6,968 results match your criteria functional monomer


New Impedimetric Sandwich Immunosensor for Ultrasensitive and Highly Specific Detection of Spike Receptor Binding Domain Protein of SARS-CoV-2.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Bioengineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale 17100, Turkey.

An impedance sensing platform-combined conducting nanocomposite layer was fabricated to develop an effective and rapid method for detection of coronavirus infection (COVID-19) specific spike receptor binding domain (RBD) protein, a precious antigen marker of COVID-19 disease. Coronavirus infection has spread globally and swiftly with major impacts on health, economy, and quality of life of communities. Fast and reliable detection of COVID-19 is a very significant issue for the effective treatment of this bad illness. Read More

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Diels-Alder Cross-Linked, Washing-Free Hydrogel Films with Ordered Wrinkling Patterns for Multicellular Spheroid Generation.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials and State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Three-dimensional (3D) multicellular spheroids are a new generation cell model, however, their applications are severely limited by difficulties in their generation. Here patterned poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogel films were synthesized for their generation. Instead of polymerization of HEMA monomers in the presence of a cross-linker, here the PHEMA films were synthesized by cross-linking furan-functionalized linear PHEMA, PHEMA-furan, and maleimide-functionalized linear PHEMA, PHEMA-mal, via Diels-Alder (DA) reaction between furan and maleimide groups. Read More

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Dual-imprinted organic/inorganic nanocomposite membranes with highly selective polydopamine-intimated nanostructures for pharmaceutically active compound separation.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 7;604:691-704. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Institute of Green Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Advanced Chemical Engineering Laboratory of Green Materials and Energy of Jiangsu Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Here, the graphene oxide (GO)/SiO-loaded dual-imprinted membranes (GS-DIMs) were constructed based on the self-polymerization imprinting technique of dopamine, in which a twice polydopamine (PDA)-based imprinting strategy had been successfully developed to obtain the three-dimensional nanocomposite membrane-based separation system. Meanwhile, the pollution-intensive antibiotics of tetracycline (TC) was used as template molecule throughout the GS-DIMs synthesis, and the dopamine molecules were simultaneously used as functional monomer and cross-linking agent during the twice polydopamine (PDA)-based imprinting processes. Therefore, dual-TC-imprinted sites had been prepared based on the as-designed dual imprinting processes, the as-prepared GS-DIMs-based separation system with dual-TC-imprinted structures could not only allow for the largely enhanced rebinding result of 65. Read More

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Monodisperse Liquid Crystalline Polymer Shells with Programmable Alignment and Shape Prepared by Seeded Dispersion Polymerization.

Macromolecules 2021 Jul 22;54(13):6052-6060. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Stimuli-responsive Functional Materials and Devices, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Monodisperse, micrometer-sized liquid crystalline (LC) shells are prepared by seeded dispersion polymerization. After polymerizing LC monomer mixtures in the presence of non-crosslinked polymer seeds, hollow LC polymer shells with programmable alignment and shape are prepared by removing the seeds. The LC alignment in the LC polymer shells can be easily manipulated by the polymer seeds, as a radial alignment is observed with amorphous poly(phenyl methacrylate) seeds and a bipolar alignment is observed with bipolar LC polymer seeds. Read More

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pH-Responsive Capsule Polymer Particles Prepared by Interfacial Photo-Cross-Linking: Effect of the Alkyl Chain Length of the pH-Responsive Monomer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.

pH-responsive capsule particles have immense potential for use in various advanced fields, such as microreactors and drug delivery. Moreover, the interfacial photo-cross-linking of spherical polymer particles is a promising strategy to create various functional capsule particles. In this study, pH-responsive capsule polymer particles were prepared by interfacial photo-cross-linking with photo-reactive polymers possessing different pH-responsive monomer units of different alkyl chain lengths, namely, 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, 2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate, and 2-diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate. Read More

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Structural and mechanistic insights into amyloid-β and α-synuclein fibril formation and polyphenol inhibitor efficacy in phospholipid bilayers.

FEBS J 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia.

Under certain cellular conditions functional proteins undergo misfolding, leading to a transition into oligomers which precede formation of amyloid fibrils. Misfolding proteins are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. While the importance of lipid membranes in misfolding and disease aetiology is broadly accepted, the influence of lipid membranes during therapeutic design has been largely overlooked. Read More

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Evaluation of the effects of three pretreatment conditioners and a surface preparation system on the bonding durability of composite resin adhesive to a gold alloy.

Dent Mater J 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Fixed Prosthetic Dentistry, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pretreatment conditioners and surface preparations on a composite resin adhesive for a gold alloy. Cast disk specimens were made and bonded with RelyX Unicem luting agent under six surface conditions: 1) polished with No.600 carbide paper, 2) air-abraded with alumina, 3) Alloy Primer metal conditioner was applied after alumina-abrasion, 4) Monobond Plus multipurpose conditioner was applied after alumina-abrasion, 5) M. Read More

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UV-Cured Cross-Linked Astounding Conductive Polymer Electrolyte for Safe and High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, The Republic of Korea.

UV-cured cross-linked polymer electrolytes are promising electrolytes for safe Li-ion batteries (LIBs) application due to their excellent conduction ability, low glass-transition temperature (), and high discharge capacity. Herein, we have prepared novel fluorosulfonylimide methacrylic-based cross-linked polymer electrolyte membranes for LIBs via UV-curing process, which is a well-known, easy, low-cost, fast, and reliable technique. The synthesized UV-reactive novel methacrylate monomer with directly attached fluorosulfonylimide functional group methacryloylcarbamoyl sulfamoyl fluoride (MACSF) was used as a precursor for UV curing along with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI). Read More

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Assessment of trace levels of aflatoxins AFB1 and AFB2 in non-dairy beverages by molecularly imprinted polymer based micro solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Anal Methods 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Trace Element, Spectroscopy and Speciation Group (GETEE), Strategic Grouping in Materials (AEMAT), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Avenida das Ciencias, s/n, 15782-Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

A selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbent was synthesised and used in a batch micro-solid phase extraction format for isolating aflatoxins (AFB1, and AFB2) from non-dairy beverages before liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination. MIP synthesis (precipitation polymerization in 3 : 1 acetonitrile/toluene as a porogen) was performed with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC), methacrylic acid (MAA) and divinylbenzene-80 (DVB) as a dummy template, functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively (1 : 4 : 20 molar ratio). 2,2'-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) was used as a polymerization initiator. Read More

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Crystal structures of Rib2 deaminase: the functional mechanism involved in riboflavin biosynthesis.

IUCrJ 2021 Jul 5;8(Pt 4):549-558. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.

Riboflavin serves as the direct precursor of the FAD/FMN coenzymes and is biosynthesized in most prokaryotes, fungi and plants. Fungal Rib2 possesses a deaminase domain for deamination of pyrimidine in the third step of riboflavin biosynthesis. Here, four high-resolution crystal structures of a Rib2 deaminase from (AoRib2) are reported which display three distinct occluded, open and complex forms that are involved in substrate binding and catalysis. Read More

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3D printing of lubricative stiff supramolecular polymer hydrogels for meniscus replacement.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China.

3D printing of a stiff and lubricative hydrogel-based meniscus substitute has been challenging since printability and stiffness compromise each other. In this work, based on an upgraded self-thickening and self-strengthening strategy, a unique multiple H-bonding monomer N-acryloylsemicarbazide (NASC) is firstly copolymerized with a super-hydrophilic monomer carboxybetaine acrylamide (CBAA) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/H2O to form a soft poly(NASC-co-CBAA) gel, in which PCBAA serves to weaken the H-bonding interaction and avoid hydrophobic phase separation. The poly(NASC-co-CBAA) gel is then loaded with concentrated NASC and CBAA, followed by heating to form a thickening sol ink, which is printed into different objects that are further photoirradiated to initiate the copolymerization of entrapped NASC and CBAA, resulting in the formation of a high performance hydrogel with a Young's modulus of 10. Read More

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Improving the SAFT-γ Mie equation of state to account for functional group interactions in a structural (s-SAFT-γ Mie) framework: Linear and branched alkanes.

J Chem Phys 2021 Jun;154(24):244102

Department of Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Banghoek Road, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa.

The group contribution SAFT-γ Mie EoS is based on the statistical associating fluid theory for fused heteronuclear molecules. While the chain term of the model has been modified to account for the new functional group-specific parameters, it does not impose a bonding order to these functional groups, only considering intergroup interactions in the monomer reference fluid. This leaves the model unable to account for the different physical properties of structural isomers and implicitly introducing modeling bias to species where the molecular structure mimics those used in the parameter regression. Read More

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Binding and stability of MgO monomers on anatase TiO(101).

J Chem Phys 2021 May;154(20):204703

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate and Institute for Integrated Catalysis, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, USA.

In catalysis, MgO is often used to modify the acid-base properties of support oxides and to stabilize supported metal atoms and particles on oxides. In this study, we show how the sublimation of MgO powder can be used to deposit MgO monomers, hither on anatase TiO(101). A combination of x-ray electron spectroscopy, high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory is employed to gain insight into the MgO monomer binding, electronic and vibrational properties, and thermal stability. Read More

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Nickel, chromium and methyl methacrylate monomer release from orthopaedic functional appliances.

Eur J Paediatr Dent 2021 Jun;22(2):144-150

Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea Department of Orthodontics, Kyung Hee University Dental Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Korea.

Aim: This study was purposed to evaluate release of nickel and chromium ions and methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomers from functional appliances and their possible health effects.

Materials And Methods: Study design: Twin-block appliances and Bionators were immersed in artificial saliva and kept in a thermal incubator. Control group was established as artificial saliva without appliances. Read More

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Precise Amphiphilic Giant Polymeric Chain Based on Nanosized Monomers with Exact Regio-Configuration.

ACS Nano 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

South China Advanced Institute for Soft Matter Science and Technology, School of Molecular Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Polymeric chains made of "giant" monomers at a larger length scale provide intriguing insights into the fundamental principles of polymer science. In this study, we modularly prepared a library of discrete amphiphilic polymeric chains using molecular nanoparticles as repeat units, with exact control of composition, chain length, surface property, and regio-configuration. These giant polymeric chains self-assembled into a rich collection of highly ordered phases. Read More

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Collaboration between Trinuclear Aluminum Complexes Bearing Bipyrazoles in the Ring-Opening Polymerization of ε-Caprolactone.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jul 7;60(14):10535-10549. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Minato City 108-8345, Tokyo, Japan.

Trinuclear aluminum complexes bearing bipyrazoles were synthesized, and their catalytic activity for ε-caprolactone (CL) polymerization was investigated. exhibited higher catalytic activity than did the dinuclear aluminum complex (16 times as high for CL polymerization; [CL]:[]:[BnOH] = 100:0.5:5, [] = 10 mM, conversion 93% after 18 min at room temperature). Read More

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[Preparation of luminescent silica nanoparticles with immobilized metal ion affinity for labeling phosphorylated proteins in Western Blot].

Se Pu 2021 Apr;39(4):384-390

State Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry and Natural Products Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China.

Protein phosphorylation is an important type of post-translational protein modification. In Western Blot experiment, the assay of phosphoproteins need special phospho antibodies, which are expensive, difficult to preserve, poorly reproducible. To this end, the immobilized metal ion affinity luminescent silica nanoparticles for instead of phospho antibodies were prepared. Read More

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[Fabrication of nanomaterials incorporated polymeric monoliths and application in sample pretreatment].

Se Pu 2021 Mar;39(3):229-240

School of Public Health, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan 063210, China.

Polymeric monolithic columns are fabricated by in situ polymerization of the corresponding monomer, crosslinkers, porogenic solvents and radical initiators within a mold. Compared with the conventional packed solid phase extraction adsorbents, polymeric monolithic columns with a continuous porous structure process distinctive advantages of rapid mass transfer and excellent permeability, which facilitates the extraction of trace amounts of the target from the matrix even at high flow velocities. Besides, these materials can be easily fabricated in situ within various cartridges, avoiding a further packing step associated with packed particulate adsorbents. Read More

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Cryo-EM structure and dynamics of the green-light absorbing proteorhodopsin.

Nat Commun 2021 07 5;12(1):4107. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

The green-light absorbing proteorhodopsin (GPR) is the archetype of bacterial light-driven proton pumps. Here, we present the 2.9 Å cryo-EM structure of pentameric GPR, resolving important residues of the proton translocation pathway and the oligomerization interface. Read More

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Separation and enrichment of sibiskoside from Sibiraea angustat with magnetic surface dummy template molecularly imprinted polymers.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 May 26;1178:122767. Epub 2021 May 26.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China. Electronic address:

In this work, a novel strategy was developed for separation and enrichment of sibiskoside by dummy molecular imprinting technology and magnetic separation technology. The structural analogue geniposide was selected as the dummy template, using 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent, and acetonitrile as the porogen. The molecularly imprinted layer was formed on the surface of the magnetic carrier to prepare dummy template molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) with a core-shell structure. Read More

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Porous carbon derived from ZIF-8 modified molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for the detection of tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in edible oil.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 25;365:130462. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

In this manuscript, ZIF-8 derived nanoporous carbon material (ZC) was prepared and used as modification material to construct a molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for the direct detection of tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in edible oil. Electrochemical characterizations, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that ZC has excellent conductivity, high electrochemical active area and stable porous framework structure. Using TBHQ as template and o-phenylenediamine as functional monomer, the sensor was constructed. Read More

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A molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor based on highly selective and an ultra-trace assay of anti-cancer drug axitinib in its dosage form and biological samples.

Talanta 2021 Oct 8;233:122569. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Ankara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 06560, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

In this study, a novel, fast, selective, and sensitive molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based electrochemical sensor was developed to determine axitinib (AXI) at low concentrations in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human serum. The newly developed MIP-based sensor ([email protected]/GCE) was designed through electropolymerization of functional monomer o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) in the presence of a template molecule AXI, on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using cyclic voltammetry. Differential pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were employed for removal and rebinding processes, optimization of conditions, as well as for performance evaluation of [email protected]/GCE using [Fe(CN)] as the redox probe. Read More

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October 2021

[Rapid determination of trace ciprofloxacin residue in milk samples using molecularly imprinted membrane extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

Se Pu 2020 Jul;38(7):775-781

Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100176, China.

An enrofloxacin (ENR) molecularly imprinted membrane (MIM) was prepared with a polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) membrane as the carrier, ENR as the dummy template molecule, α-methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, and a chloroform-methanol mixture solvent as the porogen. The MIM showed excellent selectivity, high adsorption capacity, and high adsorption rate for ciprofloxacin. Additionally, a method combining molecularly imprinted membrane extraction (MIME) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the selective analysis of trace ciprofloxacin residue in milk samples. Read More

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[Research progress of molecularly imprinted polymers in separation of chiral drugs by capillary electrochromatography].

Authors:
Zhenqun Li Li Jia

Se Pu 2020 Sep;38(9):1046-1056

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China.

Chiral drugs exert pharmacological effects through strict matching with chiral biological macromolecules and chiral recognition. Each enantiomer has different pharmacological activities, metabolic processes and rates, as well as toxicity pharmacokinetic characteristics owing to the difference in its interactions with the chiral environment. Therefore, method development for the resolution of chiral drugs is of great significance for the synthesis of chiral drugs and for quality control during the production process. Read More

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September 2020

Computational modeling, fabrication, and characterization of the deep eutectic solvent-based green molecular cage for selective metronidazole extraction from plasma followed by UHPLC with diode array detector determination.

J Sep Sci 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Four ternary deep eutectic solvents were computationally designed and synthesized, being used as candidate functional monomers in metronidazole molecular imprinting polymer synthesis, allowing selective extraction and determination by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. In terms of metronidazole selective extraction, the best results were obtained by (deep eutectic solvent) :(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) , in which deep eutectic solvent is the functional monomer constructed by combining three components in 6:6:2 ratios of choline chloride:ethylene glycol:methacrylic acid. The effects of different parameters on molecular imprinted solid-phase extraction of metronidazole were thoroughly explored through screening design and response surface methodology. Read More

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N-Glycosylation of the SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain Is Important for Functional Expression in Plants.

Front Plant Sci 2021 15;12:689104. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, Institute of Plant Biotechnology and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

is used worldwide as production host for recombinant proteins. Many recombinant proteins such as monoclonal antibodies, growth factors or viral antigens require posttranslational modifications like glycosylation for their function. Here, we transiently expressed different variants of the glycosylated receptor binding domain (RBD) from the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in . Read More

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From Oligo(Phenyleneethynylene) Monomers to Supramolecular Helices: The Role of Intermolecular Interactions in Aggregation.

Molecules 2021 Jun 9;26(12). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Centro Singular de Investigación en Química Biolóxica e Materiais Moleculares (CiQUS), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Supramolecular helices that arise from the self-assembly of small organic molecules via non-covalent interactions play an important role in the structure and properties of the corresponding materials. Here we study the supramolecular helical aggregation of oligo(phenyleneethynylene) monomers from a theoretical point of view, always guiding the studies with experimentally available data. In this way, by systematically increasing the number of monomer units, optimized n-mer geometries are obtained along with the corresponding absorption and circular dichroism spectra. Read More

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Novel Bis- and Mono-Pyrrolo[2,3-]pyrimidine and Purine Derivatives: Synthesis, Computational Analysis and Antiproliferative Evaluation.

Molecules 2021 Jun 1;26(11). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Marulićev trg 20, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Novel symmetrical bis-pyrrolo[2,3-]pyrimidines and bis-purines and their monomers were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549), cervical carcinoma (HeLa), ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (CFPAC-1) and metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma (SW620) cells. The use of ultrasound irradiation as alternative energy input in Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) shortened the reaction time, increased the reaction efficiency and led to the formation of exclusively symmetric bis-heterocycles. DFT calculations showed that triazole formation is exceedingly exergonic and confirmed that the presence of Cu(I) ions is required to overcome high kinetic requirements and allow the reaction to proceed. Read More

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Stability of p53 oligomers: Tetramerization of p53 impinges on its stability.

Biochimie 2021 Jun 28;189:99-107. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, Thiruvananthapuram, 695551, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

The p53 protein has been known to exist structurally in three different forms inside the cells. Earlier studies have reported the predominance of the lower oligomeric forms of p53 over its tetrameric form inside the cells, although only the tetrameric p53 contributes to its transcriptional activity. However, it remains unclear the functional relevance of the existence of other p53 oligomers inside the cells. Read More

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Effect of the abolition of intersubunit salt bridges on allosteric protein structural dynamics.

Chem Sci 2021 May 10;12(23):8207-8217. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) Daejeon 34141 Republic of Korea

A salt bridge, one of the representative structural factors established by non-covalent interactions, plays a crucial role in stabilizing the structure and regulating the protein function, but its role in dynamic processes has been elusive. Here, to scrutinize the structural and functional roles of the salt bridge in the process of performing the protein function, we investigated the effects of salt bridges on the allosteric structural transition of homodimeric hemoglobin (HbI) by applying time-resolved X-ray solution scattering (TRXSS) to the K30D mutant, in which the interfacial salt bridges of the wild type (WT) are abolished. The TRXSS data of K30D are consistent with the kinetic model that requires one monomer intermediate in addition to three structurally distinct dimer intermediates (I, I, and I) observed in WT and other mutants. Read More

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