2,475 results match your criteria function lps-challenge


Evidence for the interaction of COX-2 with mGluR5 in the regulation of EAAT1 and EAAT3 protein levels in the mouse hippocampus. The influence of oxidative stress mechanisms.

Brain Res 2021 Sep 13;1771:147660. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Physiology, Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smętna 12, 31-343 Kraków, Poland.

Since we found that inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with concomitant application of a metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) antagonist (MTEP) down-regulates mGluR7 in the hippocampus (HC) and changes behavior of mice, our team decided to investigate the mechanism responsible for the observed changes. The amino acid glutamate (Glu) is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Glu uptake is regulated by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT). Read More

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September 2021

Lipocalin-2 Alleviates LPS-Induced Inflammation Through Alteration of Macrophage Properties.

J Inflamm Res 2021 26;14:4189-4203. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of General Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, 310016, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is an acute-phase protein and elevated in several inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine whether Lcn2 alleviates inflammation and explore the underlying cellular mechanisms.

Methods: C57BL/6 Lcn2-deficient (Lcn2) male mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to build systemic inflammation model. Read More

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Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α inhibition by topotecan protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes.

Biomed Eng Online 2021 Aug 31;20(1):88. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chongqing University Center Hospital (Chongqing Emergence Medical Center), No. 1, Jiankang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400014, China.

Background: Myocarditis, an inflammatory disease of the myocardium, is a serious hazard to human life due to the expansion of inflammatory lesions in the myocardium. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α and its inhibitor topotecan in the pathogenesis of myocarditis.

Methods: H9c2 cardiomyoblasts was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate myocarditis model in vitro. Read More

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Prevention of endotoxin-induced cardiomyopathy using sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate: Involvement of augmented autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome suppression.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Oct 23;909:174438. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Second Clinical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405, China; Department of Critical Care Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510120, China; Guangdong Provincial Branch of National Clinical Research Centre for Chinese Medicine Cardiology, Guangzhou, 510120, China. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence indicates that patients or experimental animals exposure to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) exert deleterious cardiac functions that greatly contribute to morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiologic processes, including NLRP3 inflammasome overactivation and cardiac inflammatory injury, are complicated. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS), a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, is a naturally occurring compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza and has anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties. Read More

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October 2021

Increased plasma and milk short-chain acylcarnitine concentrations reflect systemic LPS response in mid-lactation dairy cows.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 09 28;321(3):R429-R440. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge the metabolic integrity of high-yielding dairy cows, activating the immune system and altering energy metabolism. Fatty acid oxidation, a major energy-gaining pathway, can be improved by supplementary carnitine, facilitating the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria. The metabolic response to the LPS challenge could alter both the plasma and the milk metabolome. Read More

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September 2021

Knockout of NPFFR2 Prevents LPS-Induced Depressive-Like Responses in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 16;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan.

The precise neural mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of depression are largely unknown, though stress-induced brain inflammation and serotonergic plasticity are thought to be centrally involved. Moreover, we previously demonstrated that neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2) overexpression provokes depressive-like behaviors in mice. Here, we assess whether NPFFR2 is involved in priming of depressive-like behaviors and downregulation of serotonergic 1A receptor (5HT1AR) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Read More

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Endotoxin-induced cytokine, chemokine and white blood cell profiles of variable stress-responding sheep.

Stress 2021 Jul 28:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.

Individual variation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress could contribute to variable stress resiliency of livestock. During stress events, the innate immune system can also become activated and work in concert with the neuroendocrine system to restore homeostasis, while minimizing tissue damage. The purpose of this study was to assess immune function in variable stress-responding sheep in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin immune-challenge. Read More

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Effects of dietary l-carnitine supplementation on the response to an inflammatory challenge in mid-lactating dairy cows: Hepatic mRNA abundance of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institute of Animal Science, Physiology Unit, University of Bonn, Katzenburgweg 7-9, 53115 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

This study aimed at characterizing the effects of dietary l-carnitine supplementation on hepatic fatty acid (FA) metabolism during inflammation in mid-lactating cows. Fifty-three pluriparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to either a control (CON, n = 26) or an l-carnitine supplemented (CAR; n = 27) group. The CAR cows received 125 g of a rumen-protected l-carnitine product per cow per day (corresponding to 25 g of l-carnitine/cow per day) from d 42 antepartum (AP) until the end of the trial on d 126 postpartum (PP). Read More

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TLR4 and TNFR1 blockade dampen M1 macrophage activation and shifts them towards an M2 phenotype.

Immunol Res 2021 Aug 8;69(4):334-351. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Physiology, Immunology Laboratory, University of Calcutta, University Colleges of Science and Technology, 92 APC Road, Calcutta, 700009, West Bengal, India.

The Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis has emerged as major concern worldwide due to the pressing need to develop its effective treatment strategies which is not available yet. LPS is the major causative agent in the pathogenesis of septic shock. In macrophages, LPS interacts with cell surface TLR4 leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS), TNF-α, IL-1β production, oxidative stress and markedly activated the MAPKs and NF-kB pathway. Read More

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Innate Immune Response to Fasting and Refeeding in the Zebrafish Kidney.

Biomolecules 2021 06 1;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center for Healthy Breeding of Important Economic Fish, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Animals acquire nutrients and energy through feeding to achieve a balance between growth and organismal health. When there is a change in nutrient acquisition, the state of growth changes and may also cause changes in the intrinsic immune system. Compensatory growth (CG), a specific growth phenomenon, involves the question of whether changes in growth can be accompanied by changes in innate immunity. Read More

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Racial differences across pregnancy in maternal pro-inflammatory immune responsivity and its regulation by glucocorticoids.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Sep 18;131:105333. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Development, Health and Disease Research Program, University of California, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, United States; Department of Pediatrics, University of California, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, United States; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, United States; Department of Epidemiology, University of California, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: The distribution of adverse pregnancy, birth and subsequent child developmental and health outcomes in the U.S. is characterized by pronounced racial (particularly Black-white) disparities. Read More

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September 2021

A novel NK-lysin in hybrid crucian carp can exhibit cytotoxic activity in fish cells and confer protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in comparison with Carassius cuvieri and Carassius auratus red var.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Sep 24;116:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, PR China.

NK-lysin, an effector of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), not only exhibits cytotoxic effect in fish cells, but also participates in the immune defense against pathogenic infection. In this study, ORF sequences of RCC-NK-lysin, WCC-NK-lysin and WR-NK-lysin were 369 bp. Tissue-specific analysis revealed that the highest expressions of RCC-NK-lysin and WCC-NK-lysin were observed in gill, while the peaked level of WR-NK-lysin mRNA was observed in spleen. Read More

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September 2021

Prolactin Protects the Structural Integrity of Human Fetal Membranes by Downregulating Inflammation-induced Secretion of Matrix Metalloproteinases.

Immunol Invest 2021 Jun 16:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Physiology and Cell Development Branch, INPer IER, Mexico City, Mexico.

Prolactin (PRL) is a pleiotropic hormone with a key role in pregnancy. In fetal membranes, PRL can regulate the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors, which induces the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The increase and activation of MMPs deregulate the turnover of the extracellular matrix in the fetal membranes, altering its structure and function, causing premature rupture of the membranes and preterm labor. Read More

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NPT520-34 improves neuropathology and motor deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

Brain 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Neuropore Therapies, Inc., 10835 Road to the Cure, Suite 230, San Diego, CA 92121 USA.

NPT520-34 is a clinical-stage, small molecule being developed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. The therapeutic potential of NPT520-34 was first suggested by findings from cell-based assays of alpha-synuclein (ASYN) clearance. As reported here, NPT520-34 was subsequently evaluated for therapeutically relevant actions in a transgenic animal model of Parkinson's disease that overexpresses human ASYN and in an acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenge model using wild-type mice. Read More

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Assessing the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Anxiolytic Drug Buspirone Using CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing in LPS-Stimulated BV-2 Microglial Cells.

Cells 2021 May 25;10(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience (LCMN), School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Buspirone is an anxiolytic drug with robust serotonin receptor 1A (Htr1a) agonist activities. However, evidence has demonstrated that this drug also targets the dopamine D3 receptor (Drd3), where it acts as a potent antagonist. In vivo, Drd3 blockade is neuroprotective and reduces inflammation in models of Parkinson's disease. Read More

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Subclinical necrotizing enterocolitis-induced systemic immune suppression in neonatal preterm pigs.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 07 19;321(1):G18-G28. Epub 2021 May 19.

Section for Comparative Pediatrics and Nutrition, Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Preterm infants are at high risks of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Some develop sepsis shortly after suspected or confirmed NEC, implying that NEC may predispose to sepsis but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Using NEC-sensitive preterm pigs as models, we investigated the immune status in animals following development of subclinical NEC-like lesions with variable severities. Read More

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METTL3/METTL14 Transactivation and mA-Dependent TGF-β1 Translation in Activated Kupffer Cells.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 13;12(3):839-856. Epub 2021 May 13.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health & Food Safety, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P. R. China; Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) secreted from activated Kupffer cells (KC) promotes the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to liver fibrosis. N6-methyladenosine (mA) RNA modification participates in various cell stress responses, yet it remains unknown whether it plays a role in TGF-β1 upregulation in activated KCs.

Methods: Western blot, dot blot, and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry were used to determine the expression of mA methyltransferase, METTL3, and METTL14, as well as global mA modification. Read More

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Capsaicin protects cardiomyocytes against lipopolysaccharide-induced damage via 14-3-3γ-mediated autophagy augmentation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:659015. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Jiangxi Academy of Clinical Medical Sciences, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

The myocardium is susceptible to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced damage in sepsis, and cardiac dysfunction is a leading cause of mortality in patients with sepsis. The changes in cardiomyocyte autophagy in sepsis and the effects and mechanism of action of capsaicin (Cap) remain unclear. The potential pathway of 14-3-3γ-dependent autophagy and the effects and mechanisms of Cap were studied in LPS-induced injury to primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Read More

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Maternal supplementation with cobalt sources, folic acid, and rumen-protected methionine and its effects on molecular and functional correlates of the immune system in neonatal Holstein calves.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Aug 10;104(8):9340-9354. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Animal Sciences and Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801. Electronic address:

Calves born to multiparous Holstein cows fed during the last 30 d of pregnancy 2 different cobalt sources [cobalt glucoheptonate (CoPro) or cobalt pectin (CoPectin)], folic acid (FOA), and rumen-protected methionine (RPM) were used to study neonatal immune responses after ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Groups were (n = 12 calves/group) CoPro, FOA+CoPro, FOA+CoPectin, and FOA+CoPectin+RPM. Calves were weighed at birth and blood collected at birth (before colostrum), 21 d of age, and 42 d of age (at weaning). Read More

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Bioflocs attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, immunosuppression and oxidative stress in Channa argus.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jul 7;114:218-228. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163316, China; College of Life Sciences, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118, China. Electronic address:

The regulation of C/N in aquaculture water is an important means of environmental regulation, of which the most common is bioflocs technology (BFT). Here, an eight-week feeding experiment and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge test were proceed to investigate the growth, oxidative stress, immunosuppression and GR-NF-κB related genes expression of Channa argus rearing in the BFT. Four groups were set, the control group was a basic diet (C/N = 7. Read More

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Ethanolic extract of C. Koch improves pulmonary function and inflammation in LPS-induced acute lung injury mice.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Objectives: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening pulmonary dysfunction associated with severe inflammation. There are still no effective pharmacological therapies for the treatment of ALI. In this concern, several anti-inflammatory agents could be used as add-on therapy to inhibit inflammation. Read More

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NOX1/NADPH oxidase is involved in the LPS-induced exacerbation of collagen-induced arthritis.

J Pharmacol Sci 2021 Jun 29;146(2):88-97. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

We investigate as yet an unidentified role of NOX1, a non-phagocytic isoform of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase, in immune responses using Nox1-knockout mice (Nox1-KO). The transcripts of NOX1 was expressed in lymphoid tissues, including the spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and inguinal lymphoid nodes. When antibody production after ovalbumin (OVA) immunization was examined, no significant differences were observed in serum anti-OVA IgG levels between wild-type mice (WT) and Nox1-KO. Read More

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Central Activation of Alpha7 Nicotinic Signaling Attenuates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation and Sickness Behavior in Adult but Not in Aged Animals.

Molecules 2021 Apr 7;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute Teofilo Hernando for Drug Discovery, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

We previously reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge caused microglial-mediated neuroinflammation and sickness behavior that was amplified in aged mice. As α7 nAChRs are implicated in the "Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway", we aimed to determine how α7 nAChR stimulation modulates microglial phenotype in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model in adult and aged mice. For this, BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0. Read More

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Dietary glycyl-glutamine supplementation ameliorates intestinal integrity, inflammatory response, and oxidative status in association with the gut microbiota in LPS-challenged piglets.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 29;12(8):3539-3551. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Animal Sciences and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.

During weaning transition, mammalian newborns suffer severe enteric infections and thus induced gut microbiota dysbiosis, which in turn aggravates enteric disorder. The synthetic dipeptide glycyl-glutamine (GlyGln) has been used as a diet supplement to improve the weaning transition of newborns. However, the effect of dietary GlyGln supplementation on the gut microbiota of piglets with enteric infection remains unclear. Read More

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Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Serine Hydrolase Activities, Lipid Mediators, and Immune Responses in Lungs of Neonatal and Adult Mice.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 Jun 26;34(6):1556-1571. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Center for Environmental Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762, United States.

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate (OP) pesticide that causes acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the nervous system. However, endocannabinoid (eCB) metabolizing enzymes in brain of neonatal rats are more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by CPF, leading to increased levels of eCBs. Because eCBs are immunomodulatory molecules, we investigated the association between eCB metabolism, lipid mediators, and immune function in adult and neonatal mice exposed to CPF. Read More

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Dietary Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methyl Butyrate Supplementation Alleviates Liver Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Piglets.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 1;2021:5546843. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

CAS Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China.

The current study was performed to investigate whether dietary -hydroxy--methylbutyrate (HMB) could regulate liver injury in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) challenged piglet model and to determine the mechanisms involved. Thirty piglets (21 ± 2 days old, 5.86 ± 0. Read More

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Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) inhibition reduces endothelial cytokine production without improving permeability after toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) challenge.

Transl Res 2021 09 20;235:115-128. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee. Electronic address:

Sepsis represents a life-threatening event often mediated by the host's response to pathogens such as gram-negative organisms, which release the proinflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Within the endothelium, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is an important driver of endothelial injury during sepsis, of which oxidant-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is postulated to be a critical upstream regulator. We hypothesized that ASK1 would play a key role in endothelial inflammation during bacterial challenge. Read More

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September 2021

Lung immune tone via gut-lung axis: gut-derived LPS and short-chain fatty acids' immunometabolic regulation of lung IL-1β, FFAR2, and FFAR3 expression.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 07 14;321(1):L65-L78. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Microbial metabolites produced by the gut microbiome, e.g. short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), have been found to influence lung physiology and injury responses. Read More

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Human in vivo neuroimaging to detect reprogramming of the cerebral immune response following repeated systemic inflammation.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 07 9;95:321-329. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Despite increasing evidence that immune training within the brain may affect the clinical course of neuropsychiatric diseases, data on cerebral immune tolerance are scarce. This study in healthy volunteers examined the trajectory of the immune response systemically and within the brain following repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges. Five young males underwent experimental human endotoxemia (intravenous administration of 2 ng/kg LPS) twice with a 7-day interval. Read More

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Photobiomodulation effect of red LED (630 nm) on the free radical levels produced by pulp cells under stress conditions.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Uberlândia, UFU, Av. Pará 1720, Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG, 38400902, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to assess the ability of red light emitting diodes (LED) to modulate oxidative stress in human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPFs) when different irradiation parameters are employed. Cells from primary teeth were seeded (100,000 cells/well) in 24-well plates in culture medium (DMEM). At 24 h after incubation, the culture medium was replaced with DMEM containing 10 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Read More

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