100,372 results match your criteria function deficits

Similarities between Cognitive Models of Language Production and Everyday Functioning: Implications for Development of Interventions for Functional Difficulties.

Top Cogn Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Psychology, Temple University.

The loss of the ability to independently complete activities of daily living, such as meal preparation and household chores, is a defining characteristic of clinical dementia; however, minor difficulties in completing everyday activities emerge in the mild cognitive impairment stage, and even healthy older adults exhibit subtle functional difficulties compared to younger adults. These functional difficulties are associated with an array of negative outcomes, including decreased quality of life, higher costs of care, and increased frustration, depression, caregiver burden, and institutionalization. While cognitive models have been proposed to explain the functional deficits seen in dementia and subtler forms of cognitive decline, in contrast to other cognitive disorders such as aphasia, there are essentially no theoretically motivated interventions to address difficulties in everyday functioning. Read More

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Brain-gut axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jun;131(12)

Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a chronic and progressive disease, and management requires an understanding of both the primary neurological injury and the secondary sequelae that affect peripheral organs, including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The brain-gut axis is composed of bidirectional pathways through which TBI-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration impact gut function. The resulting TBI-induced dysautonomia and systemic inflammation contribute to the secondary GI events, including dysmotility and increased mucosal permeability. Read More

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Electroacupuncture alleviates spatial memory deficits in METH withdrawal mice by enhancing astrocyte-mediated glutamate clearance in the dCA1.

Addict Biol 2021 Jun 14:e13068. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Human Anatomy and Histoembryology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Methamphetamine (METH) elicits endogenous glutamate (Glu) in the brain, which could partially explain METH-induced memory deficits. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on spatial memory deficits in METH withdrawal mice and its potential synaptic mechanisms. We found that EA at acupoints 'Baihui' and 'Yintang' ameliorated the impaired spatial memory in METH withdrawal mice. Read More

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Congenital hypothyroidism impairs spine growth of dentate granule cells by downregulation of CaMKIV.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jun 14;7(1):143. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, China.

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH), a common neonatal endocrine disorder, can result in cognitive deficits if delay in diagnose and treatment. Dentate gyrus (DG) is the severely affected subregion of the hippocampus by the CH, where the dentate granule cells (DGCs) reside in. However, how CH impairs the cognitive function via affecting DGCs and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Read More

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The importance of biomechanical assessment after Return to Play in athletes with ACL-Reconstruction.

Gait Posture 2021 Jun 8;88:240-246. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, School of Medicine, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", AOU Consorziale Policlinico, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy; Orthopaedic & Trauma Unit, AOU Consorziale Policlinico, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy.

Background: Barriers to successful return to previous level of activity following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR) are multifactorial and recent research suggests that athletic performance deficits persist after completion of the rehabilitation course in a large percentage of patients.

Research Question: Do technology-based biomechanical assessments reveal underneath differences in both recreational and competitive athletes in Return to Play after ACL-Reconstruction?

Methods: Thirty soccer athletes (26.9 ± 5. Read More

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The effects of early-life immune activation on microglia-mediated neuronal remodeling and the associated ontogeny of hippocampal-dependent learning in juvenile rats.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Delaware, Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, 108 Wolf Hall, Newark, DE, 19716, USA. Electronic address:

Many neurodevelopmental disorders and associated learning deficits have been linked to early-life immune activation or ongoing immune dysregulation (Laskaris et al., 2016; O'Connor et al., 2014; Frick et al. Read More

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Remyelination therapies for multiple sclerosis: Optimizing translation from animal models into clinical trials.

Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Departments of Neurology and Neurologic Surgery Mayo Clinic, Rochester Minnesota 55905 USA.

Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Demyelination, the main pathology in MS, contributes to clinical symptoms and long-term neurological deficits if left untreated. Remyelination, the natural repair of damaged myelin by cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage occurs in MS, but eventually fails in most patients as they age. Read More

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Loss of p21-activated kinase Mbt/PAK4 causes Parkinson-like phenotypes in Drosophila.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Jun 14;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Medical Radiation and Cell Research, Biocenter, Am Hubland, University of Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany.

Parkinson's disease (PD) provokes bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and postural instability, and also non-motor symptoms such as depression, anxiety, sleep and cognitive impairments. Similar phenotypes can be induced in Drosophila melanogaster through modification of PD-relevant genes or the administration of PD-inducing toxins. Recent studies correlated deregulation of human p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) with PD, leaving open the question of a causative relationship of mutations in this gene for manifestation of PD symptoms. Read More

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The Clinical Effect of a Combination of Mouse Nerve Growth Factor and Methylcobalamin to Treat Lumbar Disc Herniation with Foot Drop: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Orthop Surg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF) and methylcobalamin (MeCbl) for the treatment of lumbar disk herniation (LDH) with foot drop.

Methods: A total of 46 patients suffering from LDH with foot drop who underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgery in our department from January 2015 to December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. We divided these patients into two groups according to the different postoperative treatment which independently selected by patients after signing informed consent form: one group of 25 patients was treated with MeCbl alone (Group MeCbl), the other group of 21 patients was treated with a combination of mNGF and MeCbl (Group MeCbl+mNGF). Read More

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Can neuroscience help to understand narcissism? A systematic review of an emerging field.

Personal Neurosci 2021 28;4:e3. Epub 2021 May 28.

Clinical Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Narcissism is a Janusian personality construct, associated with both grandiose self-assuredness and dominance, as well as vulnerable insecurity and reactivity. Central questions of intra- and interpersonal functioning in narcissism are still a matter of debate. Neuroscience could help to understand the paradoxical patterns of experience and behavior beyond the limitations of self-reports. Read More

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Mapping of the Language Cortex.

Cureus 2021 May 11;13(5):e14960. Epub 2021 May 11.

Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Institute, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QAT.

Awake craniotomy with intraoperative neurophysiological language mapping (INLM) is an established procedure for patients undergoing surgery to resection tumors in the language cortex area. INLM and continuous neurophysiological monitoring allow assessment of the language function, which is not possible under general anesthesia. INLM of the brain areas provides a helpful tool to the operating surgeon in reducing the risks associated with tumor resection in the motor and language cortex. Read More

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Identification of key microRNAs and the underlying molecular mechanism in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

PeerJ 2021 27;9:e11454. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Anesthesiology, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning province, China.

Spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCII) is a pathological process with severe complications such as paraplegia and paralysis. Aberrant miRNA expression is involved in the development of SCII. Differences in the experimenters, filtering conditions, control selection, and sequencing platform may lead to different miRNA expression results. Read More

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Lumbopelvic Stability and Trunk Muscle Contractility of Individuals with Chronic Ankle Instability.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2021 Jun 2;16(3):741-748. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Old Dominion University.

Background: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) results in hip neuromuscular impairments that can perpetuate dysfunction through reduced lumbopelvic stability and subsequent malpositioning of the lower body during functional movement. Lumbopelvic stability might be further impaired through changes in trunk muscular contractility. However, lumbopelvic stability and trunk muscle morphology have not been compared between individuals with and without CAI. Read More

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Eriodictyol Attenuates MCAO-Induced Brain Injury and Neurological Deficits Reversing the Autophagy Dysfunction.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 26;15:655125. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Neurology, Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, China.

The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of eriodictyol on MCAO-induced brain injury and its regulation of neural function and to explore the mechanism of its regulation of autophagy in rats. Brain injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult rats and pretreated with eriodictyol (low dose: 20 mg/kg; medium dose: 40 mg/kg; high dose: 80 mg/kg) or saline. Rats in the treatment group had a smaller volume of infarction and improved neurological outcome and reduced the latency to the platform, increased the time spent in the correct quadrant compared to MCAO rats pretreated with saline. Read More

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Neuropathological and motor impairments after incomplete cervical spinal cord injury in pigs.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos, Neural Repair and Biomaterials Laboratory, Toledo, Toledo, Spain;

Humans, primates, and rodents with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) show permanent sensorimotor dysfunction of the upper/fore limb as consequence of axonal damage and local neuronal death. This work aimed at characterizing a model of cervical SCI in domestic pigs in which hemisection with excision of one centimeter of spinal cord was performed to reproduce the loss of neural tissue observed in human neuropathology. Posture and motor control were assessed over 3 months by scales and kinematics of treadmill locomotion. Read More

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Neuroprotective effects of microRNA-211-5p on chronic stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and depression-like behaviours.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Findings from recent studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are related to numerous neurological disorders. However, whether miRNAs regulate neuronal anomalies involved in the pathogenesis of depression remain unclear. In the present study, we screened miRNA expression profiles in the CA1 hippocampus of a rat model of depression and found that a specific miRNA, microRNA-211-5p, was significantly down-regulated in depressed rats. Read More

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Controlling ion channel trafficking by targeted ubiquitination and deubiquitination.

Methods Enzymol 2021 7;654:139-167. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Columbia University, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, United States; Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Plasma membrane-localized ion channels are essential for diverse physiological processes such as neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and osmotic homeostasis. The surface density of such ion channels is a major determinant of their function, and tuning this variable is a powerful way to regulate physiology. Dysregulation of ion channel surface density due to inherited or de novo mutations underlies many serious diseases, and molecules that can correct trafficking deficits are potential therapeutics and useful research tools. Read More

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Influence of siblings on adaptive behavior trajectories in autism spectrum disorder.

Autism 2021 Jun 12:13623613211024096. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Lay Abstract: Siblings have the potential to shape the developmental trajectories of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Having siblings has been associated with better social communication skills, less severe non-verbal communication deficits, and improved theory of mind abilities in autism spectrum disorder. This study examined the influence of the presence of a sibling, participant's position in the birth order, gender of the closest-age sibling, and gender match of the sibling dyad on the rate of growth in adaptive skills from ages 9 to 26 years among individuals with autism spectrum disorder and individuals with a history of non-spectrum developmental disorders. Read More

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Frailty trajectories in three longitudinal studies of aging: Is the level or the rate of change more predictive of mortality?

Age Ageing 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: frailty shows an upward trajectory with age, and higher levels increase the risk of mortality. However, it is less known whether the shape of frailty trajectories differs by age at death or whether the rate of change in frailty is associated with mortality.

Objectives: to assess population frailty trajectories by age at death and to analyse whether the current level of the frailty index (FI) i. Read More

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Deficits in multi-scale top-down processes distorting auditory perception in schizophrenia.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jun 11;412:113411. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

NYU-ECNU Institute of Brain and Cognitive Science at NYU Shanghai, 3663 Zhongshan Road North, Shanghai, 200062, China; Division of Arts and Sciences, New York University Shanghai, 1555 Century Avenue, Shanghai, 200122, China. Electronic address:

Cognitive models postulate that impaired source monitoring incorrectly weights the top-down prediction and bottom-up sensory processes and causes hallucinations. However, the underlying mechanisms of the interaction, such as whether the incorrectly weighting is ubiquitously on all levels of sensory features and whether different top-down processes have distinct effects in subgroups of schizophrenia are still unclear. This study investigates how multi-scale predictions influence perception of basic tonal features in schizophrenia. Read More

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Cell-specific effects of Dyt1 knock-out on sensory processing, network-level connectivity, and motor deficits.

Exp Neurol 2021 Jun 10:113783. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

DYT1 dystonia is a debilitating movement disorder characterized by repetitive, unintentional movements and postures. The disorder has been linked to mutation of the TOR1A/DYT1 gene encoding torsinA. Convergent evidence from studies in humans and animal models suggest that striatal medium spiny neurons and cholinergic neurons are important in DYT1 dystonia. Read More

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Clinical correlates of white matter lesions in Parkinson's disease using automated multi-modal segmentation measures.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 1;427:117518. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Singapore General Hospital, Singapore; Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Age-related white matter lesions (WML) are common, impact neuronal connectivity, and affect motor function and cognition. In addition to pathological nigrostriatal losses, WML are also common co-morbidities in Parkinson's disease (PD) that affect postural stability and gait. Automated brain volume measures are increasingly incorporated into the clinical reporting workflow to facilitate precision in medicine. Read More

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Lesion loci of impaired affective prosody: A systematic review of evidence from stroke.

Brain Cogn 2021 Jun 9;152:105759. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Department of Cognitive Science, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States.

Affective prosody, or the changes in rate, rhythm, pitch, and loudness that convey emotion, has long been implicated as a function of the right hemisphere (RH), yet there is a dearth of literature identifying the specific neural regions associated with its processing. The current systematic review aimed to evaluate the evidence on affective prosody localization in the RH. One hundred and ninety articles from 1970 to February 2020 investigating affective prosody comprehension and production in patients with focal brain damage were identified via database searches. Read More

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A Generative-Discriminative Framework that Integrates Imaging, Genetic, and Diagnosis into Coupled Low Dimensional Space.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 9:118200. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, USA.

We propose a novel optimization framework that integrates imaging and genetics data for simultaneous biomarker identification and disease classification. The generative component of our model uses a dictionary learning framework to project the imaging and genetic data into a shared low dimensional space. We have coupled both the data modalities by tying the linear projection coefficients to the same latent space. Read More

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The effect of photoperiod and high fat diet on the cognitive response in photoperiod-sensitive F344 rats.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jun 9:113496. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Chemistry and Bioscience, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Richmond Road, Bradford, BD7 1DP, UK. Electronic address:

In many species, seasonal changes in day length (photoperiod) have profound effects on physiology and behavior. In humans, these include cognitive function and mood. Here we investigated the effect of photoperiod and high fat diets on cognitive deficits, as measured by novel object recognition, in the photoperiod-sensitive F344 rat, which exhibits marked natural changes in growth, body weight and food intake in response to photoperiod. Read More

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MiR-124 protects against cognitive dysfunction induced by sevoflurane anesthesia in vivo and in vitro through targeting calpain small subunit 1 via NF-κB signaling pathway.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an impairment of cognition that affects post-surgery patients. Sevoflurane anesthesia is linked to cognitive dysfunction correlated to the expression of miRNA levels.

Objectives: In the current study, we investigated if miR-124 can offer protection against cognitive deficits induced by sevoflurane in a spatial learning paradigm, and examined the molecular mechanisms through cell cultures. Read More

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Glucose clearance and uptake is increased in the SOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through an insulin-independent mechanism.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21707

School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Metabolic disturbances are associated with the progression of the neurodegenerative disorder, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the molecular events that drive energy imbalances in ALS are not completely understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate deficits in energy homeostasis in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS. Read More

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NPT520-34 improves neuropathology and motor deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

Brain 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Neuropore Therapies, Inc., 10835 Road to the Cure, Suite 230, San Diego, CA 92121 USA.

NPT520-34 is a clinical-stage, small molecule being developed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. The therapeutic potential of NPT520-34 was first suggested by findings from cell-based assays of alpha-synuclein (ASYN) clearance. As reported here, NPT520-34 was subsequently evaluated for therapeutically relevant actions in a transgenic animal model of Parkinson's disease that overexpresses human ASYN and in an acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenge model using wild-type mice. Read More

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Q134R: Small chemical compound with NFAT inhibitory properties improves behavioral performance and synapse function in mouse models of amyloid pathology.

Aging Cell 2021 Jun 12:e13416. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.

Inhibition of the protein phosphatase calcineurin (CN) ameliorates pathophysiologic and cognitive changes in aging rodents and mice with aging-related Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology. However, concerns over adverse effects have slowed the transition of common CN-inhibiting drugs to the clinic for the treatment of AD and AD-related disorders. Targeting substrates of CN, like the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATs), has been suggested as an alternative, safer approach to CN inhibitors. Read More

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Changes in kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis during gait: systematic review.

Spine J 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Science, Little Rock, AR; Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID.

Background Context: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is one of the most common orthopaedic conditions and affects more than half a million people over the age of 65 in the US. Patients with LSS have gait dysfunction and movement deficits due to pain and symptoms caused by compression of the nerve roots within a narrowed spinal canal.

Purpose: The purpose of the current systematic review was to summarize existing literature reporting biomechanical changes in gait function that occur with LSS, and identify knowledge gaps that merit future investigation in this important patient population. Read More

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