112 results match your criteria function lubricate

Morphological and histochemical features of the digestive tract of Leiarius marmoratus (Gill, 1870).

J Fish Biol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Bauru, SP, Brazil.

Leiarius marmoratus, a freshwater catfish from Pimelodidae family, shows great biological and commercial relevance, due its geographic distribution and adaptation to fish-farm. The knowledge of the morphological characteristics of the digestive tract is fundamental to the understanding of fish physiology and nutrition, helping in the planning of diets to provide better management and success in fish farming. Thus, this work described the morphology and histochemistry of the digestive tract of Leiarius marmoratus adults. Read More

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Wine tannins, saliva proteins and membrane lipids.

Erick J Dufourc

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Oct 7;1863(10):183670. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Chemistry and Biology of Membranes and Nanoobjects, UMR5248, CNRS, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux Polytechnic Institute, Allée Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 33600 Pessac, France. Electronic address:

Polyphenols have been part of human culture for about 6000 years. However, their mode of action in relation to wine tasting while eating is only beginning to be understood. This review, using analytical techniques and physicochemical concepts, attempts to summarize current knowledge and present an integrated view of the complex relationship between tannins, salivary proteins, lipids in food and in oral membranes. Read More

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October 2021

Membrane-associated mucins of the human ocular surface in health and disease.

Ocul Surf 2021 Jul 26;21:313-330. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tufts University School of Medicine at New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center: Program in Pharmacology & Drug Development, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA, O2111, USA. Electronic address:

Mucins are a family of high molecular weight, heavily-glycosylated proteins produced by wet epithelial tissues, including the ocular surface epithelia. Densely-packed O-linked glycan chains added post-translationally confer the biophysical properties of hydration, lubrication, anti-adhesion and repulsion. Membrane-associated mucins (MAMs) are the distinguishing components of the mucosal glycocalyx. Read More

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Stem and progenitor cells in sebaceous gland development, homeostasis and pathologies.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Apr 10;30(4):588-597. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, CMMC Research Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Sebaceous glands (SGs), typically associated with hair follicles, are critical for the homeostasis and function of mammalian skin. The main physiological function of SGs is the production and holocrine secretion of sebum to lubricate and protect the skin. Defective SGs have been linked to a variety of skin disorders, including acne, seborrheic dermatitis and formation of sebaceous tumors. Read More

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An updated review of the sebaceous gland and its role in health and diseases Part 1: Embryology, evolution, structure, and function of sebaceous glands.

Dermatol Ther 2021 01 1;34(1):e14695. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Veterans Affairs Hospital and SUNY Downstate Dermatology Service, Brooklyn, New York, USA.

Sebaceous glands are sebum-secreting components of pilosebaceous units. The embryological development of the sebaceous gland follows that of the hair follicle and epidermal tissue, beginning between weeks 13 and 16 of fetal development. New sebaceous glands do not normally develop following birth, but their size increases with age. Read More

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January 2021

The Diverse Roles of the Mucin Gene Cluster Located on Chromosome 11p15.5 in Colorectal Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 30;8:514. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common malignant tumor in the world, shows multiple complex and pathologies based on the impaired structure and function of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Goblet cells secrete mucins, which are involved in the formation of the intestinal mucosal barrier and not only lubricate and protect the intestinal mucosa but also participate in the processes of cell adhesion, intercellular signal transduction, and immune regulation. It is accepted that the disordered expression and dysfunction of mucins are associated with the occurrence and development of CRC. Read More

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The Harderian gland: Endocrine function and hormonal control.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2020 10 15;297:113548. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sez. Fisiologia Umana e Funzioni Biologiche Integrate, Università degli Studi della Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli', via Santa Maria di Costantinopoli, 16-80138 Napoli, Italy.

The Harderian gland (HG) is an exocrine gland located within the eye socket in a variety of tetrapods. During the 1980s and 1990s the HG elicited great interest in the scientific community due to its morphological and functional complexity, and from a phylogenetic point of view. A comparative approach has contributed to a better understanding of its physiology. Read More

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October 2020

Biological functions of tear film.

Exp Eye Res 2020 08 16;197:108115. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; ImmunEyez, Mission Viejo, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Tears have a vital function to protect and lubricate the ocular surface. Tear production, distribution and clearance is tightly regulated by the lacrimal functional unit (LFU) to meet ocular surface demands. The tear film consists of an aqueous-mucin layer, containing fluid and soluble factors produced by the lacrimal glands and mucin secreted by the goblet cells, that is covered by a lipid layer. Read More

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Modifications in the gills of hill stream Moth catfish, Hara hara (Erethistidae, Siluriformes): A light and scanning electron microscope investigation.

Tissue Cell 2020 Feb 13;62:101317. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221 005, India. Electronic address:

Present study reports significant modifications in surface ultrastructure, histological organization, and histochemical localization of glycoproteins (GPs) in the gills of a hill stream catfish, Hara hara. Punctate microridges on free surface of epithelial cells covering gill arches, gill rakers, gill filaments and secondary lamellae are considered to provide adaptive plasticity to gills in relation to the environment inhabited by fish. Short and stout gill rakers are considered to prevent food particles to pass in opercular chamber along with respiratory current that could damage delicate gill filaments. Read More

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February 2020

Development of the digestive system of Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi, larvae.

J Morphol 2020 06 9;281(6):578-590. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Laboratorio de Histología e Histoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (FCEyN), Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Mar del Plata, Argentina.

The Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi is an important fishery resource of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and it is also a potential species for cultivation. In this work, the digestive system development in field-caught hake larvae was studied using histological and histochemical approaches. The digestive tract of larvae was divided into: oropharyngeal cavity (OPC), esophagus, stomach (that develops in the preflexion stage), and intestine. Read More

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Administration of aspirin tablets using a novel gel-based swallowing aid: an open-label randomised controlled cross-over trial.

BMJ Innov 2019 Oct 4;5(4):113-119. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, UK.

Introduction: To ease administration of medicines to people with dysphagia we developed and patented a gel formulation within which whole tablets could be inserted. The aim was to determine whether the gel would affect bioequivalence of uncoated aspirin tablet.

Method: A gel containing gelatin, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, citric acid, potassium sorbate and water was developed to maintain structure on tablet insertion and increase saliva production to lubricate the swallow. Read More

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October 2019

Signaling of the Purinergic System in the Joint.

Front Pharmacol 2019 24;10:1591. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Division of Translational Medicine, Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

The joint is a complex anatomical structure consisting of different tissues, each with a particular feature, playing together to give mobility and stability at the body. All the joints have a similar composition including cartilage for reducing the friction of the movement and protecting the underlying bone, a synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid to lubricate the joint, ligaments to limit joint movement, and tendons for the interaction with muscles. Direct or indirect damage of one or more of the tissues forming the joint is the foundation of different pathological conditions. Read More

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January 2020

Differential mucins secretion by intestinal mucous cells of Chelon ramada in response to an enteric helminth Neoechinorhynchus agilis (Acanthocephala).

Acta Histochem 2020 Feb 18;122(2):151488. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, St. Borsari 46, 44121, Ferrara, Italy.

Intestinal mucous cells produce and secrete mucins which hydrate, lubricate and protect the intestinal epithelium from mechanical injuries due to the transition of digesta or action of pathogens. Intestinal mucous cells are considered elements of the innate immune system as they secrete lectins, toxins, immunoglobulins, and anti-microbial peptides. Acid mucins can surround and eliminate many pathogenic microorganisms. Read More

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February 2020

Morphological and histochemical characterisation of the mucosa of the digestive tract in matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei: Characiformes).

J Fish Biol 2020 Jan 2;96(1):251-260. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

School of Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, São Paulo State University (Unesp), São Paulo, Brazil.

This study describes anatomical, histological and histochemical features of the digestive tract mucosal layer of the matrinxã Brycon amazonicus, an omnivorous freshwater fish endemic from the Amazon basin. This species presents short thick oesophagus with longitudinal folds, that allow the passage of large food items. The mucosa is lined with a stratified secretory epithelium rich in goblet cells that secrete neutral and acid mucins. Read More

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January 2020

Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of a special fraction of Luohanguo extract on obese T2DM rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Jan 3;247:112273. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Luohanguo (LHG), a traditional Chinese medicine, could clear heat, moisten the lung, soothe the throat, restore the voice, and lubricate intestine and open the bowels. LHG has been utilized for the treatment of sore throats and hyperglycemia in folk medicine as a homology of medicine and food. The hypoglycemic pharmacology of LHG has attracted considerable attention, and mogrosides have been considered to be active ingredients against diabetes mellitus. Read More

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January 2020

Membrane-associated mucins of the ocular surface: New genes, new protein functions and new biological roles in human and mouse.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2020 03 4;75:100777. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, at Schepens Eye Research Institute of Mass. Eye and Ear, 20 Staniford St, Boston, MA, 02114, USA. Electronic address:

The mucosal glycocalyx of the ocular surface constitutes the point of interaction between the tear film and the apical epithelial cells. Membrane-associated mucins (MAMs) are the defining molecules of the glycocalyx in all mucosal epithelia. Long recognized for their biophysical properties of hydration, lubrication, anti-adhesion and repulsion, MAMs maintain the wet ocular surface, lubricate the blink, stabilize the tear film and create a physical barrier to the outside world. Read More

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Boundary mode lubrication of articular cartilage with a biomimetic diblock copolymer.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 06 4;116(25):12437-12441. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853;

We report the design of a diblock copolymer with architecture and function inspired by the lubricating glycoprotein lubricin. This diblock copolymer, synthesized by sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization, consists of a cationic cartilage-binding domain and a brush-lubricating domain. It reduces the coefficient of friction of articular cartilage under boundary mode conditions (0. Read More

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Stable recombinant production of codon-scrambled lubricin and mucin in human cells.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2019 06 8;116(6):1292-1303. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Robert Frederick Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Widespread therapeutic and commercial interest in recombinant mucin technology has emerged due to the unique ability of mucin glycoproteins to hydrate, protect, and lubricate biological surfaces. However, recombinant production of the large, highly repetitive domains that are characteristic of mucins remains a challenge in biomanufacturing likely due, at least in part, to the inherent instability of DNA repeats in the cellular genome. To overcome this challenge, we exploit codon redundancy to encode desired mucin polypeptides with minimal nucleotide repetition. Read More

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Lipid-hyaluronan synergy strongly reduces intrasynovial tissue boundary friction.

Acta Biomater 2019 01 10;83:314-321. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Materials and Interfaces Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address:

Hyaluronan (HA)-lipid layers on model (mica) surfaces massively reduce friction as the surfaces slide past each other, and have been proposed, together with lubricin, as the boundary layers accounting for the extreme lubrication of articular cartilage. The ability of such HA-lipid complexes to lubricate sliding biological tissues has not however been demonstrated. Here we show that HA-lipid layers on the surface of an intrasynovial tendon can strongly reduce the friction as the tendon slides within its sheath. Read More

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January 2019

An ex vivo salivary lubrication system to mimic xerostomic conditions and to predict the lubricating properties of xerostomia relieving agents.

Sci Rep 2018 06 14;8(1):9087. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Advances in medical research has resulted in successful treatment of many life-threatening infectious diseases as well as autoimmune and lifestyle-related diseases, increasing life-expectancy of both the developed and developing world. As a result of a growing ageing population, the focus has also turned on chronic diseases which seriously affect the quality of older patient life. Xerostomia (dry mouth) is one such condition, which leads to bad oral health and difficulty in consumption of dry foods and speech. Read More

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The tongue as a gripper.

J Exp Biol 2018 04 10;221(Pt 7). Epub 2018 Apr 10.

The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA

Frogs, chameleons and anteaters are striking examples of animals that can grab food using only their tongue. How does the soft and wet surface of a tongue grip onto objects before they are ingested? Here, we review the diversity of tongue projection methods, tongue roughnesses and tongue coatings, our goal being to highlight conditions for effective grip and mobility. A softer tongue can reach farther: the frog tongue is 10 times softer than the human tongue and can extend to 130% of its length when propelled in a whip-like motion. Read More

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[A 20-year study on microvascular autologous transplantation of submandibular gland for treatment of severe dry eye].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 Feb;50(1):1-4

Center for Salivary Gland Diseases, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology & Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China; Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100191, China.

Severe dry eye is a refractory ophthalmologic disease. Our multidisciplinary research group treated severe dry eye by microvascular autologous transplantation of submandibular gland (SMG) during the past 20 years. The SMG, with its blood vessels and Wharton's duct, was harvested from the submandibular triangle and transferred to the temporal area. Read More

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February 2018

Skin gland concentrations adapted to different evolutionary pressures in the head and posterior regions of the caecilian Siphonops annulatus.

Sci Rep 2018 02 23;8(1):3576. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.

Amphibian skin is rich in mucous glands and poison glands, secreting substances important for gas exchange and playing a fundamental role in chemical defense against predators and microorganisms. In the caecilian Siphonops annulatus (Mikan, 1920) we observed a concentration of enlarged mucous glands in the head region. In the posterior region of the body a similar concentration is made up of enlarged poison glands. Read More

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February 2018

Mechanoelectrical transduction in chondrocytes.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2018 05 19;45(5):481-488. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

School of Medical Sciences, EMBL Australia node for Single Molecule Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Cartilage tissue lines the joints of mammals, helping to lubricate joint movement and distribute mechanical loads. This tissue is comprised of isolated cells known as chondrocytes which are embedded in an extracellular matrix. Chondrocytes produce and maintain the cartilage by sensing and responding to changing mechanical loads. Read More

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Cyclic Polymer Grafts That Lubricate and Protect Damaged Cartilage.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 02 11;57(6):1621-1626. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Polymer Surfaces Group, Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Tissue-reactive graft copolymers were designed to protect the cartilage against enzymatic degradation and restore its lubrication properties during the early stages of osteoarthritis (OA). The copolymers feature a poly(glutamic acid) (PGA) backbone bearing hydroxybenzaldehyde (HBA) functions and cyclic poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMOXA) side chains. PGA-PMOXA-HBA species chemisorb on the degraded tissue via Schiff bases and expose the biopassive and lubricious PMOXA cyclic grafts at the interface. Read More

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February 2018

Degradation alters the lubrication of articular cartilage by high viscosity, hyaluronic acid-based lubricants.

J Orthop Res 2018 05 5;36(5):1456-1464. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely injected as a viscosupplement in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Despite its extensive use, it is not currently known if cartilage degradation alters how HA-based solutions lubricate the articular surface. In this study we utilized a model of cartilage degradation by IL-1β along with a recently developed framework to study role of cartilage degradation on lubrication by clinically-approved HA-based lubricants with high viscosities. Read More

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Inferring the effects of saliva on liquid bolus flow using computer simulation.

Comput Biol Med 2017 10 29;89:304-313. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Computer simulation of liquid bolus flow is used to test the assumption that a slip boundary condition approximates a healthy swallow due to the presence of saliva lubricating the bolus. Six dynamic, 320-row area detector CT (ADCT) sequences of normal subjects swallowing thin, nectar, and honey-thick liquids are used in this work. The aerodigestive tract is segmented from the images in order to create a dynamic 3D geometry, which is subsequently used to drive a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulation of the bolus. Read More

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October 2017

How Hsp90 and Cdc37 Lubricate Kinase Molecular Switches.

Trends Biochem Sci 2017 10 4;42(10):799-811. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

The Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperone system interacts with and supports 60% of the human kinome. Not only are Hsp90 and Cdc37 generally required for initial folding, but many kinases rely on the Hsp90/Cdc37 throughout their lifetimes. A large fraction of these 'client' kinases are key oncoproteins, and their interactions with the Hsp90/Cdc37 machinery are crucial for both their normal and malignant activity. Read More

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October 2017

Betamethasone gel compared with lidocaine jelly to reduce tracheal tube related postoperative airway symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Res Notes 2017 Aug 1;10(1):361. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Perioperative Medicine, Nepal Medical College (Pvt.) Ltd. Teaching Hospital, Attarkhel, Jorpati, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background And Objectives: Post-operative airway symptoms can be troublesome to patients following an uneventful general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of lubricating an endotracheal tube with betamethasone gel or lidocaine jelly with using an unlubricated tube in reducing the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat, hoarseness and cough.

Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind comparative study carried out among 120 ASA I and II patients aged 18-65 years undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Read More

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Targeted delivery of hyaluronic acid to the ocular surface by a polymer-peptide conjugate system for dry eye disease.

Acta Biomater 2017 06 29;55:163-171. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Translational Tissue Engineering Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Urology and Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Hyaluronic acid (HA) solutions effectively lubricate the ocular surface and are used for the relief of dry eye related symptoms. However, HA undergoes rapid clearance due to limited adhesion, which necessitates frequent instillation. Conversely, highly viscous artificial tear formulations with HA blur vision and interfere with blinking. Read More

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