27,957 results match your criteria fully characterized

Plastic additives: challenges in ecotox hazard assessment.

PeerJ 2021 16;9:e11300. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Cawthron Institute, Nelson, New Zealand.

The risk of plastic debris, and specifically micro(nano)plastic particles, to ecosystems remains to be fully characterized. One particular issue that warrants further characterization is the hazards associated with chemical additives within micro(nano)plastic as they are not chemically bound within the polymers and can be persistent and biologically active. Most plastics contain additives and are therefore potential vectors for the introduction of these chemicals into the environment as they leach from plastic, a process that can be accelerated through degradation and weathering processes. Read More

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Berectones A and B: Two new rotenoids from the aerial parts of .

Nat Prod Res 2021 May 7:1-6. Epub 2021 May 7.

Research Unit in Natural Products Chemistry and Bioactivities, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University Lampang Campus, Lampang, Thailand.

Two previously unreported rotenoids, berectones A and B ( and ), along with four known compounds, 3,3',4'-tri--methylellagic acid (), kaempferol (), 7,4'-dihydroxy-8-methoxyisoflavone (), and -caffeoyltyramine () were isolated from the aerial parts of . The structures of all isolated compounds were fully characterized using spectroscopic data, as well as comparison with the previous literature. Compound exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity toward glucosidase with IC value of 4. Read More

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An integrated deep learning model for motor intention recognition of multi-class EEG Signals in upper limb amputees.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 21;206:106121. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Human-Machine Intelligence-Synergy Systems, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China; Shenzhen College of Advanced Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China; Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory of Neural Rehabilitation Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Recognition of motor intention based on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has attracted considerable research interest in the field of pattern recognition due to its notable application of non-muscular communication and control for those with severe motor disabilities. In analysis of EEG data, achieving a higher classification performance is dependent on the appropriate representation of EEG features which is mostly characterized by one unique frequency before applying a learning model. Neglecting other frequencies of EEG signals could deteriorate the recognition performance of the model because each frequency has its unique advantages. Read More

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Rapid in vitro prototyping of O-methyltransferases for pathway applications in Escherichia coli.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

O-Methyltransferases are ubiquitous enzymes involved in biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolites such as bacterial antibiotics, human catecholamine neurotransmitters, and plant phenylpropanoids. While thousands of putative O-methyltransferases are found in sequence databases, few examples are functionally characterized. From a pathway engineering perspective, however, it is crucial to know the substrate and product ranges of the respective enzymes to fully exploit their catalytic power. Read More

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Peripheral-neuron-like properties of differentiated human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs).

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251356. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience and Informatics, Keio University, Kanagawa, Japan.

Elucidating the mechanisms underlying human pain sensation requires the establishment of an in vitro model of pain reception comprising human cells expressing pain-sensing receptors and function properly as neurons. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are mesenchymal stem cells and a promising candidate for producing human neuronal cells, however, the functional properties of differentiated hDPSCs have not yet been fully characterized. In this study, we demonstrated neuronal differentiation of hDPSCs via both their expression of neuronal marker proteins and their neuronal function examined using Ca2+ imaging. Read More

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Ivermectin inhibits cell proliferation and the expression levels of type I collagen, α‑SMA and CCN2 in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jul 6;24(1). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Burn Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200433, P.R. China.

A hypertrophic scar (HPS) is characterized by abnormal cell proliferation and the overproduction of extracellular matrix. Currently, the treatment options available for this remain unsatisfactory. Innovative treatments are required to attenuate or prevent hypertrophic scarring and the present study searched for a drug capable of becoming a new preventative and therapeutic strategy. Read More

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Synthesis and properties of photoswitchable diphosphines and gold(I) complexes derived from azobenzenes.

Dalton Trans 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Université Paris-Saclay, ENS Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Photophysique et Photochimie Supramoléculaires et Macromoléculaires, 91190, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Diphosphines displaying azobenzene scaffolds and the corresponding bis-gold chloride complexes have been prepared and fully characterized by photophysical, spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction studies. DFT calculations provide complementary information on their electronic, structural and spectroscopic properties. Comparative investigations have been carried out on compounds featuring phosphorus functions in the meta- and para-positions, respectively, with respect to the azo functions, as well as on diphosphines with an ortho-tetrafluoro substituted azobenzene core. Read More

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The Gene Coexpression Analysis Identifies Functional Modules Dynamically Changed After Traumatic Brain Injury.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 16;2021:5511598. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, both in adult and pediatric populations. However, the dynamic changes of gene expression profiles following TBI have not been fully understood. In this study, we identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following TBI. Read More

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Differences in activation of intracellular signaling in primary human retinal endothelial cells between isoforms of VEGFA 165.

Mol Vis 2021 28;27:191-205. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Eye Research Institute, Oakland University, Rochester, MI.

Purpose: There are reports that a b-isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor-A 165 (VEGFAb) is predominant in normal human vitreous, switching to the a-isoform (VEGFAa) in the vitreous of some diseased eyes. Although these isoforms appear to have a different ability to activate the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in various endothelial cells, the nature of their ability to activate intracellular signaling pathways is not fully characterized, especially in retinal endothelial cells. We determined their activation potential for two key intracellular signaling pathways (MAPK, AKT) over complete dose-response curves and compared potential effects on the expression of several VEGFA target genes in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). Read More

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Subtype-specific differences in Gag-protease replication capacity of HIV-1 isolates from East and West Africa.

Retrovirology 2021 May 5;18(1):11. Epub 2021 May 5.

HIV Pathogenesis Programme, The Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: The HIV-1 epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is heterogeneous with diverse unevenly distributed subtypes and regional differences in prevalence. Subtype-specific differences in disease progression rate and transmission efficiency have been reported, but the underlying biological mechanisms have not been fully characterized. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the subtypes prevalent in the East Africa, where adult prevalence rate is higher, have lower viral replication capacity (VRC) than their West African counterparts where adult prevalence rates are lower. Read More

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Language and speech in Melanie Klein's work.

Gordana Vulevic

Int J Psychoanal 2018 Aug 8;99(4):793-809. Epub 2018 May 8.

Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade.

Melanie Klein's writing style was distinctive. Many would concur that her theoretical and clinical writings are characterized by the absence of the fully developed poetic in the sense that literary theory understands this term. Although the visual poetic, as such, cannot be attributed to Melanie Klein's style, her discours has power to evoke image. Read More

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Nanosecond timing and synchronization scheme for holographic pump-probe studies at the MID instrument at European XFEL.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 May 20;28(Pt 3):987-994. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute for X-ray Physics, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

Single-pulse holographic imaging at XFEL sources with 10 photons delivered in pulses shorter than 100 fs reveal new quantitative insights into fast phenomena. Here, a timing and synchronization scheme for stroboscopic imaging and quantitative analysis of fast phenomena on time scales (sub-ns) and length-scales (≲100 nm) inaccessible by visible light is reported. A fully electronic delay-and-trigger system has been implemented at the MID station at the European XFEL, and applied to the study of emerging laser-driven cavitation bubbles in water. Read More

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LEAFY protein crystals with a honeycomb structure as a platform for selective preparation of outstanding stable bio-hybrid materials.

Nanoscale 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, CNRS, IRIG-LCBM, UMR5249, 38000, Grenoble, France.

Well-organized protein assemblies offer many properties that justify their use for the design of innovative bionanomaterials. Herein, crystals of the oligomerization domain of the LEAFY protein from Ginkgo biloba, organized in a honeycomb architecture, were used as a modular platform for the selective grafting of a ruthenium-based complex. The resulting bio-hybrid crystalline material was fully characterized by UV-visible and Raman spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry and LC-MS analysis after selective enzymatic digestion. Read More

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Combined clinic and home-based therapeutic approach for the treatment of bilateral radial deficiency for a young child with Holt-Oram syndrome: A case report.

J Hand Ther 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

NYU Langone Health Rusk Rehabilitation, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is a rare, genetic condition characterized by the combination of congenital heart defect and hypoplasia in one or both upper extremities. Children with HOS commonly present with varied joint and limb involvement including radial longitudinal deficiency impacting hand function. Evidence-based guidelines regarding orthotic wear and therapeutic techniques are lacking. Read More

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Hyaluronic acid (HA)-coated naproxen-nanoparticles selectively target breast cancer stem cells through COX-independent pathways.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 10;124:112024. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Biomaterials Group, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology (ICTP-CSIC), 28006 Madrid, Spain; Networking Biomedical Research Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), 28029 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Cytotoxic chemotherapy continues to be the main therapeutic option for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Several studies have reported a significant association between chronic inflammation, carcinogenesis and the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). We hypothesized that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs targeted to the CSC population could help reducing tumor progression and dissemination in otherwise hard to treat metastatic breast cancer. Read More

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Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations: A Systematic Review.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Clinical and Interventional Pulmonology, University Hospital Sassari (AOU), 07100 Sassari, Italy.

Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive disease characterized by a not fully reversible airflow limitation associated with an abnormal inflammatory response. Exacerbations of COPD are of major importance in the acceleration of disease progression, in healthcare costs, and negatively affect the patient's quality of life. Exacerbations are characterized by a further increase in the airway inflammation likely driven by oxidative stress. Read More

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Development of a Decellularized Porcine Esophageal Matrix for Potential Applications in Cancer Modeling.

Cells 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA.

Many decellularized extracellular matrix-derived whole organs have been widely used in studies of tissue engineering and cancer models. However, decellularizing porcine esophagus to obtain decellularized esophageal matrix (DEM) for potential biomedical applications has not been widely investigated. In this study a modified decellularization protocol was employed to prepare a porcine esophageal DEM for the study of cancer cell growth. Read More

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The Green Approach to the Synthesis of Bio-Based Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers with Partially Bio-Based Hard Blocks.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, G. Narutowicza Street 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland.

Bio-based polymeric materials and green routes for their preparation are current issues of many research works. In this work, we used the diisocyanate mixture based on partially bio-based diisocyanate origin and typical petrochemical diisocyanate for the preparation of novel bio-based thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (bio-TPUs). We studied the influence of the diisocyanate mixture composition on the chemical structure, thermal, thermomechanical, and mechanical properties of obtained bio-TPUs. Read More

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Higher Branched-Chain Amino Acid Intake Is Associated with Handgrip Strength among Korean Older Adults.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Gyeongbuk, Korea.

Sarcopenia is a disease of old age characterized by decreased muscle mass and strength. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) promote muscle mass synthesis and increase muscle strength. We aimed to develop a dietary amino acid database and to examine the association between BCAA intake and handgrip strength in Korean older adults. Read More

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Rapid Prototyping of Pneumatic Directional Control Valves.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, Aleja Tysiaclecia Panstwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland.

The main objective of the study was to design a pneumatic directional control valve for controlling pneumatic drives and produce it using a rapid prototyping technique. As the basic design assumption was to achieve high performance through a high flow rate and a low pressure drop, it was necessary to determine two flow parameters: the sonic conductance and the critical pressure ratio. The flow rate of compressed air and the diameters of the pneumatic conduits and fittings are important as they affect the rate of travel of the pneumatic cylinder piston. Read More

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Synthesis of an organic-inorganic hybrid with short organic molecular chains by sol-gel chemistry.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Apr 29;120:104567. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225002, China. Electronic address:

An oligomer with short organic molecular chains was successfully synthesized with KH550 and KH560. This oligomer was combined with tetraethyl orthosilicate and calcium chloride to prepare an organic-inorganic hybrid biological material (OI-BM) by sol-gel chemistry. The hybrid was fully characterized by a series of instrumental characterizations including nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray energy spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Read More

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Metabolomics and transcriptomics indicated the molecular targets of copper to the pig kidney.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 1;218:112284. Epub 2021 May 1.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

Copper poses huge environmental and public health concerns due to its widespread and persistent use in the past several decades. Although it is well established that at higher levels copper causes nephrotoxicity, the exact mechanisms of its toxicity is not fully understood. Therefore, this experimental study for the first time investigates the potential molecular mechanisms including transcriptomics, metabolomics, serum biochemical, histopathological, cell apoptosis and autophagy in copper-induced renal toxicity in pigs. Read More

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Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case report.

Acta Biomed 2021 Apr 30;92(S1):e2021060. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

University of L'Aquila .

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare hematologic syndrome presenting either as an inherited life-threatening inflammatory disorder in children or as a secondary disease in adults. Inherited HLH involves inborn defects in lymphocytes and includes autosomal recessive and X-linked disorders characterized by uncontrolled activation of T cells and macrophages and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines. Secondary or acquired HLH occurs in the settings of infections, systemic connective tissue disease and lymphoid malignancies, possibly due to underlying genetic predisposition to develop HLH. Read More

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Enhancement of Endothelialization by Topographical Features Is Mediated by PTP1B-Dependent Endothelial Adherens Junctions Remodeling.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, 117411 Republic of Singapore.

Endothelial Cells (ECs) form cohesive cellular lining of the vasculature and play essential roles in both developmental processes and pathological conditions. Collective migration and proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) are key processes underlying endothelialization of vessels as well as vascular graft, but the complex interplay of mechanical and biochemical signals regulating these processes are still not fully elucidated. While surface topography and biochemical modifications have been used to enhance endothelialization , thus far such single-modality modifications have met with limited success. Read More

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Pharmacological modulation of T cell immunity results in long-term remission of autoimmune arthritis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7FY, United Kingdom;

Chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by a deficit in fully functional regulatory T cells. DNA-methylation inhibitors have previously been shown to promote regulatory T cell responses and, in the present study, we evaluated their potential to ameliorate chronic and acute animal models of rheumatoid arthritis. Of the drugs tested, decitabine was the most effective, producing a sustained therapeutic effect that was dependent on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and was associated with expansion of induced regulatory T cells, particularly at the site of disease activity. Read More

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Vocal fold kinematics and relative fundamental frequency as a function of obstruent type and speaker age.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 Apr;149(4):2189

Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, Boston University, 635 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

The acoustic measure, relative fundamental frequency (RFF), has been proposed as an objective metric for assessing vocal hyperfunction; however, its underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been fully characterized. This study aimed to characterize the relationship between RFF and vocal fold kinematics. Simultaneous acoustic and high-speed videoendoscopic (HSV) recordings were collected as younger and older speakers repeated the utterances /ifi/ and /iti/. Read More

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DOCK8 deficiency causes a skewing to type 2 immunity in the gut with expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 30;559:135-140. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Immunogenetics, Department of Immunobiology and Neuroscience, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42. In humans, homozygous or compound heterozygous deletions in DOCK8 cause a combined immunodeficiency characterized by various allergic diseases including food allergies. Although group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) contribute to the development of allergic inflammation by producing interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13, the role of ILC2s in DOCK8 deficiency has not been fully explored. Read More

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Rutaecarpine targets hERG channels and participates in regulating electrophysiological properties leading to ventricular arrhythmia.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pharmacology (State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine Research, Ministry of Education), College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Drug-mediated or medical condition-mediated disruption of hERG function accounts for the main cause of acquired long-QT syndrome (acLQTs), which predisposes affected individuals to ventricular arrhythmias (VA) and sudden death. Many Chinese herbal medicines, especially alkaloids, have risks of arrhythmia in clinical application. The characterized mechanisms behind this adverse effect are frequently associated with inhibition of cardiac hERG channels. Read More

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Influence of Fine Ligand Substitution Modification of the Isocyanidometal Bridge on Metal to Metal Charge Transfer Properties in Class II-III Mixed Valence Complexes.

Chemistry 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 155 Yangqiao Road, 350002, Fuzhou, CHINA.

The synthesis and characterization of Class II-III mixed valence complexes have been an interesting topic due to their special intermediate behavior between localized and delocalized mixed valence complexes. To investigate the influence of the isocyanidometal bridge on metal to metal charge transfer (MMCT) properties, a family of new isocyanidometal-bridged complexes and their one-electron oxidation products cis-[Cp(dppe)Fe-CN-Ru(L)2-NC-Fe(dppe)Cp][PF6]n (n = 2, 3) (Cp = 1,3-cyclopentadiene, dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane, L = 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, 1[PF6]n), 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (5,5'-dmbpy, 2[PF6]n) and 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (4,4'-dmbpy, 3[PF6]n)) have been synthesized and fully characterized. The experimental results suggest that all the one-electron oxidation products may belong to Class II-III mixed valence complexes, supported by TDDFT calculations. Read More

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3D Printable Conducting and Biocompatible PEDOT-graft-PLA Copolymers by Direct Ink Writing.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 May 3:e2100100. Epub 2021 May 3.

POLYMAT University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Avenida de Tolosa 72, Donostia-San Sebastián, 20018, Spain.

Tailor-made polymers are needed to fully exploit the possibilities of additive manufacturing, constructing complex, and functional devices in areas such as bioelectronics. In this paper, the synthesis of a conducting and biocompatible graft copolymer which can be 3D printed using direct melting extrusion methods is shown. For this purpose, graft copolymers composed by conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and a biocompatible polymer polylactide (PLA) are designed. Read More

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