6,869 results match your criteria functional astrocytes


The "Neuro-Glial-Vascular" Unit: The Role of Glia in Neurovascular Unit Formation and Dysfunction.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 27;9:732820. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Institute of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a complex multi-cellular structure consisting of endothelial cells (ECs), neurons, glia, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and pericytes. Each component is closely linked to each other, establishing a structural and functional unit, regulating central nervous system (CNS) blood flow and energy metabolism as well as forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and inner blood-retina barrier (BRB). As the name suggests, the "neuro" and "vascular" components of the NVU are well recognized and neurovascular coupling is the key function of the NVU. Read More

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September 2021

Regulation of electrogenic Na /HCO cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) function and its dependence on m-TOR mediated phosphorylation of Ser.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Molecular Embryology, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical Faculty, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Astrocytes are pivotal responders to alterations of extracellular pH, primarily by regulation of their principal acid-base transporter, the membrane-bound electrogenic Na /bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1). Here, we describe amammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent and NBCe1-mediated astroglial response to extracellular acidosis. Using primary mouse cortical astrocytes, we investigated the effect of long-term extracellular metabolic acidosis on regulation of NBCe1 and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms by immunoblotting, biotinylation of surface proteins, intracellular H recording using the H -sensitive dye 2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein, and phosphoproteomic analysis. Read More

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October 2021

Potential of Multiscale Astrocyte Imaging for Revealing Mechanisms Underlying Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 24;22(19). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Human Informatics and Interaction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568, Japan.

Astrocytes provide trophic and metabolic support to neurons and modulate circuit formation during development. In addition, astrocytes help maintain neuronal homeostasis through neurovascular coupling, blood-brain barrier maintenance, clearance of metabolites and nonfunctional proteins via the glymphatic system, extracellular potassium buffering, and regulation of synaptic activity. Thus, astrocyte dysfunction may contribute to a myriad of neurological disorders. Read More

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September 2021

Reduced expression of dopamine D2 receptors on astrocytes in R6/1 HD mice and HD post-mortem tissue.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Oct 9:136289. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, E.D. Adrian Building, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 0PY, UK; MRC-WT Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Dysfunction of the central dopaminergic system is thought to contribute to some of the clinical features of Huntington's disease (HD), and dopamine (DA) receptor antagonists are commonly used to good effect in its treatment. It is well established that there is an early significant reduction in neuronal D2 receptors in HD, considered to be a compensatory response to increased dopaminergic activity. However, no studies have examined the expression of D2 receptors on astrocytes which is important given that these cells have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of HD, as well as express dopamine receptors and modulate DA homeostasis in the normal brain. Read More

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October 2021

Development of astrocyte morphology and function in mouse visual thalamus.

J Comp Neurol 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Center for Neurobiology Research, Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion, Roanoke, VA, 24016.

The rodent visual thalamus has served as a powerful model to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie sensory circuit formation and function. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the role of axon-target interactions and neural activity in orchestrating circuit formation in visual thalamus, the role of non-neuronal cells, such as astrocytes, is less clear. In fact, we know little about the transcriptional identity and development of astrocytes in mouse visual thalamus. Read More

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October 2021

Secondary thalamic neuroinflammation after focal cortical stroke and traumatic injury mirrors corticothalamic functional connectivity.

J Comp Neurol 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

While cortical injuries such as traumatic brain injury and neocortical stroke acutely disrupt the neocortex, most of their consequent disabilities reflect secondary injuries that develop over time. Thalamic neuroinflammation has been proposed to be a biomarker of cortical injury and of the long-term cognitive and neurological deficits that follow. However, the extent to which thalamic neuroinflammation depends on the type of cortical injury or its location remains unknown. Read More

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October 2021

Neural stem cell therapy for brain disease.

World J Stem Cells 2021 Sep;13(9):1278-1292

First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300381, China.

Brain diseases, including brain tumors, neurodegenerative disorders, cerebrovascular diseases, and traumatic brain injuries, are among the major disorders influencing human health, currently with no effective therapy. Due to the low regeneration capacity of neurons, insufficient secretion of neurotrophic factors, and the aggravation of ischemia and hypoxia after nerve injury, irreversible loss of functional neurons and nerve tissue damage occurs. This damage is difficult to repair and regenerate the central nervous system after injury. Read More

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September 2021

Downregulation of MicroRNA-145-5p in Activated Microglial Exosomes Promotes Astrocyte Proliferation by Removal of Smad3 Inhibition.

Neurochem Res 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20th Xisi Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu, China.

In spinal cord injury, microglial activation plays an important role during the inflammatory process. Specifically, the cellular and molecular interactions between microglia and astrocytes are of critical importance. Cells can communicate with each other through the substances carried by exosomes, and overproliferated astrocytes would create a physical and chemical barrier that prevents neurite regeneration, thereby interfering with functional recovery. Read More

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October 2021

New Blood-Brain Barrier Models Using Primary Parkinson's Disease Rat Brain Endothelial Cells and Astrocytes for the Development of Central Nervous System Drug Delivery Systems.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor system defects due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons. A significant contributor to the current limited therapeutic treatments for PD is the poor penetration of potential drugs through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a highly specialized neurovascular system that separates components of the circulating blood from neurons. Read More

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October 2021

Exploring cell membrane water exchange in aquaporin-4-deficient ischemic mouse brain using diffusion-weighted MRI.

Eur Radiol Exp 2021 Oct 7;5(1):44. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Applied MRI Research, Department of Molecular Imaging and Theranostics, Institute for Quantum Medical Science, QST, Chiba, 263-8555, Japan.

Background: Aquaporin-4 is a membrane channel protein that is highly expressed in brain astrocytes and facilitates the transport of water molecules. It has been suggested that suppression of aquaporin-4 function may be an effective treatment for reducing cellular edema after cerebral infarction. It is therefore important to develop clinically applicable measurement systems to evaluate and better understand the effects of aquaporin-4 suppression on the living body. Read More

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October 2021

Inflammatory Molecules Released by Mechanically Injured Astrocytes Trigger Presynaptic Loss in Cortical Neuronal Networks.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Mechanobiology & Soft Matter Group, Interfaces and Complex Fluids Laboratory, Research Institute for Biosciences, University of Mons, 7000 Mons, Belgium.

Deformation, compression, or stretching of brain tissues cause diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and induce structural and functional alterations of astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain. To gain further insight into the role of mechanically activated astrocytes on neuronal networks, this study was designed to investigate whether cytokines released by mechanically activated astrocytes can affect the growth and synaptic connections of cortical neuronal networks. Astrocytes were cultivated on elastic membranes and subjected to repetitive mechanical insults, whereas well-defined protein micropatterns were used to form standardized neuronal networks. Read More

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October 2021

Parthenolide promotes the repair of spinal cord injury by modulating M1/M2 polarization via the NF-κB and STAT 1/3 signaling pathway.

Cell Death Discov 2020 Oct 6;6(1):97. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Orthopedic, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe neurological disease; however, there is no effective treatment for spinal cord injury. Neuroinflammation involves the activation of resident microglia and the infiltration of macrophages is the major pathogenesis of SCI secondary injury and considered to be the therapeutic target of SCI. Parthenolide (PN) has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in fever, migraines, arthritis, and superficial inflammation; however, the role of PN in SCI therapeutics has not been clarified. Read More

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October 2020

Interactions between glial cells and the blood-brain barrier and their role in Alzheimer's disease.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 Oct 2;72:101483. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Institute of Geriatrics, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, is the most common form of dementia worldwide. However, currently, there are no satisfying curative therapies for AD. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) acts as a selective physical barrier and plays protective roles in maintaining brain homeostasis. Read More

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October 2021

Antagonizing astrocytic platelet activating factor receptor-neuroinflammation for total flavone of epimedium in response to cuprizone demyelination.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 1;101(Pt A):108181. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China. Electronic address:

Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system are characterized by recurrent demyelination and progressive neurodegeneration, but there are no clinical drugs targeting myelin regeneration or improving functional disability in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Total flavone of Epimedium (TFE) is the main active components of Epimedium, which exhibits the beneficial biological activities in the treatment of diseases, but there is no report in the treatment of demyelinating disorder. The purpose of this study was to explore the therapeutic potential and possible mechanism of TFE in the treatment of demyelination. Read More

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October 2021

Functional Metabolic Mapping Reveals Highly Active Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in Human Astrocytes, Which Is Impaired in iPSC-Derived Astrocytes in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 17;13:736580. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine are important nitrogen donors for synthesis of glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. The glutamate carbon skeleton originates from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate, while the amino group is derived from nitrogen donors such as the BCAAs. Disturbances in neurotransmitter homeostasis, mainly of glutamate, are strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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September 2021

Cell type-specific potential pathogenic genes and functional pathways in Alzheimer's Disease.

BMC Neurol 2021 Oct 2;21(1):381. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Department of Surgery, Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, 430061, China.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a pervasive age-related and highly heritable neurodegenerative disorder but has no effective therapy. The complex cellular microenvironment in the AD brain impedes our understanding of pathogenesis. Thus, a comprehensive investigation of cell type-specific responses in AD is crucial to provide precise molecular and cellular targets for therapeutic development. Read More

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October 2021

High-resolution structural and functional deep brain imaging using adaptive optics three-photon microscopy.

Nat Methods 2021 Oct 30;18(10):1253-1258. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany.

Multiphoton microscopy has become a powerful tool with which to visualize the morphology and function of neural cells and circuits in the intact mammalian brain. However, tissue scattering, optical aberrations and motion artifacts degrade the imaging performance at depth. Here we describe a minimally invasive intravital imaging methodology based on three-photon excitation, indirect adaptive optics (AO) and active electrocardiogram gating to advance deep-tissue imaging. Read More

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October 2021

The LRRK2 G2019S mutation alters astrocyte-to-neuron communication via extracellular vesicles and induces neuron atrophy in a human iPSC-derived model of Parkinson's disease.

Elife 2021 09 30;10. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, United States.

Astrocytes are essential cells of the central nervous system, characterized by dynamic relationships with neurons that range from functional metabolic interactions and regulation of neuronal firing activities, to the release of neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors. In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopaminergic neurons are progressively lost during the course of the disease, but the effects of PD on astrocytes and astrocyte-to-neuron communication remain largely unknown. This study focuses on the effects of the PD-related mutation LRRK2 G2019S in astrocytes generated from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. Read More

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September 2021

Three's Company: Neuroimmune activation, sex, and memory at the tripartite synapse.

Brain Behav Immun Health 2021 Oct 12;16:100326. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Psychology Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109, USA.

The neuroimmune system is required for normal cognitive functions such as learning and memory in addition to its critical role in detecting and responding to invading pathogens and injury. Understanding the functional convergence of neurons, astrocytes, and microglia at the synapse, particularly in the hippocampus, is key to understanding the nuances of such diverse roles. In the healthy brain, communication between all three cells is important for regulating neuronal activation and synaptic plasticity mechanisms, and during neuroinflammation, the activity and functions of all three cells can produce and be modulated by inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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October 2021

UNC93B1 Is Widely Expressed in the Murine CNS and Is Required for Neuroinflammation and Neuronal Injury Induced by MicroRNA .

Front Immunol 2021 13;12:715774. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

The chaperone protein Unc-93 homolog B1 (UNC93B1) regulates internalization, trafficking, and stabilization of nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLR) in peripheral immune cells. We sought to determine UNC93B1 expression and its functional relevance in inflammatory and injurious processes in the central nervous system (CNS). We found that UNC93B1 is expressed in various CNS cells including microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons, as assessed by PCR, immunocyto-/histochemistry, and flow cytometry. Read More

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September 2021

EAAT2 Expression in the Hippocampus, Subiculum, Entorhinal Cortex and Superior Temporal Gyrus in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 13;15:702824. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Centre for Brain Research, Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neuropathological disorder characterized by the presence and accumulation of amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Glutamate dysregulation and the concept of glutamatergic excitotoxicity have been frequently described in the pathogenesis of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders and are postulated to play a major role in the progression of AD. In particular, alterations in homeostatic mechanisms, such as glutamate uptake, have been implicated in AD. Read More

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September 2021

Revisiting astrocyte to neuron conversion with lineage tracing in vivo.

Cell 2021 Oct 27;184(21):5465-5481.e16. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Molecular Biology and Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

In vivo cell fate conversions have emerged as potential regeneration-based therapeutics for injury and disease. Recent studies reported that ectopic expression or knockdown of certain factors can convert resident astrocytes into functional neurons with high efficiency, region specificity, and precise connectivity. However, using stringent lineage tracing in the mouse brain, we show that the presumed astrocyte-converted neurons are actually endogenous neurons. Read More

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October 2021

Integration of functional genomics data to uncover cell type-specific pathways affected in Parkinson's disease.

Authors:
Viola Volpato

Biochem Soc Trans 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

UK Dementia Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, U.K.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent late-onset neurodegenerative disorder worldwide after Alzheimer's disease for which available drugs only deliver temporary symptomatic relief. Loss of dopaminergic neurons (DaNs) in the substantia nigra and intracellular alpha-synuclein inclusions are the main hallmarks of the disease but the events that cause this degeneration remain uncertain. Despite cell types other than DaNs such as astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes have been recently associated with the pathogenesis of PD, we still lack an in-depth characterisation of PD-affected brain regions at cell-type resolution that could help our understanding of the disease mechanisms. Read More

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September 2021

Synergistic Impairment of the Neurovascular Unit by HIV-1 Infection and Methamphetamine Use: Implications for HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.

Viruses 2021 Sep 21;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

The neurovascular units (NVU) are the minimal functional units of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), composed of endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and the basement membrane. The BBB serves as an important interface for immune communication between the brain and peripheral circulation. Disruption of the NVU by the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) induces dysfunction of the BBB and triggers inflammatory responses, which can lead to the development of neurocognitive impairments collectively known as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Read More

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September 2021

Distinct Effects of Escitalopram and Vortioxetine on Astroglial L-Glutamate Release Associated with Connexin43.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 16;22(18). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Division of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507, Japan.

It has been established that enhancement of serotonergic transmission contributes to improvement of major depression; however, several post-mortem studies and experimental depression rodent models suggest that functional abnormalities of astrocytes play important roles in the pathomechanisms/pathophysiology of mood disorders. Direct effects of serotonin (5-HT) transporter inhibiting antidepressants on astroglial transmission systems has never been assessed in this context. Therefore, to explore the effects of antidepressants on transmission associated with astrocytes, the present study determined the effects of the selective 5-HT transporter inhibitor, escitalopram, and the 5-HT partial agonist reuptake inhibitor, vortioxetine, on astroglial L-glutamate release through activated hemichannels, and the expression of connexin43 (Cx43), type 1A (5-HT1AR) and type 7 (5-HT7R) 5-HT receptor subtypes, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in astrocytes using primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes in a 5-HT-free environment. Read More

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September 2021

Cystine/Glutamate Antiporter in Schizophrenia: From Molecular Mechanism to Novel Biomarker and Treatment.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 8;22(18). Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.

Glutamate, a crucial excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a major role in the modulation of schizophrenia's pathogenesis. New drug developments for schizophrenia have been prompted by the hypoglutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. The cystine/glutamate antiporter system x is related to glutamate-release regulation. Read More

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September 2021

Alcohol Dependence in Rats Is Associated with Global Changes in Gene Expression in the Central Amygdala.

Brain Sci 2021 Aug 29;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA.

Alcohol dependence is associated with adverse consequences of alcohol (ethanol) use and is evident in most severe cases of alcohol use disorder (AUD). The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) plays a critical role in the development of alcohol dependence and escalation of alcohol consumption in dependent subjects. Molecular mechanisms underlying the CeA-driven behavioral changes are not well understood. Read More

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Beyond the GFAP-Astrocyte Protein Markers in the Brain.

Biomolecules 2021 Sep 14;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-343 Kraków, Poland.

The idea of central nervous system as one-man band favoring neurons is long gone. Now we all are aware that neurons and neuroglia are team players and constant communication between those various cell types is essential to maintain functional efficiency and a quick response to danger. Here, we summarize and discuss known and new markers of astroglial multiple functions, their natural heterogeneity, cellular interactions, aging and disease-induced dysfunctions. Read More

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September 2021

Reactive Astrocytosis in a Mouse Model of Chronic Polyamine Catabolism Activation.

Biomolecules 2021 Aug 25;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Science, University of Rome "Roma Tre", Viale Marconi 446, 00146 Rome, Italy.

Background: In the brain, polyamines are mainly synthesized in neurons, but preferentially accumulated in astrocytes, and are proposed to be involved in neurodegenerative/neuroinflammatory disorders and neuron injury. A transgenic mouse overexpressing spermine oxidase (SMOX, which specifically oxidizes spermine) in the neocortex neurons (Dach-SMOX mouse) was proved to be a model of increased susceptibility to excitotoxic injury.

Methods: To investigate possible alterations in synapse functioning in Dach-SMOX mouse, both cerebrocortical nerve terminals (synaptosomes) and astrocytic processes (gliosomes) were analysed by assessing polyamine levels, ezrin and vimentin content, glutamate AMPA receptor activation, calcium influx, and catalase activity. Read More

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Functional Assessment of Stroke-Induced Regulation of miR-20a-3p and Its Role as a Neuroprotectant.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Women's Health in Neuroscience Program, Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Bryan, TX, 77807, USA.

MicroRNAs have gained popularity as a potential treatment for many diseases, including stroke. This study identifies and characterizes a specific member of the miR-17-92 cluster, miR-20a-3p, as a possible stroke therapeutic. A comprehensive microRNA screening showed that miR-20a-3p was significantly upregulated in astrocytes of adult female rats, which typically have better stroke outcomes, while it was profoundly downregulated in astrocytes of middle-aged females and adult and middle-aged males, groups that typically have more severe stroke outcomes. Read More

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September 2021