1,161 results match your criteria fundamental niche

Evolution of virulence in a novel family of transmissible mega-plasmids.

Environ Microbiol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Forage Science, AgResearch, Lincoln Research Centre, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Some Serratia entomophila isolates have been successfully exploited in biopesticides due to their ability to cause amber disease in larvae of the Aotearoa (New Zealand) endemic pasture pest, Costelytra giveni. Anti-feeding prophage and ABC toxin complex virulence determinants are encoded by a 153-kb single-copy conjugative plasmid (pADAP; amber disease-associated plasmid). Despite growing understanding of the S. Read More

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Global warming assessment suggests the endemic Brazilian kelp beds to be an endangered ecosystem.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Apr 2;168:105307. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Ichthyology, Department of Oceanography, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, 29075-910, Brazil.

Kelps are canopy-forming brown seaweed sustaining critical ecosystem services in coastal habitats, including shelter, nursery grounds, and providing food resources to a myriad of associated species. This study modeled the fundamental niche of Laminaria abyssalis along the Brazilian continental margin, an endemic species of the South Atlantic, to anticipate potential distributional range shifts under two contrasting scenarios of future environmental changes (RCP2.6 and RCP8. Read More

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Priority effects and the macroevolutionary dynamics of biodiversity.

Ecol Lett 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, UK.

Priority effects can play a fundamental role in the assembly of ecological communities, but how they shape the dynamics of biodiversity over macroevolutionary timescales remains unclear. Here we develop and analyse a metacommunity model combining local priority effects with niche evolution, speciation and extinction. We show that by promoting the persistence of rare species, local priority effects cause the evolution of higher metacommunity diversity as well as major disparities in richness among evolutionary lineages. Read More

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Reopening Schools After a Novel Coronavirus Surge.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:785-813

Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic shook the world in ways not seen since the pandemic influenza of 1918-1919. As of late August 2020, over 25 million persons had been infected, and we will see the global death toll exceed one million by the end of 2020. Both are minimum estimates. Read More

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Global warming impact on the expansion of fundamental niche of Cryptococcus gattii VGI in Europe.

Massimo Cogliati

Environ Microbiol Rep 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Lab. Medical Mycology, Dip. Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

In the present study, we analysed how geographical distribution of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii VGI in Europe and Mediterranean area has evolved in the last four decades based on the climatic changes, and we tried to predict the scenario for the next decade. Niche modelling by Maxent analysis showed that recent climate changes have significantly affected the distribution of the fungus revealing a gradual expansion of the fundamental niche from 1980 to 2009 followed by an impressive increase in the last decade (2010-2019) during which the environmental surface suitable for the fungal survival was more than doubled. In the next decade, our model predicted an increase in the area of distribution of C. Read More

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Application of Combined Analyses of Stable Isotopes and Stomach Contents for Understanding Ontogenetic Niche Shifts in Silver Croaker ().

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 13;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Fisheries Science Institute, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 59626, Korea.

Stable isotope analysis (SIA) and stomach content analysis (SCA) were conducted to understand ontogenetic niche shifts in silver croaker inhabiting the southern coastal waters of the Korean peninsula. Sampled were classified into three groups based on their total length (TL; 60-80 mm TL, 80-120 mm TL, and 120-210 mm TL). Carbon isotope (δC) ratios were distinguishable, whereas nitrogen isotope (δN) ratios were not significantly different among size classes, and Standard Ellipse Area (SEA), estimated by δC and δN, was expanded with increasing TL from 0. Read More

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Colonic epithelial adaptation to EGFR-independent growth induces chromosomal instability and is accelerated by prior injury.

Neoplasia 2021 May 24;23(5):488-501. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pathology, Division of GI/Liver Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD USA; Center for Cell Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD USA. Electronic address:

Although much is known about the gene mutations required to drive colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation, the tissue-specific selective microenvironments in which neoplasia arises remains less characterized. Here, we determined whether modulation of intestinal stem cell niche morphogens alone can exert a neoplasia-relevant selective pressure on normal colonic epithelium. Using adult stem cell-derived murine colonic epithelial organoids (colonoids), we employed a strategy of sustained withdrawal of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition to select for and expand survivors. Read More

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Biogeographical Modeling of Alien Worlds.

Astrobiology 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Division of Epidemiology, The New York State Psychiatric Institute at Columbia University, New York Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA.

In this article, we partially quantify the biological potential of an exoplanet. We employ a variety of biogeographical analyses, placing biological evolution in the context of the geological evolution of the planet as a whole. Terrestrial (as in Earthly) biodiversity is tightly constrained in terms of species richness by its environment. Read More

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Metabolic Control of Autoimmunity and Tissue Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:652771. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States.

Like other autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develops in distinct stages, with each phase of disease linked to immune cell dysfunction. HLA class II genes confer the strongest genetic risk to develop RA. They encode for molecules essential in the activation and differentiation of T cells, placing T cells upstream in the immunopathology. Read More

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Regenerative Agriculture: An agronomic perspective.

Outlook Agric 2021 Mar 2;50(1):13-25. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

Agriculture is in crisis. Soil health is collapsing. Biodiversity faces the sixth mass extinction. Read More

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Species packing and the latitudinal gradient in beta-diversity.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Apr 14;288(1948):20203045. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Center of Conservation Biology, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074.

The decline in species richness at higher latitudes is among the most fundamental patterns in ecology. Whether changes in species composition across space (beta-diversity) contribute to this gradient of overall species richness (gamma-diversity) remains hotly debated. Previous studies that failed to resolve the issue suffered from a well-known tendency for small samples in areas with high gamma-diversity to have inflated measures of beta-diversity. Read More

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Integrating single-molecule spectroscopy and simulations for the study of intrinsically disordered proteins.

Methods 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis 63110, MO, USA; Center for Science and Engineering of Living Systems (CSELS), Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis 63130, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Over the last two decades, intrinsically disordered proteins and protein regions (IDRs) have emerged from a niche corner of biophysics to be recognized as essential drivers of cellular function. Various techniques have provided fundamental insight into the function and dysfunction of IDRs. Among these techniques, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular simulations have played a major role in shaping our modern understanding of the sequence-encoded conformational behavior of disordered proteins. Read More

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Extracellular Vesicles: Novel Opportunities to Understand and Detect Neoplastic Diseases.

Vet Pathol 2021 May 5;58(3):453-471. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

90051Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

With a size range from 30 to 1000 nm, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are one of the smallest cell components able to transport biologically active molecules. They mediate intercellular communications and play a fundamental role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and pathogenesis in several types of diseases. In particular, EVs actively contribute to cancer initiation and progression, and there is emerging understanding of their role in creation of the metastatic niche. Read More

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Rebuilding the hematopoietic stem cell niche: Recent developments and future prospects.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Herrenhaeuser Str. 2, 30419 Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have proven their clinical relevance in stem cell transplantation to cure patients with hematological disorders. Key to their regenerative potential is their natural microenvironment - their niche - in the bone marrow (BM). Developments in the field of biomaterials enable the recreation of such environments with increasing preciseness in the laboratory. Read More

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Load in Host Cells and the Antibacterial Activity of Alveolar Macrophages Are Linked and Differentially Regulated in Various Lung Lesions of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 26;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Scientific Department, Ural Research Institute for Phthisiopulmonology, National Medical Research Center of Tuberculosis and Infectious Diseases of Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 50 XXII Partsyezda Street, 620039 Yekaterinburg, Russia.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by () infection with the formation of a broad range of abnormal lung lesions within a single patient. Although host-pathogen interactions determine disease outcome, they are poorly understood within individual lesions at different stages of maturation. We compared load in a tuberculoma wall and the lung tissue distant from tuberculomas in TB patients. Read More

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Distinct Expression Patterns of Cxcl12 in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Niches of Intact and Injured Rodent Teeth.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 16;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Orofacial Development and Regeneration, Institute of Oral Biology, Medical Faculty, University of Zurich, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland.

Specific stem cell populations within dental mesenchymal tissues guarantee tooth homeostasis and regeneration throughout life. The decision between renewal and differentiation of stem cells is greatly influenced by interactions with stromal cells and extracellular matrix molecules that form the tissue specific stem cell niches. The chemokine is a general marker of stromal cells and plays fundamental roles in the maintenance, mobilization and migration of stem cells. Read More

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Deep-sea predator niche segregation revealed by combined cetacean biologging and eDNA analysis of cephalopod prey.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 31;7(14). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Fundamental insight on predator-prey dynamics in the deep sea is hampered by a lack of combined data on hunting behavior and prey spectra. Deep-sea niche segregation may evolve when predators target specific prey communities, but this hypothesis remains untested. We combined environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding with biologging to assess cephalopod community composition in the deep-sea foraging habitat of two top predator cetaceans. Read More

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Evolution of specialization in a plant-microbial mutualism is explained by the oscillation theory of speciation.

Evolution 2021 May 16;75(5):1070-1086. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, University of California, Riverside, California, 92521.

Specialization in mutualisms is thought to be a major driver of diversification, but few studies have explored how novel specialization evolves, or its relation to the evolution of other niche axes. A fundamental question is whether generalist interactions evolve to become more specialized (i.e. Read More

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Unconventional Approaches in Coordination Chemistry and Organometallic Reactivity.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 11;6(11):7240-7247. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, Donostia, 20018, Spain.

This contribution highlights a number of approaches developed by coordination and organometallic chemists that go beyond mainstream inorganic reactivity. A few of these strategies have been known for decades and are fundamental tools in synthesis and catalysis, while others are more recent and still belong to a niche. Through selected examples, we show herein how transmetalation, metal exchange, metal cooperativity, and catalytic transformation of metal complexes provide unique new opportunities to expand the reactivity arsenal of inorganic systems for synthetic and technological applications. Read More

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Range edges of North American marine species are tracking temperature over decades.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Understanding the dynamics of species range edges in the modern era is key to addressing fundamental biogeographic questions about abiotic and biotic drivers of species distributions. Range edges are where colonization and extirpation processes unfold, and so these dynamics are also important to understand for effective natural resource management and conservation. However, few studies to date have analyzed time series of range edge positions in the context of climate change, in part because range edges are difficult to detect. Read More

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Hormonal Regulation of Stem Cell Proliferation at the Root Stem Cell Niche.

Front Plant Sci 2021 3;12:628491. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Laboratorio de Genética Molecular, Desarrollo y Evolución de Plantas, Departamento de Ecología Funcional, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

The root stem cell niche (SCN) of consists of the quiescent center (QC) cells and the surrounding initial stem cells that produce progeny to replenish all the tissues of the root. The QC cells divide rather slowly relative to the initials, yet most root tissues can be formed from these cells, depending on the requirements of the plant. Hormones are fundamental cues that link such needs with the cell proliferation and differentiation dynamics at the root SCN. Read More

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Stage-Specific Synthesis of Very-Long-Chain Dihydroceramides Confers Dormancy to Parasites.

mSphere 2021 03 17;6(2). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Laboratory for Metabolomics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan

Amoebiasis is a parasitic disease caused by infection and is a serious public health problem worldwide due to ill-prepared preventive measures as well as its high morbidity and mortality rates. Amoebiasis transmission is solely mediated by cysts. Cysts are produced by the differentiation of proliferative trophozoites in a process termed "encystation. Read More

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Whistle signal variations among three Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin populations in the South China Sea: a combined effect of the Qiongzhou Strait's geographical barrier function and local ambient noise?

Integr Zool 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

The Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Geographic variations in the dolphin whistles could be useful in assessing association and isolation among populations. Whistle of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) among the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), Leizhou Bei (LZB) and Sanniang Bay (SNB) populations were investigated. A total of 2850 whistles with legible fundamental contour were extracted and 15 acoustic parameters were measured. Read More

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Polyfunctionality of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in health and disease: Implications for therapeutic interventions in cancer and immune-mediated diseases.

FASEB J 2021 Apr;35(4):e21260

Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Historically the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its canonical ligand CXCL12 are associated with the bone marrow niche and hematopoiesis. However, CXCL12 exhibits broad tissue expression including brain, thymus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and bone marrow. CXCR4 can be considered as a node which is integrating and transducing inputs from a range of ligand-receptor interactions into a responsive and divergent network of intracellular signaling pathways that impact multiple cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, and stress resistance. Read More

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Exploring the Composition and Functions of Plastic Microbiome Using Whole-Genome Sequencing.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 9;55(8):4899-4913. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Global Innovative Centre for Advanced Nanomaterials, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia.

Besides the ecotoxicological consequences of microplastics and associated chemicals, the association of microbes on plastics has greater environmental implications as microplastics may select for unique microbiome participating in environmentally significant functions. Despite this, the functional potential of the microbiome associated with different types of plastics is understudied. Here, we investigate the interaction between plastic and marine biofilm-forming microorganisms through a whole-genome sequencing approach on four types of microplastics incubated in the marine environment. Read More

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Rosaceae, Brassicaceae and pollen beetles: exploring relationships and evolution in an anthophilous beetle lineage (Nitidulidae, Meligethes-complex of genera) using an integrative approach.

Front Zool 2021 Mar 6;18(1). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie "Charles Darwin", Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.

Background: Meligethes are pollen-beetles associated with flowers of Rosaceae as larvae. This genus currently consists of 63 known species in two subgenera, Meligethes and Odonthogethes, predominantly occurring in the eastern Palaearctic. We analyzed 74 morphological and ecological characters (169 states) of all species, as well as of 11 outgroup species from 7 Meligethinae genera (including Brassicogethes), to investigate their phylogeny. Read More

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An ecological niche shift for Neanderthal populations in Western Europe 70,000 years ago.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5346. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

University of Bordeaux, CNRS, MCC, PACEA, UMR 5199, Bâtiment B2, Allée Geoffroy St. Hilaire, CS 50023, 33600, Pessac, France.

Middle Paleolithic Neanderthal populations occupied Eurasia for at least 250,000 years prior to the arrival of anatomically modern humans. While a considerable body of archaeological research has focused on Neanderthal material culture and subsistence strategies, little attention has been paid to the relationship between regionally specific cultural trajectories and their associated existing fundamental ecological niches, nor to how the latter varied across periods of climatic variability. We examine the Middle Paleolithic archaeological record of a naturally constrained region of Western Europe between 82,000 and 60,000 years ago using ecological niche modeling methods. Read More

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Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis: Lessons from Animal Models to Clinical Aspects.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 22;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Division of Experimental Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8503, Japan.

Inflammation-related carcinogenesis has long been known as one of the carcinogenesis patterns in humans. Common carcinogenic factors are inflammation caused by infection with pathogens or the uptake of foreign substances from the environment into the body. Inflammation-related carcinogenesis as a cause for cancer-related death worldwide accounts for approximately 20%, and the incidence varies widely by continent, country, and even region of the country and can be affected by economic status or development. Read More

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February 2021

Synergistic Roles of Curcumin in Sensitising the Cisplatin Effect on a Cancer Stem Cell-Like Population Derived from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines.

Molecules 2021 Feb 18;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Lung Stem Cell and Gene Therapy Group, Regenerative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (IPPT), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Sains@Bertam Kepala Batas, Penang 13200, Malaysia.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation within a tumour. These cells possess stem cell-like properties but also initiate resistance to cytotoxic agents, which contributes to cancer relapse. Natural compounds such as curcumin that contain high amounts of polyphenols can have a chemosensitivity effect that sensitises CSCs to cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. Read More

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February 2021

Temperature Influenced the Comammox Community Composition in Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants.

Microb Ecol 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Yangtze Institute for Conservation and Development, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, Jiangsu Province, China.

Nitrification is a pivotal step applied in water engineered systems for nitrogen removal. Temperature variation due to seasonal changes is a great challenge for maintaining nitrogen removal efficiency in water engineered ecosystems by affecting nitrifier activities. Research on the abundance, activity, and metabolic characteristics of nitrifiers can provide information for selecting suitable design parameters to ensure efficient nitrogen removal in different seasons. Read More

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