92,865 results match your criteria ganglion cell

Why is the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve situated inside the brain?

Kohji Sato

Med Hypotheses 2021 Jun 5;153:110626. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Organ & Tissue Anatomy, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashiku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan. Electronic address:

Primary sensory neurons are usually situated in ganglia outside the brain, while the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (Me5) is situated inside the brain. However, it remains unknown why only Me5 situated inside the brain is. The neurons of Me5 are the cell bodies of primary afferent fibers concerned with the muscles of mastication and periodontal receptors of both maxillary and mandibular teeth. Read More

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Treg and IL-1 receptor type 2-expressing CD4 T cell-deleted CD4 T cell fraction prevents the progression of age-related hearing loss in a mouse model.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Jun 8;357:577628. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan.

We investigated the association between cellular immunity and age-related hearing loss (ARHL) development using three CD4 T cell fractions, namely, naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Treg), interleukin 1 receptor type 2-expressing T cells (I1R2), and non-Treg non-I1R2 (nTnI) cells, which comprised Treg and I1R2-deleted CD4 T cells. Inoculation of the nTnI fraction into a ARHL murine model, not only prevented the development of ARHL and the degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons, but also suppressed serum nitric oxide, a source of oxidative stress. Further investigations on CD4 T cell fractions could provide novel insights into the prevention of aging, including presbycusis. Read More

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Organization of the central nervous system and innervation of cephalic sensory structures in the water bear Echiniscus testudo (Tardigrada: Heterotardigrada) revisited.

J Morphol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Zoology, Institute of Biology, Kassel, Germany.

The tardigrade brain has been the topic of several neuroanatomical studies, as it is key to understanding the evolution of the central nervous systems in Panarthropoda (Tardigrada + Onychophora + Arthropoda). The gross morphology of the brain seems to be well conserved across tardigrades despite often disparate morphologies of their heads and cephalic sensory structures. As such, the general shape of the brain and its major connections to the rest of the central nervous system have been mapped out already by early tardigradologists. Read More

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The cryptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal system of human basal ganglia.

Elife 2021 Jun 15;10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Reproductive Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

Human reproduction is controlled by ~2,000 hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Here we report the discovery and characterization of additional ~150,000-200,000 GnRH-synthesizing cells in the human basal ganglia and basal forebrain. Nearly all extrahypothalamic GnRH neurons expressed the cholinergic marker enzyme choline acetyltransferase. Read More

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Publisher Correction: Color and cellular selectivity of retinal ganglion cell subtypes through frequency modulation of electrical stimulation.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12855. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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Neuroprotective effects of bone marrow Sca-1 cells against age-related retinal degeneration in OPTN E50K mice.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 15;12(6):613. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Glaucoma is characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, the underlying mechanisms of which are still largely unknown. An E50K mutation in the Optineurin (OPTN) gene is a leading cause of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), which directly affects RGCs in the absence of high intraocular pressure and causes severe glaucomatous symptoms in patients. Bone marrow (BM) stem cells have been demonstrated to play a key role in regenerating damaged tissue during ageing and disease through their trophic effects and homing capability. Read More

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Association of retinal atrophy with cortical lesions and leptomeningeal enhancement in multiple sclerosis on 7T MRI.

Mult Scler 2021 Jun 14:13524585211023343. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Baltimore VA Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA/University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA/Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Retinal atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) correlates with demyelinating lesions and brain atrophy, but its relationship with cortical lesions (CLs) and meningeal inflammation is not well known.

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship of retinal layer atrophy with leptomeningeal enhancement (LME) and CLs in MS as visualized on 7 Tesla (7T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Forty participants with MS underwent 7T MRI of the brain and OCT. Read More

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Lung Cancer Cell-Derived Exosomal let-7d-5p Down-Regulates OPRM1 to Promote Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:666857. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Pain Medicine, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is the pain caused by metastasis of malignant tumors to the bone, accounting for more than half of all chronic cancer pain, which seriously affects the quality of life among tumor patients. Up to 40% of patients with advanced lung cancer suffer from CIBP. MicroRNA (miRNA) transfers between cells through exosomes, mediates cell-to-cell communication, and performs various biological functions. Read More

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Clinical Evaluation of Unilateral Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study.

Chonnam Med J 2021 May 24;57(2):144-151. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Korea.

To evaluate the clinical characteristics of unilateral open-angle glaucoma, patients diagnosed with unilateral open-angle glaucoma from January 2017 to October 2018 were divided into primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma groups according to the type of glaucoma diagnosed. The glaucoma and the contralateral eyes were compared, and the contralateral eye was analyzed for conversion to glaucoma and its risk factors were assessed during the 2-year follow-up period. Among 99 patients, 36 were diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma and 63 with normal-tension glaucoma. Read More

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Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Review of Treatment and Management.

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:651639. Epub 2021 May 26.

Neuro-ophthalmology Department, Hôpital Fondation Rothschild, Paris, France.

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease that specifically targets the retinal ganglion cells by reducing their ability to produce enough energy to sustain. The mutations of the mitochondrial DNA that cause LHON are silent until an unknown trigger causes bilateral central visual scotoma. After the onset of loss of vision, most patients experience progressive worsening within the following months. Read More

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The Interaction Between Microglia and Macroglia in Glaucoma.

Front Neurosci 2021 28;15:610788. Epub 2021 May 28.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Ocular Fundus Diseases, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Engineering Center for Visual Science and Photomedicine, Shanghai, China.

Glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease that leads to irreversible vision loss, is characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic axons. To date, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) has been recognized as the main phenotypic factor associated with glaucoma. However, some patients with normal IOP also have glaucomatous visual impairment and RGC loss. Read More

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The Endocannabinoidome in Neuropsychiatry: Opportunities and Potential Risks.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 10:105729. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Deakin University, IMPACT - the Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation, School of Medicine, Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia; Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, CAMH, 33 Ursula Franklin Street, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprises two cognate endocannabinoid receptors referred to as CB1R and CB2R ECS dysregulation is apparent in neurodegenerative/neuro-psychiatric disorders including but not limited to schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and potentially bipolar disorder. The aim of this paper is to review mechanisms whereby both receptors may interact with neuro-immune and neuro-oxidative pathways, which play a pathophysiological role in these disorders. CB1R is located in the presynaptic terminals of GABAergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons where it regulates the retrograde suppression of neurotransmission. Read More

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Cell-specific effects of Dyt1 knock-out on sensory processing, network-level connectivity, and motor deficits.

Exp Neurol 2021 Jun 10:113783. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

DYT1 dystonia is a debilitating movement disorder characterized by repetitive, unintentional movements and postures. The disorder has been linked to mutation of the TOR1A/DYT1 gene encoding torsinA. Convergent evidence from studies in humans and animal models suggest that striatal medium spiny neurons and cholinergic neurons are important in DYT1 dystonia. Read More

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Protective effects of anandamide against cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Background/aim: Cisplatin (CIS) is an effective antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of several cancer types. Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side-effect in cisplatin therapy. Cannabinoids may alleviate this painful side effect. Read More

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Development of the vertebrate retinal direction-selective circuit.

Dev Biol 2021 Jun 10;477:273-283. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. Electronic address:

The vertebrate retina contains an array of neural circuits that detect distinct features in visual space. Direction-selective (DS) circuits are an evolutionarily conserved retinal circuit motif - from zebrafish to rodents to primates - specialized for motion detection. During retinal development, neuronal subtypes that wire DS circuits form exquisitely precise connections with each other to shape the output of retinal ganglion cells tuned for specific speeds and directions of motion. Read More

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Clinical electrophysiology of the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Optometry, State University of New York, New York, NY, USA.

Clinical electrophysiological assessment of optic nerve and retinal ganglion cell function can be performed using the Pattern Electroretinogram (PERG), Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) and the Photopic Negative Response (PhNR) amongst other more specialised techniques. In this review, we describe these electrophysiological techniques and their application in diseases affecting the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells with the exception of glaucoma. The disease groups discussed include hereditary, compressive, toxic/nutritional, traumatic, vascular, inflammatory and intracranial causes for optic nerve or retinal ganglion cell dysfunction. Read More

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Association of inner retinal reflectivity with qualitative and quantitative changes in retinal layers over time in diabetic eyes without retinopathy.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.

Objective: To assess the course of neurodegeneration based on retinal layer thickness and integrity analysis in diabetic patients without retinopathy and to evaluate its association with inner retinal reflectivity.

Methods: This retrospective case-control study included 80 eyes of 80 patients with DM without retinopathy and 40 eyes of 40 healthy subjects with a follow-up of ≥1 year. SD-OCT was used for assessment of retinal reflectivity and macular layer thicknesses. Read More

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P2X3 receptors participate in purinergic inhibition of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

Brian F King

Auton Neurosci 2021 Jun 5;234:102830. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

University College London (UCL), Research Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology & Physiology (NPP), Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The ATP analogue α,β-meATP is a potent relaxant of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but its molecular target is uncertain inside the gut. α,β-meATP relaxed the carbachol-precontracted guinea-pig taenia coli in a concentration-dependent manner (EC, 2.0 ± 0. Read More

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Cloning and characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) from Litopenaeus vannamei, and its roles in biogenic amines synthesis, immune regulation, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus by RNA interference.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 9;123:104167. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Aquaculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, 91201, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

The biogenic amines, tyramine and octopamine, in the octopaminergic synthesis pathway play critical roles in regulating physiological and immunological homeostasis in Litopenaeus vannamei. Tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) is an enzyme catalyzing the first decarboxylation step in the biosynthesis of tyramine and octopamine. The full-length gene sequence of TDC cloned from the brain of L. Read More

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Extension of retinofugal projections in an assembled model of human pluripotent stem cell-derived organoids.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis IN, USA; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis IN, USA; Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis IN, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis IN, USA. Electronic address:

The development of the visual system involves the coordination of spatial and temporal events to specify the organization of varied cell types, including the elongation of axons from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to post-synaptic targets in the brain. Retinal organoids recapitulate many features of retinal development, yet have lacked downstream targets into which RGC axons extend, limiting the ability to model projections of the human visual system. To address these issues, retinal organoids were generated and organized into an in vitro assembloid model of the visual system with cortical and thalamic organoids. Read More

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Improving NKCC1 Function Increases the Excitability of DRG Neurons Exacerbating Pain Induced After TRPV1 Activation of Primary Sensory Neurons.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 25;15:665596. Epub 2021 May 25.

The Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Department of Physiology, Shihezi University Medical College, Shihezi, China.

Our aim was to investigate the effects of the protein expression and the function of sodium, potassium, and chloride co-transporter (NKCC1) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) in capsaicin-induced acute inflammatory pain and the possible mechanism of action. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, capsaicin, and inhibitor groups. The expression and distribution of TRPV1 and NKCC1 in rat DRG were observed by immunofluorescence. Read More

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Overexpressed Na 1.7 Channels Confer Hyperexcitability to Trigeminal Sensory Neurons of Ca 2.1 Mutant Hemiplegic Migraine Mice.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 25;15:640709. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Neuroscience, International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste, Italy.

Trigeminal sensory neurons of transgenic knock-in (KI) mice expressing the R192Q missense mutation in the α1A subunit of neuronal voltage-gated Ca 2.1 Ca channels, which leads to familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) in patients, exhibit a hyperexcitability phenotype. Here, we show that the expression of Na 1. Read More

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Seasonal variation in neurohormones, mood and sleep in patients with primary open angle glaucoma - implications of the ipRGC-system.

Chronobiol Int 2021 Jun 10:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Primary open angle glaucoma is associated with an increased risk of mood and sleep disorders. These adversities have been suggested to relate to a disrupted function of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). The ipRGCs are key components in the nonvisual photoreceptive system that mediates light effects on mood, sleep and circadian rhythm. Read More

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Biomechanical micromotion at the neural interface modulates intracellular membrane potentials in vivo.

J Neural Eng 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Bioengineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-9709, USA, Tempe, Arizona, 85287, UNITED STATES.

Objective - Respiration and vascular pulsation cause relative micromotion of brain tissue against stationary implants resulting in repetitive displacements of 2-4 µm (due to vascular pulsation) and 10-30 µm (due to breathing) in rats. However, the direct functional impact of such tissue micromotion on the cells at the neural interface remains unknown. This study aims to test the hypothesis that micromotion in brain tissue causes changes in membrane potentials through the activation of mechanosensitive ion channels. Read More

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Longitudinal Study of Retinal Structure, Vascular, and Neuronal Function in Patients With Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: 1-Year Follow-Up.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 May;10(6)

Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify retinal structural, vascular, and functional changes in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) over 1 year.

Methods: Eighty-eight eyes of 44 patients with RRMS underwent assessments of low contrast letter acuity (LCLA), retinal ganglion cell function detected by the steady-state pattern electroretinogram (PERG), axonal microstructural integrity measured as birefringence, intraretinal layer thicknesses by ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT), volumetric vessel density (VVD) by OCT angiography, and retinal tissue perfusion (RTP) by the Retinal Function Imager (RFI). All measurements were performed at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Read More

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A multielectrode array-based hypoxia model for the analysis of electrical activity in murine retinae.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

Several eye diseases, for example, retinal artery occlusion, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, are associated with retinal hypoxia. The lack of oxygen in the retina, especially in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), causes cell damage up to cell degeneration and leads to blindness. Using multielectrode array recordings, an ex vivo hypoxia acute model was established to analyze the electrical activity of murine wild-type retinae under hypoxic stress conditions. Read More

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Olfactory ganglioneuroblastoma in a dog: case report and literature review.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 Jun 10:10406387211022864. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Departments of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

A 7-y-old, intact male Alaskan Malamute was presented with a 3-mo history of stertor and epistaxis. Computed tomography of the skull revealed generalized loss of gas throughout both nasal passages with replacement by a soft tissue mass that traversed the cribriform plate. Histopathology revealed neoplastic neuroblast cells arranged in anastomosing cords, as well as separately located aggregates of ganglion cells. Read More

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Spatiotemporal Developmental Upregulation of Prestin Correlates With the Severity and Location of Cyclodextrin-Induced Outer Hair Cell Loss and Hearing Loss.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 24;9:643709. Epub 2021 May 24.

Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States.

2-Hyroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) is being used to treat Niemann-Pick C1, a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormal cholesterol metabolism. HPβCD slows disease progression, but unfortunately causes severe, rapid onset hearing loss by destroying the outer hair cells (OHC). HPβCD-induced damage is believed to be related to the expression of prestin in OHCs. Read More

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Dexmedetomidine Inhibits ASIC Activity Activation of α Adrenergic Receptors in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:685460. Epub 2021 May 24.

Research Center of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning, China.

Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective α adrenergic receptor (α-AR) agonist, has been shown to have peripheral analgesic effects in a variety of pain conditions. However, the precise molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are the major player in pain associated with tissue acidosis. Read More

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Loss of Rbfox1 Does Not Affect Survival of Retinal Ganglion Cells Injured by Optic Nerve Crush.

Front Neurosci 2021 24;15:687690. Epub 2021 May 24.

Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Rbfox1 is a multifunctional RNA binding protein that regulates alternative splicing, transcription, mRNA stability and translation. Its roles in neurogenesis and neuronal functions are well established. Recent studies also implicate Rbfox1 in the regulation of gene networks that support cell survival during stress. Read More

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