7,603 results match your criteria functions epigenetic

Unravelling HP1 functions: post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell fate.

Chromosoma 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology "C. Darwin", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a non-histone chromosomal protein first identified in Drosophila as a major component of constitutive heterochromatin, required for stable epigenetic gene silencing in many species including humans. Over the years, several studies have highlighted additional roles of HP1 in different cellular processes including telomere maintenance, DNA replication and repair, chromosome segregation and, surprisingly, positive regulation of gene expression. In this review, we briefly summarize past research and recent results supporting the unexpected and emerging role of HP1 in activating gene expression. Read More

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TCF1 in T cell immunity: a broadened frontier.

Nat Rev Immunol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Discovery and Innovation, Hackensack University Medical Center, Nutley, NJ, USA.

TCF1 and its homologue LEF1 are historically known as effector transcription factors downstream of the WNT signalling pathway and are essential for early T cell development. Recent advances bring TCF1 into the spotlight for its versatile, context-dependent functions in regulating mature T cell responses. In the cytotoxic T cell lineages, TCF1 is required for the self-renewal of stem-like CD8 T cells generated in response to viral or tumour antigens, and for preserving heightened responses to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Read More

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Defining the Molecular Hallmarks of T-Cell Memory.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

The pool of memory CD8 T cells is comprised of highly specialized subpopulations of cells with both shared and distinct functions. The ongoing study of T-cell memory is focused on how these different subpopulations arise, how the cells are maintained over the life of the host, and how the cells protect a host against reinfection. As a field we have used the convenience of a narrow range of surface markers to define and study these memory T-cell subsets. Read More

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Expression of Parkin, APC, APE1, and Bcl-xL in Colorectal Polyps.

J Histochem Cytochem 2021 Jun 15:221554211026296. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, Brazil.

Colorectal cancer can develop through molecular, chromosomal, and epigenetic cumulative changes that transform the normal intestinal epithelium into the colorectal polyps, called conventional adenomas (CAs) or serrated polyps (SPs), recognized as precursors of invasive colorectal neoplasia. These benign lesions need to explore the morphology, histological diagnosis, and biomarkers profile to accurately characterize lesions with potential for evolution to cancer. This study aimed to correlate the immunohistochemical expression of Parkin and Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC; tumor suppressors), Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), and B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xL; oncogenic proteins) in sporadic colorectal polyps with clinical, endoscopic, and diagnostic data. Read More

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Retracted Article: Divergent synthesis of 5-substituted pyrimidine 2'-deoxynucleosides and their incorporation into oligodeoxynucleotides for the survey of uracil DNA glycosylases.

Chem Sci 2020 Oct 7;11(43):11818-11826. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond VA 23219 USA +1-804-828-7405.

Recent studies have indicated that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) residues in DNA can be oxidized and potentially deaminated to the corresponding thymine analogs. Some of these oxidative DNA damages have been implicated as new epigenetic markers that could have profound influences on chromatin function as well as disease pathology. In response to oxidative damage, the cells have a complex network of repair systems that recognize, remove and rebuild the lesions. Read More

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October 2020

Evaluation of the prognostic value of CBXs in gastric cancer patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12375. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Hainan Medical University, Longhua District, No.3 Xueyuan Road, Haikou, 570216, China.

Chromobox (CBX) proteins were suggested to exert epigenetic regulatory and transcriptionally repressing effects on target genes and might play key roles in the carcinogenesis of a variety of carcinomas. Nevertheless, the functions and prognostic significance of CBXs in gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. The current study investigated the roles of CBXs in the prognosis of GC using the Oncomine, The Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), UALCAN, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and cBioPortal databases. Read More

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Metabolism and detoxification of pesticides in plants.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 1;790:148034. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Pesticide Science, College of Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

Pesticides make indispensable contributions to agricultural productivity. However, the residues after their excessive use may be harmful to crop production, food safety and human health. Although the ability of plants (especially crops) to accumulate and metabolize pesticides has been intensively investigated, data describing the chemical and metabolic processes in plants are limited. Read More

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"Modulating Phosphoinositide Profiles as a Roadmap for Treatment in Acute Myeloid Leukemia".

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:678824. Epub 2021 May 24.

Cellular Signalling Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences (DIBINEM), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Polyphosphoinositides (PPIns) and their modulating enzymes are involved in regulating many important cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation or gene expression, and their deregulation is involved in human diseases such as metabolic syndromes, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, including Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Given that PPIns regulating enzymes are highly druggable targets, several studies have recently highlighted the potential of targeting them in AML. For instance many inhibitors targeting the PI3K pathway are in various stages of clinical development and more recently other novel enzymes such as PIP4K2A have been implicated as AML targets. Read More

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Epigenomics in Hurthle Cell Neoplasms: Filling in the Gaps Towards Clinical Application.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 24;12:674666. Epub 2021 May 24.

Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (i3S), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

It has been widely described that cancer genomes have frequent alterations to the epigenome, including epigenetic silencing of various tumor suppressor genes with functions in almost all cancer-relevant signalling pathways, such as apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell migration and DNA repair. Epigenetic alterations comprise DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs dysregulated expression and they play a significant role in the differentiation and proliferation properties of TC. In this review, our group assessed the published evidence on the tumorigenic role of epigenomics in Hurthle cell neoplasms (HCN), highlighting the yet limited, heteregeneous and non-validated data preventing its current use in clinical practice, despite the well developed assessment techniques available. Read More

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MPDZ as a novel epigenetic silenced tumor suppressor inhibits growth and progression of lung cancer through the Hippo-YAP pathway.

Oncogene 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Toxicology, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, PR China.

MPDZ also named MUPP1 is involved in signal transduction mediated by the formation of protein complexes. However, the expression regulation, clinical significance, potential function, and mechanism of this gene in lung cancer remain unclear. Methylation status of MPDZ was measured by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing. Read More

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Translation and codon usage regulate Argonaute slicer activity to trigger small RNA biogenesis.

Nat Commun 2021 06 9;12(1):3492. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Mechanisms of Epigenetic Inheritance, Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Institut Pasteur, UMR3738, CNRS, Paris, France.

In the Caenorhabditis elegans germline, thousands of mRNAs are concomitantly expressed with antisense 22G-RNAs, which are loaded into the Argonaute CSR-1. Despite their essential functions for animal fertility and embryonic development, how CSR-1 22G-RNAs are produced remains unknown. Here, we show that CSR-1 slicer activity is primarily involved in triggering the synthesis of small RNAs on the coding sequences of germline mRNAs and post-transcriptionally regulates a fraction of targets. Read More

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Structural Insights into the Mechanism of Base Excision by MBD4.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jun 6:167097. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address:

DNA glycosylases remove damaged or modified nucleobases by cleaving the N-glycosyl bond and the correct nucleotide is restored through subsequent base excision repair. In addition to excising threatening lesions, DNA glycosylases contribute to epigenetic regulation by mediating DNA demethylation and perform other important functions. However, the catalytic mechanism remains poorly defined for many glycosylases, including MBD4 (methyl-CpG binding domain IV), a member of the helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) superfamily. Read More

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Epigenetic Plasticity Enables CNS-Trafficking of EBV-infected B Lymphocytes.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jun 9;17(6):e1009618. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Subpopulations of B-lymphocytes traffic to different sites and organs to provide diverse and tissue-specific functions. Here, we provide evidence that epigenetic differences confer a neuroinvasive phenotype. An EBV+ B cell lymphoma cell line (M14) with low frequency trafficking to the CNS was neuroadapted to generate a highly neuroinvasive B-cell population (MUN14). Read More

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Somatic Mutation Profiling of Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas by Whole-exome Sequencing and Its Relationship with Clinical Characteristics.

Int J Med Sci 2021 26;18(12):2532-2544. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225012, China.

The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the tumorigenesis of PTCs have remained largely unknown. Next-generation-sequencing (NGS) provides new ways to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of PTCs. Read More

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Promoter Methylation-mediated Silencing of the MiR-192-5p Promotes Endometrial Cancer Progression by Targeting ALX1.

Int J Med Sci 2021 26;18(12):2510-2520. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

: Epigenetic regulation by promoter methylation-mediated silencing of cancer-related microRNAs plays vital roles in tumorigenesis. MiR-192-5p promotes tumor progression in various human cancers with conflicting biological effects. However, its expression levels and biological functions in endometrial carcinoma (EC) have not been reported. Read More

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Genes for RNA-binding proteins involved in neural-specific functions and diseases are downregulated in Rubinstein-Taybi iNeurons.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Jan;17(1):5-14

Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milano, Italy.

Taking advantage of the fast-growing knowledge of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) we review the signature of downregulated genes for RBPs in the transcriptome of induced pluripotent stem cell neurons (iNeurons) modelling the neurodevelopmental Rubinstein Taybi Syndrome (RSTS) caused by mutations in the genes encoding CBP/p300 acetyltransferases. We discuss top and functionally connected downregulated genes sorted to "RNA processing" and "Ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis" Gene Ontology clusters. The first set of downregulated RBPs includes members of hnRNHP (A1, A2B1, D, G, H2-H1, MAGOHB, PAPBC), core subunits of U small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and Serine-Arginine splicing regulators families, acting in precursor messenger RNA alternative splicing and processing. Read More

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January 2022

lncRNA TRMP-S directs dual mechanisms to regulate p27-mediated cellular senescence.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Jun 9;24:971-985. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Translational Research Institute, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine, Henan University, Zhengzhou 450003, China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) undergo extensive alternative splicing, but little is known about isoform functions. A prior investigation of lncRNA reported that its splice variant TRMP suppressed p27 translation through PTBP1. Here we characterize a second major splice variant, TRMP-S (short variant), whose enforced loss promotes cancer cell-cycle arrest and p27-dependent entry into cellular senescence. Read More

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Dynamics of DNA Methylation and Its Functions in Plant Growth and Development.

Front Plant Sci 2021 21;12:596236. Epub 2021 May 21.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.

Epigenetic modifications in DNA bases and histone proteins play important roles in the regulation of gene expression and genome stability. Chemical modification of DNA base (e.g. Read More

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Epigenetic Changes Associated With Exposure to Glyphosate-Based Herbicides in Mammals.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 21;12:671991. Epub 2021 May 21.

Instituto de Salud y Ambiente del Litoral (ISAL), Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL)- Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina.

Glyphosate is a phosphonomethyl amino acid derivative present in a number of non-selective and systemic herbicides. During the last years the use of glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) has been increasing exponentially around the world, including Argentina. This fact added to the detection of glyphosate, and its main metabolite, amino methylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in environmental matrices such as soil, sediments, and food, has generated great concern about its risks for humans, animals, and environment. Read More

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TSHZ3 functions as a tumor suppressor by DNA methylation in colorectal cancer.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 2:101725. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Teashirt zinc finger homeobox 3 (TSHZ3) is currently reported to be aberrantly expressed in several tumors, but the detailed functions and epigenetic mechanisms of TSHZ3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear.

Materials And Methods: In this study, the TSHZ3 expression in 118 CRC and normal adjacent tissues (NATs) was evaluated, and the methylation status of the TSZH3 promoter region in CRC tissues and cell lines was also analyzed.

Results: The results of PCR analysis showed that TSHZ3 was significantly down-regulated in CRC tissues, and patients with low TSHZ3 levels had a poorer 5-year overall survival (OS) rate. Read More

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Functional characterization of RebL1 highlights the evolutionary conservation of oncogenic activities of the RBBP4/7 orthologue in Tetrahymena thermophila.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria St., Toronto M5B 2K3, Canada.

Retinoblastoma-binding proteins 4 and 7 (RBBP4 and RBBP7) are two highly homologous human histone chaperones. They function in epigenetic regulation as subunits of multiple chromatin-related complexes and have been implicated in numerous cancers. Due to their overlapping functions, our understanding of RBBP4 and 7, particularly outside of Opisthokonts, has remained limited. Read More

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Embryonic developmental arrest in the annual killifish Austrolebias charrua: A proteomic approach to diapause III.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0251820. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Organismos Acuáticos, Sección Biología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Diapause is a reversible developmental arrest faced by many organisms in harsh environments. Annual killifish present this mechanism in three possible stages of development. Killifish are freshwater teleosts from Africa and America that live in ephemeral ponds, which dry up in the dry season. Read More

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Dynamics of alternative splicing during somatic cell reprogramming reveals functions for RNA-binding proteins CPSF3, hnRNP UL1, and TIA1.

Genome Biol 2021 Jun 3;22(1):171. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Carrer del Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Somatic cell reprogramming is the process that allows differentiated cells to revert to a pluripotent state. In contrast to the extensively studied rewiring of epigenetic and transcriptional programs required for reprogramming, the dynamics of post-transcriptional changes and their associated regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we study the dynamics of alternative splicing changes occurring during efficient reprogramming of mouse B cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and compare them to those occurring during reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Read More

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Roles of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) in homeostasis and diseases.

J Biomed Sci 2021 Jun 4;28(1):41. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Creative Research Initiatives Center for Epigenetic Code and Diseases, Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) targets mono- or di-methylated histone H3K4 and H3K9 as well as non-histone substrates and functions in the regulation of gene expression as a transcriptional repressor or activator. This enzyme plays a pivotal role in various physiological processes, including development, differentiation, inflammation, thermogenesis, neuronal and cerebral physiology, and the maintenance of stemness in stem cells. LSD1 also participates in pathological processes, including cancer as the most representative disease. Read More

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Comprehensive DNA methylation-transcriptome profiles association analysis During the Treatment of Acute Myelocytic Leukemia.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Hematology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background: Epigenetic modifications have recently attracted much attention in the study of the biological mechanisms of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) for therapy and prognosis. However, studies on DNA methylation changes during AML treatment are limited.

Objective: The comprehensive DNA methylation-transcriptome profiles association analysis in this study aimed to establish whole-genome DNA methylation profiles and explore DNA methylation-related genes and their potential functions before and after treatment. Read More

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Histone deacetylase 2 selective inhibitors: A versatile therapeutic strategy as next generation drug target in cancer therapy.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 1;170:105695. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Biophysics, Manipal School of Life Sciences, MAHE, Manipal, India. Electronic address:

Acetylation and deacetylation of histone and several non-histone proteins are the two important processes amongst the different modes of epigenetic modulation that are involved in regulating cancer initiation and development. Abnormal expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is often reported in various types of cancers. Few pan HDAC inhibitors have been approved for use as therapeutic interventions for cancer treatment including vorinostat, belinostat and panobinostat. Read More

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SOX17 Antagonizes the WNT Signaling Pathway and is Epigenetically Inactivated in Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 24;14:3383-3394. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pathology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004, People's Republic of China.

Background: SRY-box containing gene 17 (SOX17) was reported to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene in multiple tumors. Little is known about its role in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). This study aims to identify the epigenetic regulation and tumor-suppressive function of SOX17 in ccRCC. Read More

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Epigenetic reprogramming promotes the antiviral action of IFNα in HBV-infected cells.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jun 2;7(1):130. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Liver Cancer Prevention Research Unit, RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, Wako, Japan.

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections remain a health burden affecting ~250 million people worldwide. Thus far, available interferon-alpha (IFNα)-based therapies have shown unsatisfactory cure rates, and alternative therapeutic molecules are still required. However, their development has been hampered because accessible cell models supporting relevant HBV replication and appropriate antiviral activity are lacking. Read More

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UNC5 dependence receptor family in human cancer: A controllable double-edged sword.

Cancer Lett 2021 May 30;516:28-35. Epub 2021 May 30.

Kyushu International Heavy Particle Beam Cancer Radiotherapy Center (SAGA HIMAT Foundation), Tosu, Japan. Electronic address:

UNC5 receptor family (UNC5A-D) have been identified as dependence receptors whose functions depend on the availability of their ligand netrin-1. Through binding to netrin-1, these receptors transmit signals for cell survival, migration and differentiation, and participate in diverse physiological and pathological processes. In the lack of netrin-1, however, these receptors initiate apoptosis-inducing signal. Read More

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Inhibiting an RBM39/MLL1 epigenomic regulatory complex with dominant-negative peptides disrupts cancer cell transcription and proliferation.

Cell Rep 2021 Jun;35(9):109156

Department of Molecular and Functional Genomics, Weis Center for Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, USA; Department Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. Electronic address:

RBM39 is a known splicing factor and coactivator. Here, we report that RBM39 functions as a master transcriptional regulator that interacts with the MLL1 complex to facilitate chromatin binding and H3K4 trimethylation in breast cancer cells. We identify RBM39 functional domains required for DNA and complex binding and show that the loss of RBM39 has widespread effects on H3K4me3 and gene expression, including key oncogenic pathways. Read More

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