian sprinter Dutee Chand. Read More

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September 2021

Early marriage and teenage pregnancy: The unspoken consequences of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria.

Public Health Pract (Oxf) 2021 Nov 18;2:100152. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Early marriage and its sad consequences to the girl child and socio-economic development of the nation has been an age-long issue being advocated against in many parts of Nigeria. At the onset of COVID-19, the teeming efforts to curb this issue almost got jeopardized with harsh economic situations in many households due to the lockdown and the willingness to marry off their girls to reduce this burden. Closure of schools and cases of sexual gender based violence also impacted the prevalence of early marriage during the pandemic in Nigeria. Read More

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November 2021

Association between gender-based discrimination and medical visits and HIV testing in a large sample of transgender women in northeast Brazil.

Int J Equity Health 2021 Sep 6;20(1):199. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Collective Health Institute, Federal University of Bahia. Av. Basílio da Gama, s/nCampus Universitário do Canela, Salvador, Bahia, 40110-040, Brazil.

Background: Gender-based discrimination remains a substantial barrier to health care access and HIV prevention among transgender women in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gender-based discrimination and medical visits, as well as with HIV testing among transgender women in the last 12 months in northeast Brazil.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 864 transgender women recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling in three cities in northeastern Brazil in 2016. Read More

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September 2021

Existence of Gender-Based Difference in Morphology of Convex Lateral Tibial Plateau in Korean Population Primary Knee Joint Osteoarthritis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 25;2021:6641717. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Morphological differences in the knee joints of females and males have been reported in a previous study. These differences have realized the need of developing a gender-specific prosthesis. However, anatomical studies on gender-based differences in the proximal tibial plateau's sagittal curvature have rarely been conducted. Read More

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Immunity, Sex Hormones, and Environmental Factors as Determinants of COVID-19 Disparity in Women.

Front Immunol 2021;12:680845. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Biology Department, College of Science and Institute of Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in a major global pandemic, causing extreme morbidity and mortality. Few studies appear to suggest a significant impact of gender in morbidity and mortality, where men are reported at a higher risk than women. The infectivity, transmissibility, and varying degree of disease manifestation (mild, modest, and severe) in population studies reinforce the importance of a number of genetic and epigenetic factors, in the context of immune response and gender. Read More

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September 2021

Gender-Based Performance in Mathematical Facts and Calculations in Two Elementary School Samples From Chile and Spain: An Exploratory Study.

Front Psychol 2021 17;12:703580. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Departamento de Psicología, Universidad Loyola Andalucía, Sevilla, Spain.

Gender differences in mathematical performance are not conclusive according to the scientific literature, although such differences are supported by international studies such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). According to TIMSS 2019, fourth-grade male students outperformed female students in Spanish-speaking countries, among others. This work approaches the study on gender difference by examining the basic calculation skills needed to handle more complex problems. Read More

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[Unipolar depression: a gender-based comparative analysis].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(8):13-18

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Objective: To compare socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in men and women with depression.

Material And Methods: We studied 388 patients with unipolar depression, 74 men and 314 women. The survey was carried out using the clinical-psychopathological method and psychometric scales for depression. Read More

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September 2021