34 results match your criteria gel-type resin

Avoiding pitfalls when modeling removal of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances by anion exchange.

AWWA Water Sci 2021 ;3(2)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Center for Environmental Solutions and Emergency Response, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are receiving a great deal of attention from regulators, water utilities, and the general public. Anion-exchange resins have shown high capacities for removal of these substances from water, but there is currently a paucity of ion-exchange treatment models available to evaluate performance. In this work, important theoretical and practical considerations are discussed for modeling PFAS removal from drinking water using gel-type, strong-base anion-exchange resin in batch and column processes. Read More

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January 2021

Broad-Spectrum Photo-Antimicrobial Polymers Based on Cationic Polystyrene and Rose Bengal.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:641646. Epub 2021 May 24.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Orgánica, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.

New strategies to fight bacteria and fungi are necessary in view of the problem of iatrogenic and nosocomial infections combined with the growing threat of increased antimicrobial resistance. Recently, our group has prepared and described two new readily available materials based on the combination of Rose Bengal (singlet oxygen photosensitizer) and commercially available cationic polystyrene (macroporous resin Amberlite® IRA 900 or gel-type resin IRA 400). These materials showed high efficacy in the antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) of . Read More

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Removal of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF) Using Ion-Exchange and Nonionic Resins.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 22;55(8):5001-5011. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States.

Despite benefits to the firefighting industry, the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) into aquatic systems poses significant risks to human health and other organisms. While anion-exchange technologies have proven to be effective for removing perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from water, their effectiveness for removing the diverse PFAS structures discovered in AFFF remains unknown. Here, we report on the adsorption of 75 PFASs, including 63 polyfluorinated substances, in a diluted AFFF mixture using 14 commercially available ion-exchange (IX)/nonionic resins and granular activated carbon (GAC). Read More

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Size-Controlled Transformation of CuO into Zero Valent Copper within the Matrix of Anion Exchangers via Green Chemical Reduction.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Nov 9;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Wrocław University of Economics and Business, ul. Komandorska 118/120, 53-345 Wrocław, Poland.

Composite materials containing zero valent copper (ZVC) dispersed in the matrix of two commercially available strongly basic anion exchangers with a macroreticular (Amberlite IRA 900Cl) and gel-like (Amberlite IRA 402OH) structure were obtained. Cu particles appeared in the resin phase as the product of the reduction of the precursor, i.e. Read More

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November 2020

Utilization of gel-type polystyrene host for immobilization of nano-sized hydrated zirconium oxides: A new strategy for enhanced phosphate removal.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 16;263:127938. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China; Research Center for Environmental Nanotechnology (ReCENT), Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China.

The urgent need for eutrophication control motivated the development of many novel adsorbents for enhanced phosphate polishing removal. Among these, zirconium-based nanomaterial was regarded as an effective kind because of its ability to bind phosphate specifically via inner-sphere complexation. In this study, we proposed a new strategy to improve the efficiency of zirconium oxides (HZO) nanoparticles by immobilizing them onto a gel-type anion exchange resin covalently attached with ammonium groups, denoted as [email protected] Read More

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January 2021

Effect of the Sulfonation on the Swollen State Morphology of Styrenic Cross-Linked Polymers.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Mar 6;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova, Italy.

The chemical structure and morphology of a set of sulfonic gel-type poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) resins (2 mol% DVB) prepared with different synthetic approaches were investigated by solid state NMR, Inverse Size Exclusion Chromatography (ISEC), FT-IR and elemental analysis to compare their swollen state structure. FT-IR and solid state NMR clearly show that the sulfonation mainly occurs in the para- position with respect the main polymer chain. Sensible proportions of sulfone bridges were found in the materials obtained with oleum and chlorosulfonic acid. Read More

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Comparison of thermosensitive in situ gels and drug-resin complex for ocular drug delivery: In vitro drug release and in vivo tissue distribution.

Int J Pharm 2020 Mar 26;578:119184. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China. Electronic address:

Conventional ophthalmic eye drops are limited by their rapid elimination rate and short time of action. Ion exchange resin has been used to achieve sustained ocular drug delivery but the high selectivity of drug molecules restricts its broad application. In situ gel system seems to be a good strategy to address these problems but the influence of in situ gel type on the sustained release behavior and tissue distribution after ocular application is unclear. Read More

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Expanded Bed Adsorption of -Aminobutyric Acid from broth by CS16GC and IRC747 Resins.

Chem Eng Technol 2018 Dec 30;41(12):2427-2434. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Xendo B.V. Bio Science Park, Schipholweg 73-75 2316 ZL Leiden The Netherlands.

Expanded-bed adsorption (EBA) is an efficient downstream technology that enhances the techno-economic potential of bio-based industries. However, application of EBA for bulk biochemicals requires the use of industrial resins. Therefore, two cation exchangers, namely, gel-type CS16GC and porous IRC747, were tested to purify -aminobutyric acid (GABA) from unclarified fermentation broth. Read More

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December 2018

Adsorption of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid on a Gel-Type Ion-Exchange Resin for Purification of Liquid Waste Containing Cs Ions.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Because of its excellent chelating property, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is used as a complex agent, not only for heavy metals, but also for radioactive isotopes during the decontamination of nuclear facilities. The removal of EDTA was investigated by adsorption with commercially available, gel-type, anion-exchange resins (AERs), which are based on cross-linked polystyrene with positive tertiary amine groups. Because of the positive charge on AERs, they could adsorb EDTA effectively even in a solution mixed with ions of cesium (Cs) via electrostatic attraction. Read More

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February 2019

Potential mechanisms for bioregeneration of perchlorate-containing ion-exchange resin.

Water Res 2015 May 24;75:1-10. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Ion-exchange (IX) is the most feasible technology for perchlorate removal from drinking water. Reuse of resins present challenges, however. Selective resins are non-regenerable, and are incinerated after one time use, while non-selective resins, when regenerable, produce a waste stream that contains high concentration of perchlorate that must be disposed of. Read More

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Gel for simultaneous chemical imaging of anionic and cationic solutes using diffusive gradients in thin films.

Anal Chem 2013 Dec 22;85(24):12028-36. Epub 2013 Nov 22.

Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, ‡Department of Chemistry, VIRIS Laboratory, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU) , Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, Tulln A-3430, Austria.

We report on a novel gel based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the simultaneous measurement of cations and anions and its suitability for high resolution chemical imaging by using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The new high resolution mixed binding gel (HR-MBG) is based on zirconium-hydroxide and suspended particulate reagent-iminodiacetate (SPR-IDA) as resin materials which are embedded in an ether-based urethane polymer hydrogel. The use of this polymer hydrogel material allows the production of ultrathin, highly stable and tear-proof resin gel layers with superior handling properties compared to existing ultrathin polyacrylamide gels. Read More

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December 2013

Synthesis of nanocomposites from Pd(0) and a hyper-cross-linked functional resin obtained from a conventional gel-type precursor.

Chemistry 2013 Jul 31;19(28):9381-7. Epub 2013 May 31.

Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rozvojova 2/135, CZ-16502 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic.

Hyper-cross-linked resins stemming from a gel-type poly-chloromethylated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) resin (GT) have been investigated by a multi-methodological approach based on elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and solvent absorption. The hyper-cross-linking of the parent resin was accomplished by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the phenyl rings of the resins with the chloromethyl groups. This produced a permanent pore system comprising both micropores (<2. Read More

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High-throughput determination of adsorption equilibria for chromatographic oligosaccharide separations.

J Chromatogr A 2012 May 20;1239:22-34. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC, Delft, The Netherlands.

Adsorption equilibria of the saccharides d-glucose, d-galactose, l-arabinose, lactose and a sugar acid were measured on gel-type sulfonated poly (styrene-co-divinylbenzene) strong cation exchange resins in a high-throughput (HT) 96-well plate batch uptake mode using a pipetting robot at 25 °C. Four different ionic forms, Ca(2+), K(+), Na(+), and H(+) were used. Single component adsorption isotherms were determined in a concentration range of 10-240 mg ml(-1). Read More

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Characterisation of solute mobility in hypercross-linked resins in solvents of different polarity: two promising supports for catalysis.

Chemistry 2012 Apr 13;18(15):4706-13. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Department of Chemical Sciences, Universitá degli Studi di Padova via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova, Italy.

Two hypercross-linked resins stemming from a gel-type poly-chloromethylated styrene-divinylbenzene resin (GT) in beaded form are investigated with a combination of spectroscopic techniques (EPR and time-domain (TD)-NMR spectroscopy) to evaluate their use as supports for the development of operationally flexible heterogeneous metal catalysts, suitable to be employed in liquid and gas phase. The first resin (HGT) is the direct product of the hypercross-linking reaction, whereas the second one (HGS) is the sulphonated analogue of HGT obtained by exchanging approximately 3 wt % of the chloromethyl groups with sulphonic groups. HGT and HGS absorb both polar and apolar solvents in the permanent nanoporosity created by the hypercross-linking, and NMR data highlight that the pore size is not affected by the different properties of the investigated liquid media. Read More

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High-throughput sequential injection method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental solids using macroporous anion-exchange chromatography, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection.

Anal Chem 2011 Jan 1;83(1):374-81. Epub 2010 Dec 1.

Radiation Research Division, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.

This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in soil, sediment, and seaweed, with detection via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A chromatographic column packed with a macroporous anion exchanger (AG MP-1 M) was incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system for the efficient retrieval of plutonium, along with neptunium, from matrix elements and potential interfering nuclides. The sorption and elution behavior of plutonium and neptunium onto AG MP-1 M resin was compared with a commonly utilized AG 1-gel-type anion exchanger. Read More

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January 2011

Determination of the total content of calcium and magnesium and their bioavailability in ripened bee honeys.

J Agric Food Chem 2010 Jul;58(13):7497-501

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Zielona Gora, Prof. Z. Szafrana 1, 65-516 Zielona Gora, Poland.

An analytical scheme for the fractionation and the determination of Ca and Mg in different bee honeys is presented. Using tandem column solid phase extraction based on a nonionic macroreticular adsorbing resin Amberlite XAD-16 and a gel-type strong cation exchange resin Dowex 50Wx8-200, three different groups of the Ca and Mg species were separated, including the hydrophobic, the cationic, and the residual species fractions. The concentrations of Ca and Mg were measured by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry without any special chemical preparation of the analyzed samples. Read More

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Bioregeneration of perchlorate-laden gel-type anion-exchange resin in a fluidized bed reactor.

J Hazard Mater 2010 May 4;177(1-3):730-7. Epub 2010 Jan 4.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4015, USA.

Selective ion-exchange resins are very effective to remove perchlorate from contaminated waters. However, these resins are currently incinerated after one time use, making the ion-exchange process incomplete and unsustainable for perchlorate removal. Resin bioregeneration is a new concept that combines ion-exchange with biological reduction by directly contacting perchlorate-laden resins with a perchlorate-reducing bacterial culture. Read More

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Comparison of adsorption equilibrium of fructose, glucose and sucrose on potassium gel-type and macroporous sodium ion-exchange resins.

Anal Chim Acta 2009 Nov 23;654(1):71-6. Epub 2009 Jun 23.

IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.

Adsorption equilibrium of fructose, glucose and sucrose was evaluated on sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) cation-exchange resins. Two types of resins were used: potassium (K+) gel-type and sodium (Na+) macroporous resins. Influence of the cation and effect of the resin structure on adsorption were studied. Read More

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November 2009

Evaluation of the total content and the operationally defined species of copper in beers and wines.

P Pohl I Sergiel

J Agric Food Chem 2009 Oct;57(20):9378-84

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 23, 50-372 Wroclaw, Poland.

A two-column solid phase extraction was used to determine the operationally defined speciation of Cu in lager beers and red wines. Applying a nonionic macroreticular adsorbing resin Amberlite XAD-16 and a gel type strong cation exchange resin Dowex 50Wx8-200, three different groupings of the chemical forms of Cu, including the hydrophobic, the cationic, and the residual species fractions, were separated and determined. The total content of Cu in the analyzed samples and its concentrations in the distinguished fractions were measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry without any special preparation of the sample solutions. Read More

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October 2009

Singlet oxygen generation using a porous monolithic polymer supported photosensitizer: potential application to the photodynamic destruction of melanoma cells.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2009 Jan 28;8(1):37-44. Epub 2008 Oct 28.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Orgánica/UAMOA, Universitat Jaume I/CSIC, Av. Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071, Castellón, Spain.

Photogeneration of singlet oxygen (1O2) by rose bengal is improved through the use of a porous monolithic polymer (PMP) as a support, as compared to a classic gel-type resin matrix. This type of monolithic polymeric matrix can be made at a multigram scale in quantitative yields enabling the preparation of large amounts of supported photosensitizer at low cost. The singlet oxygen induced oxidation of 9,10-diphenylanthracene has been used as a benchmark reaction, and a comparative study using rose bengal in solution, entrapped within gel-type derived polymer and entrapped within a porous monolithic polymer (PMP) has been performed. Read More

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January 2009

Preparative weak cation-exchange chromatography of monoclonal antibody variants I. Single-component adsorption.

J Chromatogr A 2008 Jul 28;1200(2):156-65. Epub 2008 May 28.

Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

The retention behavior of a monoclonal antibody has been characterized on a weak cation exchanger, Fractogel EMD COO(-)(s). This new generation of resin materials comprise of a higher mechanical strength compared to softer gel-type matrices while maintaining elevated capacities, resulting in higher productivity and longer lifetimes. These parameters are extremely important when working with large bio-molecules such as proteins, and in particular monoclonal antibodies. Read More

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Optimization of the procedure for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in fish tissue: Estimation of measurements uncertainty.

Food Addit Contam 2006 Mar;23(3):309-25

Technická 3, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic.

Three alternative procedures were employed for the isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; 15 of 16 US EPA priority pollutants and benzo[e]pyrene), their methyl-derivatives and sulphur analogues from fish tissue: (1) Soxhlet extraction, (2) batch extraction enhanced by sonication, and (3) saponification of the sample followed by re-extraction of analytes into hexane. Soxhlet extraction using hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) was the most efficient extraction technique, with analyte recoveries in the range 70-108%. Within optimization of the clean-up step, several types of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) systems were tested: two types of polystyrene divinylbenzene copolymer gels (PSDVB), both 'soft' gel type (Bio-Beads S-X3) and 'rigid' gels type (PL gel and Envirogel) in combination with various mobile phases were compared. Read More

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Evaluation of sugar sorption isotherm measurement by frontal analysis under industrial processing conditions.

J Chromatogr A 2005 Feb;1066(1-2):71-9

Separation Technology Group, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede, The Netherlands.

This paper evaluates frontal analysis for routine sugar isotherm measurements at industrial conditions, that is concentrations up to 400 kg/m3 and a temperature of 60 degrees C. Sugar isotherms for a gel type cation-exchange resin loaded with metal ions were measured in a HPLC setup equipped with a UV detector. It is shown experimentally that isotherms obtained with large concentration steps (step series method) underestimated the isotherm. Read More

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February 2005

Sorption and desorption of perchlorate and U(VI) by strong-base anion-exchange resins.

Environ Sci Technol 2005 Feb;39(3):901-7

Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA.

This study investigated the sorption affinity and capacity of six strong-base anion-exchange (SBA) resins for both uranium [U(VI)] and perchlorate (ClO4-) in simulated groundwater containing varying concentrations of sulfate (SO4(2-)). Additionally, desorption of U(VI) from spent resins was studied to separate U(VI) from resins with sorbed ClO4- for waste segregation and minimization. Results indicate that all SBA resins investigated in this study strongly sorb U(VI). Read More

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February 2005

Recycling asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts by their immobilisation onto ion-exchange resins.

Dalton Trans 2004 Jun 19(12):1783-4. Epub 2004 May 19.

Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organo Metallici, CNR, Area di Ricerca di Firenze, Via Madonna del Piano, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy.

New systems based on cationic chiral phosphine-rhodium complexes anchored to a commercial cation-exchange gel-type resin showed high efficiency and easy recycling in the asymmetric hydrogenation of prochiral olefins. Read More

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Core-shell-type resins for solid-phase peptide synthesis: comparison with gel-type resins in solid-phase photolytic cleavage reaction.

Org Lett 2004 Sep;6(19):3273-6

School of Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Korea.

[reaction: see text] Novel core-shell-type resins with a rigid core and amino-functionalized flexible shell were prepared with 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine (CNC) and Jeffamine ED-600 starting from 1% cross-linked aminomethyl (AM) polystyrene resins. All of the amino groups were located outside the resin beads, and the loading capacity was 0.2-0. Read More

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September 2004

Ion-exchange selectivity of anion exchange resin modified with polystyrenesulfonic acid.

Anal Sci 2004 Jul;20(7):1099-101

Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai, Ube, Japan.

In order to change the ion-exchange selectivity of anion-exchange resin, the surface of a gel-type anion exchange resin was modified with anionic polyelectrolyte, polystyrenesulfonic acid. Using this modified resin, the ion-exchange rate of nitrate was little decreased, but that of sulfate was evidently decreased. It is considered that the ion-exchange reaction of the multivalent anion is suppressed by the greater electrostatic repulsive force against the modification layer than that against the monovalent anion. Read More

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Nanomorphology of polymer frameworks and their role as templates for generating size-controlled metal nanoclusters.

Chemistry 2003 Nov;9(21):5292-6

Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, CNR, Sezione di Padova, c/o Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica Metallorganica Analitica, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova, Italy.

The microporous (gel-type) functional resin co-poly-N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) (88 % mol)/methacrylic acid (MAA) (8 % mol)/N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA) (4 % mol) (MPIF(H)) is employed as the hosting framework for the production of resin-supported Pd(0) nanoclusters. The obtained composite MPIF(-)Na(+)/Pd(0) is prepared upon reducing, in ethanol, MPIF(-)Pd(2+) (0.5), obtained upon previous homogeneous dispersion of "Pd(2+)" inside the resin particles (XRMA control) through ion-exchange. Read More

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November 2003

Metal catalysis inside polymer frameworks: evaluation of catalyst stability and reusability.

Chemistry 2003 Jan;9(1):209-14

Department of Organic Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava 1, Slovak Republic.

The polymer framework of a resin-based catalyst built up with Pd nanoclusters (ca. 3 nm) dispersed inside the nanoporous domains of a thermally stable gel-type polyacrylic resin exhibits a good chemical stability under 5 bar H(2) at 40 degrees C for reasonable contact times. Chemical and physico-chemical integrity of the polymer framework are checked with a variety of instrumental analytical methods. Read More

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January 2003

Preparation of soluble and insoluble polymer supported IBX reagents.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2002 Aug;12(15):2047-9

Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

A series of soluble and insoluble polymer supported versions of the versatile oxidizing reagent IBX has been prepared. Each of the reagents were evaluated for their efficiency in the conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Results from this study were that the soluble, non-crosslinked polystyrene supported IBX reagent gave the best rate of conversion to benzaldehyde, while the macroporous polymer supported IBX resin provided a superior rate of conversion to benzaldehyde when compared with a gel type resin. Read More

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