49 results match your criteria friedelin lupeol

Phytochemical, metabolic profiling and antiparasitic potential from leaves (Fabaceae).

Nat Prod Res 2020 Sep 9:1-6. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Nucleus of Bioassays, Biosynthesis and Ecophysiology of Natural Products (NuBBE), São Paulo State University UNESP, Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Natural Products phytochemical provide a rich source for therapeutic discovery and has led to the development of many drugs. Thus, the aim of this study was to obtaining a metabolic profiling from ethanol extract of leaves (EEIS) selected by bioassay antimalarial and nematostatic and identify metabolites in mixture by co-injection experiments and NMR spectroscopy. The chemical composition of this species indicated a wide variety of aromatic acids (vanillic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxy benzoic acid, gallic acid, , -coumaric acid and ferulic acid), flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin-3- rhamnoside and myricetin-3- -(2"-O-)--rhamnopyranoside), triterpenes (lupeol, -amyrin, friedelin and oleanolic acid) and the 2-hydroxyethyl-dodecanoate. Read More

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September 2020

First report of compounds from an species: Triterpenoids from Oliv. (Malvaceae).

Nat Prod Res 2020 Jun 29:1-3. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.

The stem bark of Oliv. exhibited triterpenoids, including the rare fernane-type, fern-9(11)-ene-2α,3β-diol () a possible chemotaxonomically distinct biomolecule for the genus. Other triterpenoids that were isolated from this plant include the ursane-type ursolic acid () and corosolic acid (), friedelane-type friedelin () and canophyllol (), lupane-type lupeol (), betulin (), betulinic acid () and hennadiol (), oleanoic acid (), maslinic acid () and taraxerol () and three sterols. Read More

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Oxidosqualene cyclases involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in Quercus suber cork.

Sci Rep 2020 05 15;10(1):8011. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Cork is a water-impermeable, suberin-based material harboring lignin, (hemi)cellulose, and extractable small molecules (primarily triterpenoids). Extractables strongly influence the properties of suberin-based materials. Though these previous findings suggest a key role for triterpenoids in cork material quality, directly testing this idea is hindered in part because it is not known which genes control cork triterpenoid biosynthesis. Read More

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Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of the extracts, fractions, and chemical constituents isolated from Luehea ochrophylla Mart.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Oct 28;19(1):284. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Background: Stem bark of Luehea ochrophylla (L. ochrophylla) is used by the traditional Brazilian medicine for treatment of rheumatic diseases and tumors. This study aimed to investigate inhibition of acute and chronic inflammations and cytotoxic activity of extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from L. Read More

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October 2019

Rapid simultaneous determination of pentacyclic triterpenoids by mixed-mode liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2020 Jan 14;1609:460458. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Core Facility Center "Arktika", Northern (Arctic) Federal University, nab. Severnoy Dviny 17, Arkhangelsk 163002, Russia.

Pentacyclic triterpenoids (PCTs) possess high biological activity, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and hepatoprotective properties and are widespread in a plant biomass. Due to significant differences in polarity and other physicochemical properties, the simultaneous determination of different classes of PCTs by the methods of reversed phase liquid chromatography is difficult. In the present study, we proposed a new approach to chromatographic separation of such compounds based on the use of a stationary phase with a mixed retention mechanism combining hydrophobic, weak anion exchange and hydrophilic interactions. Read More

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January 2020

Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of (Spreng) bark.

J Tradit Complement Med 2017 Oct 15;7(4):441-451. Epub 2017 Jan 15.

Department of Pharmacology, R. C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, 425405, Maharashtra, India.

Several species of have been used in the condition of pain & arthritis in Indian folk medicine. Present study revealed the preliminary phytochemical investigation and evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity as well as underlying mechanism of bark of Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae). Read More

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October 2017

Constituents from stem barks of Luehea ochrophylla Mart and evaluation of their antiparasitic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities.

Nat Prod Res 2017 Aug 14;31(16):1948-1953. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

a Departamento de Química , Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brazil.

Luehea species are found in almost all Central and South American countries. The present work describes the phytochemical study, isolation, and structural characterisation of friedelin, β-friedelinol, lupeol, pseudotaraxasterol, β-sitosterol, betulinic acid, taraxasterol, (-)-epicatechin, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (+)-epicatechin-(4β→8)-epicatechin from stem barks of Luehea ochrophylla Mart. The structural identification of the isolated compounds was mainly performed by NMR analyses and comparison with the data from literature. Read More

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[Chemical Constituents from the Roots of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa].

Zhong Yao Cai 2016 Jun;39(6):1303-7

Objective: To investigate the chemical constituents of the roots of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa and their antitumor activities.

Methods: Various column chromatographic techniques were used to isolate the compounds. The structures were elucidated by their physicochemical properties and spectra data. Read More

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GC-MS Analysis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity of (Schumach) and (DC).

Medicines (Basel) 2016 Jan 28;3(1). Epub 2016 Jan 28.

Chemistry Department, University of Botswana, P/Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana.

The non-polar components of two leguminoceae species (Schumach), and (DC) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the crude -hexane and chloroform extracts together with several chromatographic separation techniques led to the identification and characterization (using NMR) of sixteen known compounds from the heartwood and stem bark of and respectively. These constituents include, -hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) , oleic acid , chondrillasterol , stigmasterol , 24S 5α-stigmast-7-en-3β-ol , 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (,)-, methyl ester , 13-octadecanoic acid, methyl ester , tetradecanoic acid , hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester , octadecanoic acid , tetratriacontane , 7-dehydrodiosgenin , lupeol , stigmasta-3,5-diene-7-one , friedelan-3-one (friedelin) , and 1-octacosanol . Read More

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January 2016

Chemical Constituents of Lecythispisonis (Lecythidaceae)--A New Saponin and Complete 1H and 13C Chemical Shift Assignments.

Nat Prod Commun 2015 Jun;10(6):871-4

A novel triterpenoid saponin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1' --> 3)-2α,19α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid [3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1' --> 3)-arjunic acid, 1], ten known compounds [six triterpenoids: α-amyrin (2), β-amyrin (3), germanicol (4), lupeol (5), friedelin (6), friedelanol (7); four steroids--campesterol (8), stigmasterol (9), sitosterol (10), cholesterol (11)], and a long chain alcohol n-eicosan-1-ol (12) were identified in the bark of Lecythis pisonis. The structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (1H and 13C-NMR, DEPTQ, 1H-1H-COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC), low (CG-MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and infrared (IR) spectral data involving comparison with the literature. Read More

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Venuloxanthone, a new pyranoxanthone from the stem bark of Calophyllum venulosum.

J Asian Nat Prod Res 2015 29;17(11):1104-8. Epub 2015 May 29.

d Department of Chemistry , Faculty of Science, University of Malaya , Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia.

A new pyranoxanthone, venuloxanthone (1), was isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum venulosum, together with three other xanthones, tovopyrifolin C (2), ananixanthone (3) and caloxanthone I (4), along with two common triterpenes, friedelin (5) and lupeol (6). The structures of these compounds were identified using several spectroscopic analyses which are NMR, GCMS and FTIR experiments. Read More

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[Chemical constituents of Clerodendrum trichotomum Leaves].

Zhong Yao Cai 2014 Sep;37(9):1590-3

Objective: To investigate the chemical constituents of the leaves of Clerodendrum trichotomum.

Methods: The chemical constituents of petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Clerodendrum trichotomum were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques, such as silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, semi-preparative HPLC and recrystallization. The structures of these isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis (1 H-NMR,13 C-NMR,2D-NMR and MS). Read More

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September 2014

Analysis of triterpenoids and phytosterols in vegetables by thin-layer chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2015 Feb 9;1381:229-38. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

National Institute of Chemistry, Laboratory for Food Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia; EN-FIST Centre of Excellence, Trg Osvobodilne fronte 13, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Three TLC methods were used for an initial screening of some common plant triterpenoids and phytosterols in cuticular wax extracts of different vegetables (zucchini, eggplant, tomato, red pepper, mangold, spinach, lettuce, white-colored radicchio di Castelfranco, raddichio Leonardo, white cabbage, red cabbage and savoy cabbage). The preliminary experiments showed that the studied vegetables are potential sources of triterpenoids and phytosterols. To identify the compounds present in the extracts with high certainty, the first TLC-MS(2) method was developed for the analysis of eight triterpenoids (lupeol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, cycloartenol, cycloartenol acetate, lupeol acetate, lupenone and friedelin) and two phytosterols (β-sitosterol and stigmasterol). Read More

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February 2015

Analysis of constituents of the eastern Nigeria mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus linn revealed presence of new classes of osteogenic compounds.

J Ethnopharmacol 2014 22;151(1):643-51. Epub 2013 Nov 22.

Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research on Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Mistletoe extracts (decoctions) are used traditionally in eastern Nigeria for the management of bone pain, post menopausal syndrome and diabetes amongst several other ailments. While scientific evidence supporting its folkloric use as an antidiabetic agent has been documented, the age-long practice of its use in treatment of post menopausal syndrome has not been scientifically validated. Postmenopausal osteoporosis accounts for one of the prevalent disease conditions in aging population globally. Read More

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September 2014

[Chemical constituents in whole herb of Bidens pilosa var. radiata].

Zhong Yao Cai 2013 Mar;36(3):410-3

Objective: To study the chemical constituents of Bidens pilosa var. radiata.

Methods: The constituents were separated and purified with silica gel column, and identified by physicochemical properties and spectral methods. Read More

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A new cycloartane nortriterpenoid from stem and leaf of Quercus variabilis.

J Asian Nat Prod Res 2013 Sep 22;15(9):1050-4. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

a School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University , Shenyang , 110016 , China.

A new compound 3-acetyloxy-epicycloeucalenol-24-one (1), with 11 known compounds 3α-acetyloxy-4α,14α-dimethyl-9β,19-cycloergost-24-oic acid (2), 3-epicycloeucalenol (3), 3-epicycloeucalenyl-24-one (4), 3-epicycloeucalenyl acetate (5), 4β,14α-dimethyl-5α-ergosta-9β,19-cyclo-24(31)-en-3β-hydroxy-4α-carboxylic acid (6), cycloeucalenone (7), friedelin (8), epifriedelanol (9), lup-20 (29)-en-3β,30-diol (10), betulin (11), lupeol (12), was isolated from the stems and leaves of Quercus variabilis Blume. Seven compounds (1-7) showed anti-inflammatory activity. Read More

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September 2013

Composition of Cassia fistula oil and its antifungal activity by disrupting ergosterol biosynthesis.

Nat Prod Commun 2013 Feb;8(2):261-4

Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi-110025, India.

Cassia fistula oil was investigated for antifungal activities against standard and clinical isolates of Candida species. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of C. fistula oil revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds like beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol, betulinic acid, lupeol, fucosterol, alpha-amyrin and friedelin. Read More

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February 2013

Flavonoids and triterpenes from the leaves of Artocarpus fulvicortex.

Nat Prod Commun 2012 Dec;7(12):1587-8

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

Five flavonoids, 5-hydroxy-(6:7,3':4')-di(2,2-dimethylpyrano)flavone 1, carpachromene 2, cycloartocarpesin 3, norartocarpetin 4 and 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 5, along with three triterpenes, friedelin 6, lupeol 7 and 13-sitosterol 8 were isolated for the first time from the leaves of Artocarpus fulvicortex F.M. Jarrett. Read More

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December 2012

Triterpenoid content of berries and leaves of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus from Finland and Poland.

J Agric Food Chem 2012 Dec 27;60(48):11839-49. Epub 2012 Nov 27.

Department of Plant Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warszawa, Poland.

Triterpenoid compounds found in free and ester forms in extracts of entire fruits and leaves and in fruit and leaf cuticular waxes of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) collected in Finland and Poland were identified and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID). The main bilberry triterpenoid profile consisted of α- and β-amyrin, α- and β-amyrenone, campesterol, cholesterol, citrostadienol (in berries), cycloartanol, erythrodiol, lupeol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, sitosterol, sitostanol, stigmasterol, stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one, uvaol, oleanolic and ursolic aldehydes, and oleanolic, ursolic, 2α-hydroxyoleanolic, and 2α-hydroxyursolic acids. Read More

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December 2012

Triterpenoid profile of flower and leaf cuticular waxes of heather Calluna vulgaris.

Nat Prod Res 2013 Aug 13;27(15):1404-7. Epub 2012 Nov 13.

Department of Plant Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096, Warszawa, Poland.

Analysis of the main triterpenoid profile of chloroform-soluble cuticular waxes of heather flowers and leaves by GC-MS revealed the following composition: five triterpene acids - betulinic, oleanolic, ursolic, 3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic and 3-oxo-ursan-12-en-28-oic; eight monohydroxyalcohols - α-amyrin, β-amyrin, cycloartanol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, friedelinol, germanicol, lupeol and taraxasterol; three dihydroxyalcohols - betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol; two aldehydes - oleanolic and ursolic; four ketones - α-amyrenone, 4-epi-friedelin, friedelin and taraxerone and seven steroids - campesterol, cholesterol, sitostanol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one and stigmastane-3,6-dione. Triterpenoids accounted for 20% and 65% by mass of flower and leaf waxes, respectively, which suggest that heather leaves represent a very promising source of these compounds. Ursolic acid was the principal triterpenoid in the cuticular wax of both organs, whereas among the neutral triterpenes, friedelin and uvaol were the most abundant in flowers and leaves, respectively. Read More

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Chemical constituents of Machaerium hirtum Vell. (Fabaceae) leaves and branches and its anti-inflammatory activity evaluation.

Nat Prod Res 2013 6;27(17):1556-61. Epub 2012 Nov 6.

Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, 87020-900 Maringá - PR, Brasil.

Leaves and branches of Machaerium hirtum Vell. (Fabaceae), native to South America, were subjected to phytopharmacological investigation in order to identify its major chemical constituents and evaluate its extracts, fractions and isolated compounds in assays for anti-inflammatory activities. These were performed using mouse ear edema model, pleurisy and myeloperoxidase activity assays. Read More

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Constituents of twig bark of pear cultivars (Pyrus species).

Nat Prod Commun 2012 Aug;7(8):987-8

Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Gunma National College of Technology, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8530, Japan.

Organic solvent extracts from fresh twig bark of Japanese pear cultivars (Pyrus serotina) Shinko and Nijisseiki, and European pear cultivar (P. communis) Le Lectier were obtained by maceration with n-hexane and EtOAc, and analyzed in GC-EIMS experiments. In these two Japanese cultivars, the lupeol, betulin, epifriedelinol, friedelin and arbutin contents of Nijisseiki were higher than those of Shinko. Read More

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Comparison of the triterpenoid content of berries and leaves of lingonberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea from Finland and Poland.

J Agric Food Chem 2012 May 7;60(19):4994-5002. Epub 2012 May 7.

Department of Plant Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warszawa, Poland.

Triterpenoid compounds extracted from fruits and leaves of lingonberry ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) collected in Finland and Poland were identified and quantitated by GC-MS/FID. The main lingonberry triterpenoid profile consisted of α-amyrin, β-amyrin, betulin, campesterol, cycloartanol, erythrodiol, fern-7-en-3β-ol, friedelin, lupeol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one, swert-9(11)-en-3β-ol, taraxasterol, urs-12-en-29-al, uvaol, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid. Read More

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Inhibitory activities of compounds from the twigs of Garcinia hombroniana Pierre on human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and platelet aggregation.

Phytother Res 2012 Dec 15;26(12):1845-50. Epub 2012 Mar 15.

Drug and Herbal Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The methanol extract of the twigs of Garcinia hombroniana, which showed strong LDL antioxidation and antiplatelet aggregation activities, was subjected to column chromatography to obtain 3,5,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone and eight triterpenoids, garcihombronane B, D, E and F, friedelin, glutin-5-en-3β-ol, stigmasterol and lupeol. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit copper-mediated LDL oxidation and arachidonic acid (AA)-, adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Read More

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December 2012

Pharmacological properties and related constituents of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae).

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2012 Jan;5(1):46-51

Département de médecine-pharmacopée traditionnelle/pharmacie (IRSS/CNRST), Université de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso.

Objective: To screen methanol and dichloromethane extracts of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, in vitro antioxidant activities and phytochemical analysis.

Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced-edema of mice paw and croton oil-induced edema of mice ear; analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing. Phytochemical screening of extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography. Read More

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January 2012

Two new xanthones from Calophyllum nodusum (Guttiferae).

Molecules 2011 Oct 25;16(11):8973-80. Epub 2011 Oct 25.

Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Malaysia.

The air-dried powdered stem bark of Calophyllum nodusum (Guttiferea) collected from Sandakan (Sabah, Malaysia), was extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform and methanol. The solvents were removed by rotary evaporator to give dark viscous extracts. Detailed and repeated chromatographic separation of the extracts lead to isolation of two new xanthones, identified as nodusuxanthone and trapezifolixanthone A. Read More

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October 2011

Chemical constituents of Piptadenia gonoacantha J.F. Macbr.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2010 Sep;82(3):561-7

Departamento de Química, ICE, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Serópedica, RJ, Brazil.

The phytochemical investigation of Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) J.F. Read More

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September 2010

Cloning and characterization of oxidosqualene cyclases from Kalanchoe daigremontiana: enzymes catalyzing up to 10 rearrangement steps yielding friedelin and other triterpenoids.

J Biol Chem 2010 Sep 7;285(39):29703-12. Epub 2010 Jul 7.

Department of Botany and Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada.

The first committed step in triterpenoid biosynthesis is the cyclization of oxidosqualene to polycyclic alcohols or ketones C(30)H(50)O. It is catalyzed by single oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) enzymes that can carry out varying numbers of carbocation rearrangements and, thus, generate triterpenoids with diverse carbon skeletons. OSCs from diverse plant species have been cloned and characterized, the large majority of them catalyzing relatively few rearrangement steps. Read More

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September 2010

Secondary plant substances in various extracts of the leaves, fruits, stem and bark of Caraipa densifolia Mart.

Food Chem Toxicol 2010 Jun 27;48(6):1597-606. Epub 2010 Mar 27.

Division of Preventive Oncology, National Tumor Center/German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

Thirty secondary plant substances were detected in various extracts of the leaves, fruits, stem and bark of Caraipadensifolia Mart. Phenolic compounds were preliminarily identified and quantitated by HPLC-ESI-MS and the structures of the compounds, purified by semi-preparative HPLC, were further characterized by nano-ESI-MS-MS. The presence of gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, methyl gallate, p-coumaric acid quinate, epicatechin, procaynidin dimer B(2), procyanidin trimer C(1), syringic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetragallate glucoside, 1,3,4,6-tetragallate glucoside, corilagin, ellagic acid, methyl ellagic acid rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, two apigenin-C-glycosides (vitexin and isovitexin) and two luteolin-C-glycosides (orientin and isoorientin) are reported in this species for the first time. Read More

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[A new trincallane derivative from Salacia hainanensis Chun et How].

Yao Xue Xue Bao 2009 Oct;44(10):1123-6

School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China.

Chemical constituents of the roots and stem of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How were isolated and purified with column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated based on physicochemical and spectral spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the activities of anti-alpha-glucosidase and inhibiting AGEs (advanced glycation end products, AGEs) formation in vitro, nine compounds were identified as 26, 27-dihydroxy-7, 24-tirucalladien-3-one (1), abruslactone A (2), lupeol (3), 21alpha, 30-dihydroxy-D: A-friedooleanan-3-one (4), 15alpha-hydroxyfriedelan-3-one (5), friedelin (6), mangiferin (7), epicatechin (8) and beta-sitosterol (9), separately. Read More

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October 2009