727 results match your criteria fruiting structures


Pentacyclic triterpenoids, fuscotorunones A and B, with ε-caprolactone in ring E from Fuscoporia torulosa.

Phytochemistry 2021 Apr 8;187:112748. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima, 7708514, Japan.

Fuscoporia torulosa (Pers.) (Hymenochaetaceae) is a mushroom forming woody fruiting body on living or dead trees. Two curious pentacyclic triterpenoids, fuscotorunones A and B, each of which has a unique ε-caprolactone in ring E, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of F. Read More

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New lanostane-type triterpenoids with proangiogenic activity from the fruiting body of .

Nat Prod Res 2021 Mar 26:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Mycology, College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, ganoderenicfys A () and B (), together with six related known terpenoids (-), were isolated and identified from the fruiting body of . The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of detailed interpretation of their NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute configurations of and were determined by quantum chemical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Read More

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First Report of a Ceratocystis manginecans Causing Quick Decline of Psidium guajava in Pakistan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 66724, Department of Plant Pathology University of Agriculture , Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan;

Psidium guajava is a widely grown fruit tree of Asia for food and medicinal purposes. Also being reported to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties (Somu, 2012). In April 2018, quick decline disease of guava was observed in orchards of Sheikhupura, Lahore, Faisalabad, Kasur and Chiniot districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Read More

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Evolution of Reproductive Division of Labor - Lessons Learned From the Social Amoeba During Its Multicellular Development.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 4;9:599525. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Cell Migration and Chemotaxis Group, Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

The origin of multicellular life from unicellular beings is an epochal step in the evolution of eukaryotes. There are several factors influencing cell fate choices during differentiation and morphogenesis of an organism. Genetic make-up of two cells that unite and fertilize is the key factor to signal the formation of various cell-types in due course of development. Read More

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Comparison of the structures and prebiotic-like effects in vitro of polysaccharides from Coprinus comatus fruit body and mycelium.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 25;165(Pt B):2621-2629. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

School of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250355, PR China. Electronic address:

Many effects of Coprinus comatus are attributed to its polysaccharide components. Therefore, the aim of this article is to take Coprinus comatus polysaccharides as the research topic to estimate the difference between the polysaccharides of Coprinus comatus fruiting bodies (CBPs) and the intracellular polysaccharides of liquid fermentation (ICPs). The total carbohydrate contents, monosaccharide compositions, molecular weights, functional groups, microstructures and functional properties of the two prepared polysaccharides were evaluated. Read More

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December 2020

Lucidumones B-H, racemic meroterpenoids that inhibit tumor cell migration from Ganoderma lucidum.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Feb 24;110:104774. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen 518060, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Seven new meroterpenoids, lucidumones B-H (1 and 3-8), along with one known meroterpenoid (2), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. The structures of the new compounds were assigned by spectroscopic and computational methods. All the isolated compounds were tested for their inhibition on human cancer cell migration. Read More

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February 2021

Mycomedicine: A Unique Class of Natural Products with Potent Anti-tumour Bioactivities.

Molecules 2021 Feb 19;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China.

Mycomedicine is a unique class of natural medicine that has been widely used in Asian countries for thousands of years. Modern mycomedicine consists of fruiting bodies, spores, or other tissues of medicinal fungi, as well as bioactive components extracted from them, including polysaccharides and, triterpenoids, etc. Since the discovery of the famous fungal extract, penicillin, by Alexander Fleming in the late 19th century, researchers have realised the significant antibiotic and other medicinal values of fungal extracts. Read More

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February 2021

A new species in the Mycosphaerellaceae from Cecidomyiidae leaf galls on Avicennia marina in South Africa.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 May 28;114(5):515-526. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Tree Health Biotechnology (CTHB), Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa.

During studies to investigate the health of mangrove trees in South Africa, high numbers of Avicennia marina were found with leaf galls caused by unidentified adults and larvae of midges (Cecidomyiidae). Fungal fruiting structures were commonly observed on the abaxial areas of the galls. To determine the identity of the fungi associated with the gall midges, phylogenetic analyses using multigene sequence data were used. Read More

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Gancochlearols E - I, meroterpenoids from Ganoderma cochlear against COX-2 and triple negative breast cancer cells and the absolute configuration assignment of ganomycin K.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 9;109:104706. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, People's Republic of China; Marshall Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Five new meroterpenoids, gancochlearols E - I (1, 3-6), and one compound ganomycin K (2) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. cochlear. Their structures were assigned by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, and CD analysis. Read More

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Chemical constituents of fungus F03 belonging to Basidiomycota.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Jul;33(4):1543-1546

Department of Pharmacy, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China/ Generic Drug Research Center of Guizhou Province, Green Pharmaceuticals Engineering Research Center of Guizhou Province, Zunyi, China.

Filamentous fungus F03 belonging to Basidiomycota was obtained and identified as Phlebiopsis crassa based on ITS sequence when Morchella. sp was isolated from the wild fruiting body by spores releasing method. Chemical constituents were separated by gel chromatography, HPLC and recrystallization. Read More

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Cryphonectriaceae associated with rust-infected in Hawaii.

MycoKeys 2020 31;76:49-79. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, FABI, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu United States of America.

(Myrtales, Myrtaceae) trees in Hawaii are severely affected by a rust disease caused by (Pucciniales, Sphaerophragmiaceae), but they are commonly co-infected with species of Cryphonectriaceae (Diaporthales). In this study, and other trees in the Myrtales were examined on three Hawaiian Islands for the presence of Cryphonectriaceae. Bark samples with fruiting bodies were collected from infected trees and fungi were isolated directly from these structures. Read More

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December 2020

Bioactive Ingredients and Medicinal Values of (Maitake).

Foods 2021 Jan 5;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Food Safety and Technology Research Center, Department of Applied Biology & Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

(), generally known as hen-of-the-woods or maitake in Japanese and hui-shu-hua in Chinese, is an edible mushroom with both nutritional and medicinal properties. This review provides an up-to-date and comprehensive summary of research findings on its bioactive constituents, potential health benefits and major structural characteristics. Since the discovery of the D-fraction more than three decades ago, many other polysaccharides, including β-glucans and heteroglycans, have been extracted from the fruiting body and fungal mycelium, which have shown significant antitumor and immunomodulatory activities. Read More

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January 2021

Phenolic and Steroidal Metabolites from the Cultivated Edible Mushroom and Their Bioactivities.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jan 5;69(2):668-675. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products & Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Xianyang 712100, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

A chemical study on the fruiting bodies of cultivated edible mushroom resulted in 14 metabolites including three new hispolon congeners, named inonophenols A-B and one new lanostane triterpenoid, named inonoterpene A. These structures were identified by NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data analysis. All metabolites were assessed for neurotrophic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities. Read More

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January 2021

Twelve undescribed derivatives of ganoderic acid isolated from Ganoderma luteomarginatum and their cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines.

Phytochemistry 2021 Mar 29;183:112617. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China; State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Systematic Research, Development and Utilization of Chinese Medicine Resources, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China; Institute of Innovative Medicine Ingredients of Southwest Specialty Medicinal Materials, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

Lanostane triterpenoids are thought to be the main underlying preclinical antitumor secondary metabolites of the genus Ganoderma. To further explore the potential cytotoxic triterpenoids from Ganoderma luteomarginatum, the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of 95% ethanolic extract was systematically studied. Twelve previously undescribed lanostane-type triterpene acids were isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. Read More

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Chemical constituents and their biological activities from the mushroom Pyropolyporus fomentarius.

Phytochemistry 2021 Mar 24;183:112625. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, 430074, PR China; The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, 430074, PR China. Electronic address:

The chemical constituents and their biological activities of the mushroom Pyropolyporus fomentarius were investigated in this study. Two previously undescribed pentacyclic lupane-type triterpenes, 3-formyloxybetulin and 3-formyloxybetulinic acid, two rare degraded ergosterols, pyropolincisterols A and B, along with ten known triterpenoids and four known ergosterols were isolated from the fruiting bodies of P. fomentarius. Read More

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Antiinflammatory triterpenoids from the fruiting bodies of Fomitopsis pinicola.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Mar 16;108:104562. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan; Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Health Care, Tajen University, Pingtung 907, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Twelve undescribed lanostane-type triterpenes, and twenty-two known triterpenes were isolated and identified from a medicinal bracket fungus Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw.) P. Karst. Read More

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The Mastic Tree ( L.) Leaves as Source of BACs: Effect of Growing Location, Phenological Stage and Extraction Solvent on Phenolic Content.

Food Technol Biotechnol 2020 Sep;58(3):303-314

Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Research Background: Mastic tree ( L.) of the Anacardiaceae family is an evergreen shrub from Mediterranean countries where it is used in traditional medicine. Analysis of leaf, stem, fruit and root extracts showed high concentrations of principal groups of secondary metabolites (flavonoids, phenolic acids and tannins), suggesting the plant possesses great biological potential. Read More

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September 2020

Cytotoxic ergostane-type steroids from Ganoderma lingzhi.

Steroids 2021 Jan 16;165:108767. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

School of Biological Science and Technology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China. Electronic address:

Two new ergostane-type steroids (1 and 2) have been isolated from the fruiting body of a medicinal macro fungus Ganoderma lingzhi. The structures including the absolute configurations of them were elucidated by a combination of different spectroscopic analyses especially C NMR and ECD calculations. Compound 2 features an unusual 1,2-dioxolane moiety. Read More

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January 2021

Cytotoxic triterpenoids and triterpene sugar esters from the medicinal mushroom Fomitopsis betulina.

Phytochemistry 2021 Jan 6;181:112580. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

University of Belgrade, Faculty of Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia.

Thirteen undescribed 24-methylene lanostane triterpenoids, named polyporenic acids E-M and fomitosides L-O, as well as seventeen known analogues, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Fomitopsis betulina. Their structures were determined using 1D, 2D NMR, IR, and HRESIMS. Fomitoside L and fomitoside N exhibited cytotoxicity against HL60 leukemia cells (IC = 15. Read More

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January 2021

Isolation and structure elucidation of polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of mushroom Coriolus versicolor and evaluation of their immunomodulatory effects.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 6;166:1387-1395. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Institute of Translational Medicine, Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, PR China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Diseases, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, PR China. Electronic address:

Coriolus versicolor is an edible medicinal mushroom in China. Two polysaccharides, named as CVPn and CVPa were separated from the dried fruiting bodies of Coriolus versicolor by water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Their chemical structures were well elucidated with overall consideration of monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis and 1D/2D-NMR spectra data. Read More

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January 2021

Identification of Feldin, an Antifungal Polyyne from the Beefsteak Fungus .

Biomolecules 2020 10 31;10(11). Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Project Group Genetics and Genomics of Fungi, Chair Evolution of Plants and Fungi, Ruhr-University Bochum (RUB), Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany.

Fruiting body-forming members of the Basidiomycota maintain their ecological fitness against various antagonists like ascomycetous mycoparasites. To achieve that, they produce myriads of bioactive compounds, some of which are now being used as agrochemicals or pharmaceutical lead structures. Here, we screened ethyl acetate crude extracts from cultures of thirty-five mushroom species for antifungal bioactivity, for their effect on the ascomycete and the basidiomycete . Read More

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October 2020

Limonoids from fruiting bodies of the wood-rot basidiomycete Fulvifomes xylocarpicola associated with the mangrove tree Xylocarpus granatum.

Phytochemistry 2021 Jan 1;181:112555. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 113 Thailand Science Park, Phaholyothin Road, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.

Three previously undescribed limonoids, fulvifomins A-C, together with two known compounds, 6-deoxydetigloyl-swietenine acetate and methyl angolensate, were isolated from fruiting bodies of the wood-rot fungus Fulvifomes xylocarpicola (Hymenochaetaceae), growing on the mangrove tree Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae). The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data, and X-ray crystallographic analysis (for fulvifomin A). A number of similar limonoids have been isolated from higher plants of the family Meliaceae, including X. Read More

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January 2021

Lanostane Triterpenoids from the Fruiting Bodies of and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

Molecules 2020 Oct 19;25(20). Epub 2020 Oct 19.

The Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Chemistry of Arid Zone, and State Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Indigenous Medicinal Plants Resource Utilization, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China.

In the current study, further chemical investigation of the fruiting bodies of led to isolate seven new 24-methyl-lanostane triterpenoids, named officimalonic acids I-O (-). Their structures were elucidated based on the analysis of spectroscopic data (HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR). Compounds - possessed an unusual C-23 spirostructure moiety, while compounds - had 23,26-lactone unit. Read More

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October 2020

Interplay of mesoscale physics and agent-like behaviors in the parallel evolution of aggregative multicellularity.

Evodevo 2020 12;11:21. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 USA.

Myxobacteria and dictyostelids are prokaryotic and eukaryotic multicellular lineages, respectively, that after nutrient depletion aggregate and develop into structures called fruiting bodies. The developmental processes and resulting morphological outcomes resemble one another to a remarkable extent despite their independent origins, the evolutionary distance between them and the lack of traceable homology in molecular mechanisms. We hypothesize that the morphological parallelism between the two lineages arises as the consequence of the interplay within multicellular aggregates between , physical and physicochemical processes operating similarly in living and non-living matter at the mesoscale (~10-10 m) and , unique to living systems and characteristic of the constituent cells, considered as autonomous entities acting according to internal rules in a shared environment. Read More

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October 2020

The first Afrotropical species of Porophila Dybas (Coleoptera, Ptiliidae).

Zootaxa 2020 Sep 1;4845(1):zootaxa.4845.1.11. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Museum of Natural History, University of Wrocław, Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335 Wrocław, Poland..

Porophila Dybas was so far represented by four nominal species distributed in USA (Oregon) and the Russian Far East (Primorsky Krai). The first Afrotropical species, P. chakalaka sp. Read More

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September 2020

Evolutionary trade-offs in the chemical defense of floral and fruit tissues across genus Cornus.

Am J Bot 2020 09 28;107(9):1260-1273. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 32816, USA.

Premise: Defense investment in plant reproductive structures is relatively understudied compared to the defense of vegetative organs. Here the evolution of chemical defenses in reproductive structures is examined in light of the optimal defense, apparency, and resource availability hypotheses within the genus Cornus using a phylogenetic comparative approach in relation to phenology and native habitat environmental data.

Methods: Individuals representing 25 Cornus species were tracked for reproductive phenology over a full growing season at the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Read More

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September 2020

A New Report on Edible Tropical Bolete, in Thailand and Its Fruiting Body Formation without the Need for a Host Plant.

Mycobiology 2020 Jul 6;48(4):263-275. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

is a well-known edible ectomycorrhizal mushroom indigenous to southern Vietnam. The mushroom specimens collected from northern Thailand in this study were identified as . . Read More

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Laboratory culture and bioactive natural products of myxomycetes.

Fitoterapia 2020 Oct 15;146:104725. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan 316021, China. Electronic address:

Myxomycetes, one of the lowest classes of eukaryote (true slime molds), are an unusual group of primitive organisms. Their life cycle consists of two stages, namely the free-living plasmodium and the fruiting body with unique structures and colors. The chemical studies on the secondary metabolites of the myxomycetes are limited due to a lack of understanding of their laboratory cultivation. Read More

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October 2020

Distribution, evolution and expression of provide new insights into their functions in light response and fruiting body development of .

PeerJ 2020 28;8:e9784. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Fungal GATA-type transcription factors (GATA-TFs) are a class of transcriptional regulators involved in various biological processes. However, their functions are rarely analyzed systematically, especially in edible or medicinal fungi, such as , which has various medicinal and food safety properties with a broad range of potential applications in healthcare products and the pharmaceutical industry.

Methods: GATA-TFs in (TgGATAs) were identified using InterProScan. Read More

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Double lives: transfer of fungal endophytes from leaves to woody substrates.

PeerJ 2020 28;8:e9341. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA.

Fungal endophytes are a ubiquitous feature of plants, yet for many fungi the benefits of endophytism are still unknown. The Foraging Ascomycete (FA) hypothesis proposes that saprotrophic fungi can utilize leaves both as dispersal vehicles and as resource havens during times of scarcity. The presence of saprotrophs in leaf endophyte communities has been previously observed but their ability to transfer to non-foliar saprobic substrates has not been well investigated. Read More

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