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Association between isotretinoin (Roaccutanne) use and changes in periodontal clinical parameters and MMP-8 and MMP-9 salivary levels.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2021 Jul;26(7):191-197

Department of Periodontics and Community Dentistry, Dental College, King Saud University, 11545 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

: to evaluate changes in clinical periodontal parameters, salivary levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9, in individuals taking Isotretinoin (INN), and compare with individuals not taking the medication and to compare findings among different stages of periodontal disease and healthy periodontium. : A case-control study was conducted with a total of 180 human adults divided into six groups. Clinical parameters, including pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured at six sites per tooth. Read More

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Neurocomputational models of altruistic decision-making and social motives: Advances, pitfalls, and future directions.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 2021 Aug 2:e1571. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Ontario, Kingston, Canada.

This article discusses insights from computational models and social neuroscience into motivations, precursors, and mechanisms of altruistic decision-making and other-regard. We introduce theoretical and methodological tools for researchers who wish to adopt a multilevel, computational approach to study behaviors that promote others' welfare. Using examples from recent studies, we outline multiple mental and neural processes relevant to altruism. Read More

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The Future of Parallel Tumor and Germline Genetic Testing: Is There a Role for All Patients With Cancer?

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Jul 28;19(7):871-878. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

1Clinical Genetics Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Under the traditional paradigm of genetic testing in cancer, the role of germline testing was to assess for the inherited risk of cancer, whereas the role of tumor testing was to determine therapeutic selection. Parallel tumor-normal genetic testing uses simultaneous genetic testing of the tumor and normal tissue to identify mutations and allows their classification as either germline or somatic. The increasing adoption of parallel testing has revealed a greater number of germline findings in patients who otherwise would not have met clinical criteria for testing. Read More

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Parents' experiences of their child's assessment on an epilepsy surgery pathway: A qualitative study.

Seizure 2021 Jul 17;91:456-461. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Institute of Population Health, Department of Public Health, Policy and Systems, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3G, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Purpose: Children's epilepsy surgery services (CESS) in the UK aim to improve outcomes for young children by increasing access to surgery. Consideration for surgery is complex and time consuming, yet there is lack of research exploring how this process might impact on families. This study aimed to explore parents' experiences of their child consideration for epilepsy surgery to inform future service development and delivery. Read More

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A neuromimetic realization of hippocampal CA1 for theta wave generation.

Neural Netw 2021 Jul 9;142:548-563. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Bio-Imaging Lab, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. Electronic address:

Recent advances in neural engineering allowed the development of neuroprostheses which facilitate functionality in people with neurological problems. In this research, a real-time neuromorphic system is proposed to artificially reproduce the theta wave and firing patterns of different neuronal populations in the CA1, a sub-region of the hippocampus. The hippocampal theta oscillations (4-12 Hz) are an important electrophysiological rhythm that contributes in various cognitive functions, including navigation, memory, and novelty detection. Read More

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The uptake of foil from needle and syringe provision services and its role in smoking or snorting heroin among people who inject drugs in Scotland.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Jul 30;98:103369. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland; Public Health Scotland, NHS National Services Scotland, Glasgow, Scotland.

Background: In the UK, legislation was implemented in 2014 allowing needle and syringe provision (NSP) services to offer foil to people who inject drugs (PWID) to encourage smoking rather than injecting. This paper aims to examine the association between foil uptake and smoking or snorting heroin among PWID. This is the first large scale national study to examine foil uptake and smoking or snorting heroin among PWID post legislative change. Read More

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Chemical analysis of materials used in pig housing with respect to the safety of products of animal origin.

Animal 2021 Jul 30;15(9):100319. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department Safety in the Food Chain, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Max-Dohrn-Str. 8-10, 10589 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Bedding, environmental enrichment materials and disinfectant powders in pig farming are meant to ensure a hygienic bedding environment or allow pigs to perform explorative behaviour. To our knowledge, no legal regulation exists, that established maximum contents for undesirable substances, such as toxic metals, dioxins or trace elements in these materials, although oral ingestion could be expected. In the present study, a total of 74 materials (disinfectant powders [n = 51], earth/peat [n = 12], biochar [n = 8], recycled manure solids [n = 3]) were analysed for their content of various toxic metals, trace elements, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. Read More

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Extra-axial chordoma of the thumb: Report of a rare case with clinicopathologic and molecular analysis.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Jul 22;225:153564. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Chordoma is a very rare malignant tumor, with a phenotype that recapitulates notochord, and is chiefly located in the axial skeleton with only few cases reported in the extra-axial skeleton and soft tissues. The diagnosis can be challenging for both clinicians, radiologists and pathologists because of the rarity of tumor, its unspecific radiological pattern and histomorphological similarities to other tumors like extra-skeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, soft tissue myoepithelioma and metastatic adenocarcinomas, more so on small biopsies. We present a case of a recurrent extra-axial chordoma with a prominent soft tissue component in the left thumb around proximal phalanx of an 80-year-old man, with detailed report of the histopathological, imaging and most importantly molecular features, which are in conformity with the typical profile of notochordal neoplasms. Read More

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Data fusion and smoothing for probabilistic tracking of viral structures in fluorescence microscopy images.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jul 16;73:102168. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Biomedical Computer Vision Group, BioQuant, IPMB, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 267, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Automatic tracking of viral structures displayed as small spots in fluorescence microscopy images is an important task to determine quantitative information about cellular processes. We introduce a novel probabilistic approach for tracking multiple particles based on multi-sensor data fusion and Bayesian smoothing methods. The approach exploits multiple measurements as in a particle filter, both detection-based measurements and prediction-based measurements from a Kalman filter using probabilistic data association with elliptical sampling. Read More

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Pelvic floor, abdominal and uterine tenderness in relation to pressure pain sensitivity among women with endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Jul 22;264:247-253. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Departments of Anesthesiology, Critical Care, & Pain Medicine and Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Biobehavioral Pediatric Pain Lab, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Pelvic floor pain, abdominal wall pain, and central nervous system pain amplification can be contributing factors in chronic pelvic pain (CPP), however; limited research has investigated the association of pelvic floor, abdominal, and uterine tenderness with central nervous system pain amplification. We assessed whether pressure pain thresholds on the non-dominant thumbnail, a marker of central nervous system pain amplification, were associated with pelvic floor, abdominal, and uterine tenderness among women with endometriosis or CPP.

Study Design: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 88 females with endometriosis and/or CPP. Read More

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A global review of seed enhancement technology use to inform improved applications in restoration.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 16;798:149096. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia; Kings Park Science, Department of Biodiversity Conservation and Attractions, 2 Kattidj Close, Kings Park, Western Australia, 6005, Australia.

Seed-based restoration often experiences poor success due to a range of edaphic and biotic issues. Seed enhancement technologies (SETs) are a novel approach that can alleviate these pressures and improve restoration success. Broadly, SETs have been reviewed for agricultural and horticultural purposes, for specific types of SETs such as coating or priming, or for focal ecosystems. Read More

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Past variations and future projection of runoff in typical basins in 10 water zones, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 30;798:149277. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Research Center for Climate Change, Ministry of Water Resources, Nanjing 210029, China; Yangtze Institute for Conservation and Development, Nanjing 210098, China; State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China. Electronic address:

Understanding the historical and future changing characteristics of key climatic variables and runoff in 10 major river zones in China is essential for water resources evaluation and management. To this end, the historical and future changing trends of key hydrometeorological variables, including precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and runoff were analyzed in detail for each water zone across China. The climate elasticity method was also established to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on historical runoff variations. Read More

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Predictors of clozapine discontinuation at 2 years in treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2021 Jul 30;235:102-108. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile. Electronic address:

Introduction: Little is known about predictors of clinical response to clozapine treatment in treatment-resistant psychosis. Most published cohorts are small, providing inconsistent results. We aimed to identify baseline clinical predictors of future clinical response in patients who initiate clozapine treatment, mainly focusing on the effect of age, duration of illness, baseline clinical symptoms and homelessness. Read More

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Abnormalities of the type I interferon signaling pathway in lupus autoimmunity.

Cytokine 2021 Jul 30;146:155633. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Medical Genetics and Molecular Biochemistry, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Fels Cancer Institute for Personalized Medicine, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Type I interferons (IFNs), mostly IFNα and IFNβ, and the type I IFN Signature are important in the pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune chronic condition linked to inflammation. Both IFNα and IFNβ trigger a signaling cascade that, through the activation of JAK1, TYK2, STAT1 and STAT2, initiates gene transcription of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). Noteworthy, other STAT family members and IFN Responsive Factors (IRFs) can also contribute to the activation of the IFN response. Read More

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Modification of 5-methylphenanthridium from benzothiazoles to indoles as potent FtsZ inhibitors: Broadening the antibacterial spectrum toward vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jul 26;224:113723. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 44 West Culture Road, Jinan, 250012, China. Electronic address:

The death caused by pathogenic bacteria has always been a severe threat to mankind. The prevalence of drug resistance among bacteria underscores an urgent goal for new antibacterial agents with novel mode of action. Here we first designed and synthesized a class of benzothiazolyl-5-methylphenanthridium derivatives and evaluated their antibacterial activity. Read More

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Molecular mechanisms underlying responses of the Antarctic coral Malacobelemnon daytoni to ocean acidification.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jul 24;170:105430. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales.,Cátedra de Ecología Marina, Av. Vélez Sarsfield 299, X5000JJC, Córdoba, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal (IDEA), Ecosistemas Marinos Polares, Av. Vélez Sarsfield 299, X5000JJC, Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:

Benthic organisms of the Southern Ocean are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA), as they inhabit cold waters where calcite-aragonite saturation states are naturally low. OA most strongly affects animals with calcium carbonate skeletons or shells, such as corals and mollusks. We exposed the abundant cold-water coral Malacobelemnon daytoni from an Antarctic fjord to low pH seawater (LpH) (7. Read More

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Progress of South East Asian Region countries towards achieving interim End TB strategy targets for TB incidence and mortality: a modelling study.

Public Health 2021 Jul 30;198:9-16. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry 605008, India. Electronic address:

Objectives: In 2018, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reported that almost 10 million people worldwide had tuberculosis (TB). The majority of the TB cases were concentrated in South East Asian Region (SEAR) countries. To curb this burden, the WHO has set interim targets to reduce TB incidence by 50% and mortality by 75% by 2025 (interim targets of the 'End TB' strategy). Read More

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Hyper- and hypo-connectivity in sensorimotor network of drug-naïve patients with cervical dystonia.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Jul 22;90:15-20. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Center for Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China; Parkinson's Disease Center, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common form of focal dystonia with involuntary movements and postures of the head. The pathogenesis and neural mechanisms underlying CD have not been fully elucidated.

Methods: Twenty-seven newly drug-naïve patients with CD and 21 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited with clinical assessment and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning. Read More

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Toxicogenomic differentiation of functional responses to fipronil and imidacloprid in Daphnia magna.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jul 27;238:105927. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Fraunhofer Attract Eco'n'OMICs, Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Schmallenberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Active substances of pesticides, biocides or pharmaceuticals can induce adverse side effects in the aquatic ecosystem, necessitating environmental hazard and risk assessment prior to substance registration. The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna is a model organism for acute and chronic toxicity assessment representing aquatic invertebrates. However, standardized tests involving daphnia are restricted to the endpoints immobility and reproduction and thus provide only limited insights into the underlying modes-of-action. Read More

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Bisepoxide-Jeffamine microgel synthesis and application toward heterogeneous surface morphology for differential neuronal/non-neuronal cell responses in vitro.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jul 26;207:112009. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning, 116023, China; School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning, 116023, China. Electronic address:

Herein, a new non-vinylic type of cationic microgels (MG) was readily prepared from ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether and Jeffamine T-403 in water. The MG was responsive to both temperature and pH, and oxidatively stable as demonstrated by the hydrogen peroxide study. Using glass as a model substrate, its surface was easily imparted with a heterogeneous morphology by simply adsorbing MG dispersed in basic solution. Read More

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Dioscin prevents DSS-induced colitis in mice with enhancing intestinal barrier function and reducing colon inflammation.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 30;99:108015. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, China. Electronic address:

Dioscin is a natural steroid saponin derived from plants of the genus Dioscoreaceae. Previous studies have proved its effects of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic. In this study, our aim was to explore the protective effect and preliminary mechanism of Dioscin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Read More

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Artificial intelligence for classification of temporal lobe epilepsy with ROI-level MRI data: A worldwide ENIGMA-Epilepsy study.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jul 24;31:102765. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany; Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pediatric and Neuroradiology, University Medical Centre Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

Artificial intelligence has recently gained popularity across different medical fields to aid in the detection of diseases based on pathology samples or medical imaging findings. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key assessment tool for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The role of machine learning and artificial intelligence to increase detection of brain abnormalities in TLE remains inconclusive. Read More

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Is the antiseizure effect of ketogenic diet in children with drug-resistant epilepsy mediated through proinflammatory cytokines?

Epilepsy Res 2021 Jul 21;176:106724. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurosciences, Avitis Institute of Medical Sciences, Palakkad, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

In order to understand whether the antiseizure mechanism of ketogenic diet (KD) is mediated through its anti-inflammatory effect, we measured the serum concentrations of cytokines IL- 1β and IL-6 in 21 children with drug-resistant epilepsy. We found a significant reduction in the levels of serum IL- 1β and IL-6 levels at one-year of KD therapy compared to baseline. However, we did not find any correlation between decrease in the serum concentrations of these interleukins with the reduction in seizure frequency at one-year of KD therapy, which may be due to the small sample size and heterogeneous patient population we studied. Read More

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The effectiveness of psychological interventions for loneliness: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Psychol Rev 2021 Jul 18;88:102066. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, UK.

Chronic loneliness is associated with a range of mental health difficulties. Previous theory and research indicate that psychological interventions show promise for reducing loneliness, however, there have been no systematic reviews or meta-analyses to ascertain the efficacy of these interventions across the lifespan. The aim of this study was to synthesise, meta-analyse and explore the heterogeneity in RCTs of psychological interventions for loneliness in order to establish their efficacy. Read More

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