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Extracranial temporal bone paragangliomas: Re-defining the role of otologic surgery within the scope of function-preserving multimodal concepts.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Sep 12;43(1):103212. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to present our concept in the management of extracranial temporal bone paragangliomas and demonstrate the outcome after primary surgical management of the middle ear component, with an individualized indication for adjuvant radiotherapy.

Materials And Methods: The records of all patients treated for extracranial jugulotympanic paragangliomas by means of primary surgical management between 2010 and 2021 were studied retrospectively.

Results: Twenty-nine patients made up our study sample (mean age 58. Read More

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September 2021

Genes related to SNPs identified by Genome-wide association studies of age-related hearing loss show restriction to specific cell types in the adult mouse cochlea.

Hear Res 2021 Sep 4;410:108347. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

ARHL has been thought to result from disordered hair cell function and their loss. ARHL has a significant genetic component. We sought to determine the expression in the cochlea of genes associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to ARHL. Read More

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September 2021

Platelet-rich plasma attenuates interleukin-1β-induced apoptosis and inflammation in chondrocytes through targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-2α.

Tissue Cell 2021 Sep 8;73:101646. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong an Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevailing chronic disease in Orthopedics that characterized with severely damaged cartilage and subchondral bone, thus leading to profound disorders of synovial joints. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been applied as a popular non-operative treatment option for promoting musculoskeletal healing. Our previous work demonstrated that PRP protected chondrocytes from interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced apoptosis in vitro. Read More

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September 2021

Behavioral and morphological effects of resveratrol and curcumin in rats submitted to doxorubicin-induced cognitive impairment.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Sep 10;140:242-250. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Graduate Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, University Paulista, Rua Doutor Bacelar, 1212, 4th Floor, São Paulo, SP, 04026-002, Brazil; Department of Veterinary Medicine, University Cruzeiro do Sul, Avenida Tenente, Laudelino Ferreira do Amaral, 700, São Paulo, SP, 08060-000, Brazil. Electronic address:

Doxorubicin (DOX) is known to cause cognitive impairments in patients submitted to long-term chemotherapy (deficits also known as chemobrain). Therefore, there is an urgent need for therapeutic strategies capable of returning cancer survivors back to their previous quality of life. The present study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV) or curcumin (CUR) administration could affect mnemonic function and brain morphological changes following DOX administration in rats. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on maize growth and cadmium migration in a sand column.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 15;225:112782. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Resources and Environment, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

The ecological role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on altering cadmium (Cd) migration in polluted soil is still unresolved. The present experiment aimed to clarify whether AMF can reduce Cd loss due to leaching at different Cd concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 15 mg L) with maize as a host plant cultured in a sand column. The effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae on the root morphology, exudate content, and Cd uptake by maize and Cd loss due to leaching were investigated. Read More

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September 2021

Locally advanced anorectal malignant melanoma in septuagenarian patient treated by laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Sep 6;87:106378. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

University of Tsukuba, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastrointestinal and Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, 1-1-1 Tennnodai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-8575, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Anorectal malignant melanoma (ARMM) is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. In cases involving locally advanced disease, the treatment strategy is difficult, especially in octogenarian patients, because the prognosis is poor, despite the corresponding decrease or loss of the anal function.

Presentation Of Case: A 78-year-old woman was admitted to a local hospital with chief complaints of severe anal discomfort due to an egg-sized tumor that was protruding out of the anus and melena. Read More

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September 2021

Reducing variability of breast cancer subtype predictors by grounding deep learning models in prior knowledge.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Sep 10;138:104850. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Biology, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Deep learning neural networks have improved performance in many cancer informatics problems, including breast cancer subtype classification. However, many networks experience underspecificationwheremultiplecombinationsofparametersachievesimilarperformance, bothin training and validation. Additionally, certain parameter combinations may perform poorly when the test distribution differs from the training distribution. Read More

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September 2021

Heterozygous GBA D490V and ATP13a2 mutations do not exacerbate pathological α-synuclein spread in the prodromal preformed fibrils model in young mice.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Sep 15:105513. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Parkinson's Disease Center, Department of Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Institute, Grand Rapids, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Autophagic dysregulation and lysosomal impairment have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, partly due to the identification of mutations in multiple genes involved in these pathways such as GBA, SNCA, ATP13a2 (also known as PARK9), TMEM175 and LRRK2. Mutations resulting in lysosomal dysfunction are proposed to contribute to Parkinson's disease by increasing α-synuclein levels, that in turn may promote aggregation of this protein. Here, we used two different genetic models-one heterozygous for a mutated form of the GBA protein (D409V), and the other heterozygous for an ATP13a2 loss-of-function mutation, to test whether these mutations exacerbate the spread of α-synuclein pathology following injection of α-synuclein preformed fibrils in the olfactory bulb of 12-week-old mice. Read More

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September 2021

LncRNA SOCS2-AS1 promotes the progression of glioma via regulating ITGB1 expression.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Sep 15:136248. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230601, China.

Background: Accumulating evidence has underscored the important role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the development and progression of glioma. However, the role of lncRNA SOCS2-AS1 in glioma is largely unknown.

Methods: lncRNA SOCS2-AS1 silencing was achieved by specific siRNAs. Read More

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September 2021

Macrophages in the cochlea; an immunological link between risk factors and progressive hearing loss.

Glia 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, IfLS, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Macrophages are abundant in the cochlea; however, their role in hearing loss is not well understood. Insults to the cochlea, such as noise or insertion of a cochlear implant, cause an inflammatory response, which includes activation of tissue-resident macrophages. Activation is characterized by changes in macrophage morphology, mediator expression, and distribution. Read More

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September 2021

Pax2a, but not pax2b, influences cell survival and periocular mesenchyme localization to facilitate zebrafish optic fissure closure.

Dev Dyn 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Background: Pax2 is required for optic fissure development in many organisms, including humans and zebrafish. Zebrafish loss-of-function mutations in pax2a display coloboma, yet the etiology of the morphogenetic defects is unclear. Further, pax2 is duplicated in zebrafish, and a role for pax2b in optic fissure development has not been examined. Read More

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September 2021

Only plantar lesion of punctate palmoplantar keratoderma with a novel missense mutation in the AAGAB gene: Two Japanese familial case reports and review of reported mutations.

J Dermatol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Division of Dermatology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan.

Punctate palmoplantar keratoderma type 1 (PPPK1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hyperkeratotic papules on the palms and soles. In 2012, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the AAGAB gene were identified as the cause of this disorder. To date, 51 AAGAB mutations have been reported in families with PPPK1, but clear genotype-phenotype correlations have not been established yet. Read More

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September 2021

The circadian clock and diseases of the skin.

FEBS Lett 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Center for Complex Biological Systems, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA.

Organisms have an evolutionarily conserved internal rhythm that helps them anticipate and adapt to daily changes in the environment. Synchronized to the light-dark cycle with a period of around 24 hours, the timing of the circadian clock is set by light-triggering signals sent from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Other inputs, including food intake, exercise, and temperature, also affect clocks in peripheral tissues, including skin. Read More

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September 2021

Identification of mutations that cooperate with defects in B cell transcription factors to initiate leukemia.

Oncogene 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

The transcription factors PAX5, IKZF1, and EBF1 are frequently mutated in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). We demonstrate that compound heterozygous loss of multiple genes critical for B and T cell development drives transformation, including Pax5xEbf1, Pax5xIkzf1, and Ebf1xIkzf1 mice for B-ALL, or Tcf7xIkzf1 mice for T-ALL. To identify genetic defects that cooperate with Pax5 and Ebf1 compound heterozygosity to initiate leukemia, we performed a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon screen that identified cooperating partners including gain-of-function mutations in Stat5b (~65%) and Jak1 (~68%), or loss-of-function mutations in Cblb (61%) and Myb (32%). Read More

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September 2021

Association of hypertension with infection and inflammation in a setting of disadvantage in rural India.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

We assessed the association of hypertension with markers of inflammation and infection in a rural and disadvantaged Indian population. In a case-control study, we age- and gender-matched 300 cases with hypertension to 300 controls without hypertension. Blood pressure was measured according to a strict protocol. Read More

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September 2021

IIIG9 inhibition in adult ependymal cells changes adherens junctions structure and induces cellular detachment.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 17;11(1):18537. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Laboratory of Neurobiology and Stem Cells, NeuroCellT, Department of Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, 4030000, Concepcion, Chile.

Ependymal cells have multiple apical cilia that line the ventricular surfaces and the central canal of spinal cord. In cancer, the loss of ependymal cell polarity promotes the formation of different types of tumors, such as supratentorial anaplastic ependymomas, which are highly aggressive in children. IIIG9 (PPP1R32) is a protein restricted to adult ependymal cells located in cilia and in the apical cytoplasm and has unknown function. Read More

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September 2021

Loss of AIRE-Mediated Immune Tolerance and the Skin.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Dermatology, Allergology and Venereology, Clinicum, University of Helsinki, and Inflammation Center, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

The core function of the immune response is to distinguish between self and foreign. The multiorgan human autoimmune disease, autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED/autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1) is an example of what happens in the body when central immune tolerance goes astray. APECED revealed the existence and function of the autoimmune regulator gene, which has a central role in the development of tolerance. Read More

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September 2021

Spatiotemporal AMPKα2 deletion in mice induces cardiac dysfunction, fibrosis and cardiolipin remodeling associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in males only.

Biol Sex Differ 2021 Sep 17;12(1):52. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Faculté de Pharmacie, UMR-S1180, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 5 rue J-B Clément, 92296, Châtenay-Malabry, France.

Background: The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major regulator of cellular energetics which plays key role in acute metabolic response and in long-term adaptation to stress. Recent works have also suggested non-metabolic effects.

Methods: To decipher AMPK roles in the heart, we generated a cardio-specific inducible model of gene deletion of the main cardiac catalytic subunit of AMPK (Ampkα2) in mice. Read More

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September 2021

LncRNA LBX2-AS1 promotes colorectal cancer progression and 5-fluorouracil resistance.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Sep 17;21(1):501. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Reproductive Heredity Center, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Background: Recent reports suggest that the long non-coding RNA LBX2 antisense RNA 1 (LBX2-AS1) acts as an important regulator in cancer progression, but its significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains undetermined.

Methods: LBX2-AS1 expression levels in CRC were determined from the GEPIA database and CRC tissues to investigate clinical relevance. meRIP-PCR assays investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of m6A in LBX2-AS1. Read More

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September 2021

Associations between obesity, weight change and decreased renal function in Korean type 2 diabetic patients: a longitudinal follow-up study.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Sep 17;21(1):188. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, 170 Jomaru-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, 14584, Republic of Korea.

Background: We aimed to examine the associations between the risk of decreased renal function, obesity, and weight changes in Korean type 2 diabetic patients with normal renal function.

Methods: Type 2 diabetic patients (n = 1060) who visited the diabetic clinic at Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital between 2001 and 2007 with follow up surveys completed in 2016 to 2017 were recruited into the study. Decreased renal function was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1. Read More

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September 2021

Glaucoma following Infant Lensectomy: 2021 Update.

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Purpose: To review information pertaining to glaucoma following infant lensectomy surgery and to provide evidence to support the responsible mechanism of this condition.

Methods And Results: Described risk factors and proposed mechanisms for infantile aphakic glaucoma were assessed. The clinical evidence observed in affected glaucoma patients was analyzed, and evidence of postoperative anterior chamber fibrosis was reviewed and interpreted. Read More

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September 2021

Criteria for effective regional scale catchment to reef management: A case study of Australia's Great Barrier Reef.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Sep 15;173(Pt A):112882. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

C(2)O Consulting coasts climate oceans, Townsville, Australia; ARC Centre for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.

Many coastal and marine ecosystems around the world are under increasing threat from a range of anthropogenic influences. The management of these threats continues to present ongoing challenges, with many ecosystems increasingly requiring active restoration to support or re-establish the ecosystem's biological, cultural, social and economic values. The current condition of Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and its threats, including water quality, climate change and the loss of wetlands, causing the continuing decline in the GBR's ecological condition and function, has received global attention. Read More

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September 2021

Hepatic Regulator of G Protein Signaling 6 (RGS6) drives non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by promoting oxidative stress and ATM-dependent cell death.

Redox Biol 2021 Aug 28;46:102105. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Centre of Biomedical Research, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences Campus, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226014, India. Electronic address:

The pathophysiological mechanism(s) driving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the most prevalent chronic liver disease globally, have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we identify regulator of G protein signaling 6 (RGS6), up-regulated in the livers of NAFLD patients, as a critical mediator of hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and cell death. Human patients with high hepatic RGS6 expression exhibited a corresponding high inflammatory burden, pronounced insulin resistance, and poor liver function. Read More

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Structure of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

Curr Opin Virol 2021 Sep 8;50:173-182. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, 3 Blackfan Street, Boston, MA 02115, United States; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, 3 Blackfan Street, Boston, MA 02115, United States. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to loss of human life in millions and devastating socio-economic consequences worldwide. The disease has created urgent needs for intervention strategies to control the crisis and meeting these needs requires a deep understanding of the structure-function relationships of viral proteins and relevant host factors. The trimeric spike (S) protein of the virus decorates the viral surface and is an important target for development of diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines. Read More

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September 2021

The circadian clock gene, Bmal1, regulates intestinal stem cell signaling and represses tumor initiation.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, N9B 3P4, Ontario. Electronic address:

Background: Circadian rhythms are daily physiological oscillations driven by the circadian clock: a 24-hour transcriptional timekeeper that regulates hormones, inflammation, and metabolism. Circadian rhythms are known to be important for health, but whether their loss contributes to colorectal cancer is not known.

Aims: We tested the non-redundant clock gene, Bmal1, in intestinal homeostasis and tumorigenesis, using the Apc model of colorectal cancer. Read More

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September 2021

Shared and Distinct Mechanisms of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: A Narrative Review.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 Sep 14:101463. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76706, USA. Electronic address:

Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and function is an incredibly nuanced balance of anabolism and catabolism that can become distorted within different pathological conditions. In this paper we intend to discuss the distinct intracellular signaling events that regulate muscle protein atrophy for a given clinical occurrence. Aside from the common outcome of muscle deterioration, several conditions have at least one or more distinct mechanisms that creates unique intracellular environments that facilitate muscle loss. Read More

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September 2021

Transient direct corticomotoneuronal connections during development in rodents, an electrophysiological study.

Neuroscience 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Physiology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Kaga 2-11-1, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan. Electronic address:

We previously observed in rodents that during the 2 postnatal week corticospinal axons make monosynaptic connections with motoneurons. Prior to that finding, it had been believed that such contacts only occur in higher primates. Although an in vitro electrophysiological study is prerequisite for studying the developmental time course of synaptic connections, the technical difficulty of reliably recording synaptic responses from spinal motoneurons in animals over 2 weeks old hampered the study. Read More

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September 2021

Morin attenuates memory deficits in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by ameliorating oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Sep 14:174506. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Biology, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of flavonoid morin on oxidative/nitrosative stress, neuroinflammation, and histological, molecular, and behavioral changes caused by amyloid-beta (Aβ) in male Wistar rats (Alzheimer's disease model). Rats received morin (20 mg/kg, oral gavage) for 14 consecutive days after intrahippocampal injection of Aβ. Morin decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, increased glutathione content, and enhanced catalase activity in the hippocampus of animals receiving Aβ. Read More

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September 2021

Knockout of nephron ATP6AP2 impairs proximal tubule function and prevents high fat diet induced obesity in male mice.

Endocrinology 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System.

ATP6AP2 expression is increased in the nephron during high fat diet (HFD) and its knockout (ATP6AP2 KO) reduces body weight (WT) in mice. We evaluated the contribution of ATP6AP2 to urinary glucose (UG) and albumin (Ualb) handling during HFD. We hypothesized that nephron ATP6AP2 KO increases UG and Ualb and minimizes HFD-induced obesity. Read More

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September 2021