226,461 results match your criteria gender differences


Abnormal functional connectivity within the prefrontal cortex in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS): A pilot study using resting state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS).

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Rehabilitation, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To investigate the abnormalities of functional connectivity (FC) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) based on resting state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS) data using FC matrix analysis.

Materials And Methods: Ten patients with IC/BPS (females, 9; mean age, 56.9 ± 12. Read More

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The role of sexual dimorphism in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease severity, and mortality: facts, controversies and future perspectives.

Microbes Infect 2021 Jun 12:104850. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Diabetes Center, First Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

Former studies have revealed intersex variability in immune response to infectious diseases, including Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological surveillance of the ongoing pandemic has demonstrated a male vulnerability to morbidity and mortality, despite similar infection rates between the two sexes. Divergence in the frequency of comorbidities between males and females, differences in hormonal profile, chromosomal composition and gender behavior have all been proposed as potential causative factors. Read More

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Jurors' Gender and Their Fear of False Child Sexual Abuse Accusations Are Related to Their Belief in Child Victims' Allegations.

J Child Sex Abus 2021 Jun 15:1-19. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

We developed the first Fear of False Accusations scale, measuring the public's fear of personally being the target of untrue child sexual abuse allegations despite no actual wrongdoing as well as the fear of false allegations being a common problem in society. The scale was statistically reliable within a diverse sample of 964 participants. Several months later, in an ostensibly unrelated mock trial experiment, a subset of the participants assumed the role of mock juror and considered a criminal case involving an accusation of child sexual abuse. Read More

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Comparison of injectable filler locations in men and women: An age-matched case analysis.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laser & Skin Surgery Center of New York, New York, NY, USA.

In recent years, the popularity of fillers has risen significantly. Traditionally, women have undergone the vast majority of cosmetic procedures, but men have steadily shown increasing interest. Recently, significant research has been dedicated to understanding the anatomic differences between male and female facial structures and their clinical aesthetic implications, especially for filler placement. Read More

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Prevalence of Facial Pain and Headache in Sweden.

J Oral Facial Pain Headache 2021 Spring;35(2):139-149

Aims: To compare the prevalence of facial pain and headache across various regions in Sweden.

Methods: This study involved a comparison of cross-sectional questionnaire studies over a period of 10 years including 128,193 individuals and assessed facial pain, pain on function, and headache. Participants included (1) all Public Dental Service patients aged 16 to 90 years in Västerbotten (n = 57,283) and Gävleborg (n = 60,900); and (2) random samples of residents in Kalmar (n = 3,560) and Skåne (n = 6,450). Read More

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Do working conditions contribute differently to gender gaps in self-rated health within different occupational classes? Evidence from the Swedish Level of Living Survey.

Authors:
Sara Kjellsson

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253119. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Socioeconomic inequality in health among women is often referred to as smaller than health inequality among men. However, we know less about differences in health between men and women within the same socioeconomic groups. In this article the lack of attention to potential socioeconomic variation in gender health inequality is argued as unfortunate, as it can obscure how mechanisms, such as e. Read More

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Pyronaridine-artesunate real-world safety, tolerability, and effectiveness in malaria patients in 5 African countries: A single-arm, open-label, cohort event monitoring study.

PLoS Med 2021 Jun 15;18(6):e1003669. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon.

Background: In Phase II/III randomized controlled clinical trials for the treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria, pyronaridine-artesunate demonstrated high efficacy and a safety profile consistent with that of comparators, except that asymptomatic, mainly mild-to-moderate transient increases in liver aminotransferases were reported for some patients. Hepatic safety, tolerability, and effectiveness have not been previously assessed under real-world conditions in Africa.

Methods And Findings: This single-arm, open-label, cohort event monitoring study was conducted at 6 health centers in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ivory Coast, and Republic of Congo between June 2017 and April 2019. Read More

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The associations between smart device use and psychological distress among secondary and high school students in Kuwait.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0251479. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Physical Education, College of Basic Education, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Kuwait.

Background: Smart devices (SDs) are widely used among adolescents. Numerous studies have recommended further research on this topic to find out the prevalence of SD overuse among school students and to what extent this is associated with psychological distress. The present study aimed to investigate the pattern of SD use among secondary and high school students in the state of Kuwait, as well as the possible associations with psychological problems, weight, physical activity, and school performance. Read More

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Gender Differences in the Presentation and Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19.

J Hosp Med 2021 Jun;16(6):349-352

Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Gender-related differences in COVID-19 clinical presentation, disease progression, and mortality have not been adequately explored. We analyzed the clinical profile, presentation, treatments, and outcomes of patients according to gender in the HOPE-COVID-19 International Registry. Among 2,798 enrolled patients, 1,111 were women (39. Read More

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The Validity of Neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio as A Predictive Factor for Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome after Flexible Ureteroscopy Lithotripsy.

Urol J 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Urology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, China 74#Linjiang Road, Chongqing, CN 400010.

Purpose: To explore the risk factors and predictive factors of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) for upper urinary tract stones.

Materials And Methods: Patients experienced fURS from January 2014 to September 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, which were divided into the SIRS group and non-SIRS group. Clinical data of all patients, including gender, age, American society of anesthesia score, diabetes, etc. Read More

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Incidence of Complications from Percutaneous Biopsy in Chronic Liver Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Global Liver Institute, Washington, USA.

Background: Approaches to liver biopsy have changed over the past decade in patients with chronic liver disease.

Aims: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the incidence of all complications and technical failure associated with percutaneous liver biopsy.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for cohort studies reporting on complications resulting from liver biopsy published between 2010 and 2020. Read More

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Peer-to-Peer Support and Changes in Health and Well-being in Older Adults Over Time.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2112441. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Medicine and Population Health, University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School, Austin.

Importance: Literature on peer-to-peer (P2P) programs suggests they improve health and well-being of older adults. Analysis from a previous study showed P2P to be associated with higher rates of hospitalization and no significant differences in rates of emergency department or urgent care visits; however, it is not known whether measures of health and well-being varied by group over time.

Objective: To compare the association between receiving P2P support and secondary outcomes (ie, health status, quality of life, and depressive and anxiety symptoms) with receiving standard community services (SCS) over time. Read More

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What Is the Risk of Intraoperative Cerebral Oxygen Desaturation in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Surgery in the Beach Chair Position?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Previous studies have shown that intraoperative cerebral desaturation in patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the beach chair position varies widely, from 0% to 80%. To our knowledge, the risk of intraoperative cerebral desaturation is not known after all identified intraoperative modifiable physiologic parameters that influence cerebral blood flow have been controlled for.

Questions/purposes: (1) What is the risk of intraoperative cerebral desaturation during shoulder surgery with the patient in the beach chair position when patients received combined general anesthesia and an interscalene block, and what other factors associated with intraoperative cerebral desaturation can be identified? (2) Is intraoperative cerebral desaturation associated with 24-hour cognitive decline? (3) What factors are associated with intraoperative hypotension?

Methods: Between April and December 2020, 51 patients underwent elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position at one center. Read More

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A Vignette Study Analyzing Contextual Factors that Influence Emerging Adults' Definitions of Virginity Loss in German-Speaking Countries.

J Sex Res 2021 Jun 15:1-15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Gender Medicine Unit, Medical University of Innsbruck.

Past research on virginity loss definitions revealed that emerging adults' definitions of virginity loss are associated with emerging adults' own sociodemographic characteristics. However, previous research has not systematically studied whether emerging adults applied different criteria for virginity loss depending on the context of the judged behavior. The current study used vignettes to explore which contextual factors of an intimate partnered behavior influence emerging adults' definition of virginity loss. Read More

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Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Adrenal Insufficiency and Fever.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Jun 14;36(23):e152. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Because persistent fever often occurs in adrenal insufficiency, it might be confused with infectious diseases. This study aimed to identify clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with adrenal insufficiency and fever.

Methods: All adult patients (n = 150) admitted to a tertiary care hospital in South Korea and diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency between 1 March 2018, and 30 June 2019, were recruited. Read More

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Normal fetal development of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine: a post-mortem study based on magnetic resonance imaging.

Prenat Diagn 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Shandong Provincial Hospital Affliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong, 250021, China.

Objective: Before evaluating spinal pathology, it is essential to have knowledge of the normal spinal development at different gestational ages. This study aims to characterize normal spinal growth in human fetuses during the second and third trimester.

Methods: Postmortem 3. Read More

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Global data analysis supports smoking as the fundamental element associated with geographic gender disparities in hidradenitis suppurativa.

Br J Dermatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), or acne inversa, is a painful and recurrent inflammatory cutaneous disorder involving the terminal hair follicles of intertriginous and gluteal areas. Epidemiological studies have revealed geographic differences regarding the demographic and clinical characteristics of HS. The gender distribution of HS patients is diverse among different countries. Read More

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Comparing power hitting kinematics between skilled male and female cricket batters.

J Sports Sci 2021 Jun 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.

Organismic, task, and environmental constraints are known to differ between skilled male and female cricket batters during power hitting tasks. Despite these influences, the techniques used in such tasks have only been investigated in male cricket batters. This study compared power hitting kinematics between 15 male and 15 female batters ranging from university to international standard. Read More

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EMS Program Graduates Who Did Not Retest After Initial Attempt on The National Certification Exam.

Prehosp Emerg Care 2021 Jun 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians, Columbus, Ohio.

Becoming an EMS professional in most of the United States requires successful completion of the National Certification process. While multiple attempts are allowed, some candidates who are unsuccessful on their first cognitive examination attempt do not return despite personal investment. We describe the demographic and testing characteristics of EMT and paramedic candidates that do not return for a second examination attempt after an initial unsuccessful attempt on the National EMS Certification Cognitive Examination. Read More

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Post-Run T Mapping Changes in Knees of Adolescent Basketball Players.

Cartilage 2021 Jun 15:19476035211021891. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yitzhak Shamir Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objective: While articular cartilage defects are common incidental findings among adult athletes, the effect of running on the cartilage of adolescent athletes have rarely been assessed. This study aims to assess the variations in the articular cartilage of the knees in healthy adolescent basketball players using quantitative T MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).

Design: Fifteen adolescent basketball players were recruited (13. Read More

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Prehospital Variables Alone Can Predict Mortality After Blunt Trauma: A Novel Scoring Tool.

Am Surg 2021 Jun 15:31348211024192. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, USA.

Background: We sought to develop a novel Prehospital Injury Mortality Score (PIMS) to predict blunt trauma mortality using only prehospital variables.

Study Design: The 2017 Trauma Quality Improvement Program database was queried and divided into two equal sized sets at random (derivation and validation sets). Multiple logistic regression models were created to determine the risk of mortality using age, sex, mechanism, and trauma activation criterion. Read More

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Association of rotating shift work schedules and the use of prescribed sleep medication: A prospective cohort study.

J Sleep Res 2021 Jun 14:e13349. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

We examined whether working rotating shifts, with or without night work, is associated with the purchase of prescribed sleep medication, and whether the association is dependent on age. Data were obtained from a longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work schedule and background characteristics in 2000, 2004 and 2008. The data were linked to national register data on redeemed prescriptions of hypnotic and sedative medications, with up to 11 years of follow-up. Read More

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Consensual Non-Monogamy Among Kink-Identified Adults: Characteristics, Relationship Experiences, and Unique Motivations for Polyamory and Open Relationships.

Arch Sex Behav 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Human Development and Women's Studies, California State University, East Bay, Hayward, CA, USA.

People who engage in both kink and consensual non-monogamy (CNM) have received little attention in research. The present article reports on the characteristics, relationship experiences, and unique motivations for engaging in CNM of kinky and consensually non-monogamous individuals using data from two U.S. Read More

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Online learning during school closure due to COVID-19.

Jpn Econ Rev (Oxf) 2021 Jun 10:1-37. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Graduate School of Economics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

This paper estimates the effects of school closure on students' study time and the number of messages sent from teachers to students using an online learning service. We find that both study time and message numbers increased significantly from the beginning of the school closure but they returned to pre-COVID-19 levels when the state of emergency ended in late May 2020. In addition, we find that students with prior access to the online learning service at home and students at higher-quality schools increased their study time more than other students. Read More

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The relationship between medical students' empathy and burnout levels by gender and study years.

Patient Educ Couns 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Medical Education, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the multifaceted factors affecting empathy in medical students.

Methods: 1293 medical students from 15 South Korean medical schools participated in an online survey. Affective empathy was measured with the 'empathy concern' and 'personal distress' dimensions from the Interpersonal Reactivity Index for Medical Students (IRI-MS). Read More

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Streptokinase irrigation through a percutaneous catheter helps decrease the need for necrosectomy and reduces mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis as part of a step-up approach.

Surgery 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. Electronic address:

Background: Percutaneous catheter drainage in pancreatic necrosis with a predominant solid component has a reduced success rate. To improve the efficacy of percutaneous catheter drainage, we used streptokinase in the irrigation fluid in the present study.

Methods: In this retrospective analysis of 4 prospective randomized studies performed at our center from 2014 to 2019, 108 patients were evaluated. Read More

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Discovering Non-Invasive Biomarkers Predictive of Opioid Use Disorder Treatment Response.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):173

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Opioid use disorder (OUD) continues to be the driving force behind drug overdoses in the United States, killing nearly 47,000 people in 2018 alone. The increasing presence of deadlier fentanyl analogues in the heroin drug supply are putting users at a greater risk for overdose than ever before. Admissions to treatment programs for OUD have also nearly doubled since 2006, yet relapse rates remain high. Read More

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Prevalence of malocclusion and assessment of orthodontic treatment needs among Syrian refugee children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Jun 14;21(1):305. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Restorative Dentistry, Division of Dentistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Background: There is a scarcity of data concerning the prevalence and pattern of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs in Syrian refugee. In this study, extra and intra-oral features of malocclusion and the dental health component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) were reported.

Methods: Examination of 606 Syrian children/adolescents refugees attending Zaatari clinic was carried out (males = 280, females = 326, mean age = 11. Read More

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Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: a prospective study in Italy.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 14;21(1):566. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases & Lab of Endocrine and Metabolic Research, IRCCS, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Via Magnasco 2, 20149, Milan, Italy.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to favor a poorer outcome of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess if 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD) levels are associated with interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels and with disease severity and mortality in COVID-19.

Methods: We prospectively studied 103 in-patients admitted to a Northern-Italian hospital (age 66. Read More

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