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Aerosol-assisted route to low-E transparent conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide coatings from pre-organized and halogen-free precursor.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 27;11(19):4980-4990. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

University College London, Department of Chemistry 20 Gordon St London WC1H 0AJ UK

Thermal control in low-emission windows is achieved by the application of glazings, which are simultaneously optically transparent in the visible and reflective in the near-infrared (IR). This phenomenon is characteristic of coatings with wide optical band gaps that have high enough charge carrier concentrations for the material to interact with electromagnetic radiation in the IR region. While conventional low-E coatings are composed of sandwiched structures of oxides and thin Ag films or of fluorinated SnO coatings, ZnO-based glazing offers an environmentally stable and economical alternative with competitive optoelectronic properties. Read More

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Unzipping Carbon Nanotube Bundles through NH-π Stacking for Enhanced Electrical and Thermal Transport.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Bundling of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) significantly undermines their superior thermal and electrical properties. Realizing stable, homogeneous, and surfactant-free dispersion of SWCNTs in solvents and composites has long been regarded as a key challenge. Here, we report amine-containing aromatic and cyclohexane molecules, which are common chain extenders (CEs) for epoxy curing in industry, can be used to effectively disperse CNTs. Read More

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Interpretable deep learning uncovers cellular properties in label-free live cell images that are predictive of highly metastatic melanoma.

Cell Syst 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Lyda Hill Department of Bioinformatics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

Deep learning has emerged as the technique of choice for identifying hidden patterns in cell imaging data but is often criticized as "black box." Here, we employ a generative neural network in combination with supervised machine learning to classify patient-derived melanoma xenografts as "efficient" or "inefficient" metastatic, validate predictions regarding melanoma cell lines with unknown metastatic efficiency in mouse xenografts, and use the network to generate in silico cell images that amplify the critical predictive cell properties. These exaggerated images unveiled pseudopodial extensions and increased light scattering as hallmark properties of metastatic cells. Read More

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Preparation of silicate nanosheets by delaminating RUB-18 for transparent, proton conducting membranes.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Institute of Industrial Nanomaterials (IINa), Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan.

The present study demonstrated delamination of the layered silicate RUB-18 with no organo-modification of the silanol group. The obtained nanosheets showed a homogeneous thickness. A sponge-like material and a free-standing transparent, dense membrane were reconstructed using the nanosheets. Read More

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Room Temperature Processed Transparent Amorphous InGaTiO Cathodes for Semi-Transparent Perovskite Solar Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 2;13(23):27353-27363. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), 2066, Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 16419, Republic of Korea.

In order to ensure high-performance semitransparent perovskite solar cells (ST-PSCs), the deposition of high-quality scalable transparent cathodes on ST-PSCs at room temperature is necessary. In this study, we designed an amorphous InGaTiO (IGTO) electrode, prepared by linear facing target sputtering (LFTS) as a transparent cathode for ST-PSCs. Even in the room temperature sputtering process, the amorphous IGTO cathode showed a low sheet resistance of 9. Read More

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A quantitative assessment of silicone and PTFE-based stamp techniques for restoring occlusal anatomy using resin-based composites.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology and Endodontology, University Centre of Dentistry, Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Objectives: Publications on stamp techniques for placing resin-based composite (RBC) restorations consist mainly of case studies. Furthermore, comparative studies are rare and no longer relevant to the materials tested today. Thus, two general techniques were investigated in this study. Read More

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Rapid Ag Nanofiber Formation Via Pt Nanoparticle-Assisted H-Free Reduction of Ag-Containing Polymers.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 May 26;16(1):96. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Systems Design Engineering, Akita University, Akita, 010-8502, Japan.

One-dimensional Ag nanostructure-based networks have garnered significant attention as next-generation transparent conductive materials. Ag nanofibers (NFs) with high aspect ratios decrease the number density required for percolation; hence, they form qualitatively superior transparent conductive films. This study reports a novel method for rapidly fabricating Ag NFs via Pt nanoparticle-assisted H-free reduction of solid-state AgNO. Read More

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Transparent and Flexible Amphiphobic Coatings with Excellent Fold Resistance via Solvent-Free Coating and Photocuring of Fluorinated Liquid Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 25;13(22):26498-26504. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry and Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Amphiphobic surfaces have been developed for various applications. However, the harsh construction conditions and multistep processes limit their practical application. Especially for those with a particular surface roughness and morphology, the amphiphobic property might provide a slight deformation. Read More

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Doping Liquid Crystals of Colloidal Inorganic Nanotubes by Additive-Free Metal Nanoparticles.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 21;12(21):5052-5058. Epub 2021 May 21.

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, 91405, Orsay, France.

Doping liquid-crystal phases with nanoparticles is a fast-growing field with potential breakthroughs due to the combination of the properties brought by the two components. One of the main challenges remains the long-term stability of the hybrid system, requiring complex functionalization of the nanoparticles at the expense of their self-assembly properties. Here we demonstrate the successful synthesis of additive-free noble-metal nanoparticles at the surface of charged inorganic nanotubes. Read More

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One-Way Continuous Deposition of Monolayer MXene Nanosheets for the Formation of Two Confronting Transparent Electrodes in Flexible Capacitive Photodetector.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 19;13(21):25400-25409. Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 54896, Republic of Korea.

MXenes based on titanium carbide are promising next-generation transparent electrode materials due to their high metallic conductivity, optical transparency, mechanical flexibility, and abundant hydrophilic surface functionality. MXene electrodes offer a much wider conductive surface coverage than metal nanowires, thereby gaining popularity as flexible electrode materials in supercapacitors and energy devices. However, given that monolayer MXene nanosheets are only a few nanometers thick, meticulous surface treatments and deposition technologies are required for a practical implementation of these transparent electrodes. Read More

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Remarkable plasma-resistance performance by nanocrystalline YO·MgO composite ceramics for semiconductor industry applications.

Sci Rep 2021 May 13;11(1):10288. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi, Gyeongbuk, 39177, Republic of Korea.

Motivated by recent finding of crystallographic-orientation-dependent etching behavior of sintered ceramics, the plasma resistance of nanocrystalline YO-MgO composite ceramics (YM) was evaluated for the first time. We report a remarkably high plasma etching resistance of nanostructure YM surpassing the plasma resistance of commercially used transparent YO and MgAlO ceramics. The pore-free YM ceramic with grain sizes of several hundred nm was fabricated by hot press sintering, enabling theoretical maximum densification at low temperature. Read More

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Self-promoted solid-state covalent networking of Au(SR) through reversible disulfide bonds. A critical effect of the nanocluster in oxidation processes.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 12;13(22):9971-9977. Epub 2021 May 12.

Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, North 10 West 5, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan.

Covalent crosslinking of ligand-protected gold nanoclusters offers interesting platforms to investigate the properties associated with the synergetic effects of multiple nanoclusters. In this paper, we report the synthesis of covalent networks of [Au(SR)] nanoclusters using reversible disulfide linkages, which was facilitated by the unique capabilities of the nanocluster to mediate oxidation processes. The conventional Au synthesis using 1,6-hexanedithiol afforded a soluble oligodisulfide-appended [Au(SR)] monomer possessing uncoordinated anionic thiolate sites at the terminal ends. Read More

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Single-Crystalline Silicon Frameworks: A New Platform for Transparent Flexible Optoelectronics.

Adv Mater 2021 May 8:e2008171. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, P. R. China.

Single-crystalline silicon (sc-Si) is the dominant semiconductor material for the modern electronics industry. Despite their excellent photoelectric and electronic properties, the rigidity, brittleness, and nontransparency of commonly used silicon wafers limit their application in transparent flexible optoelectronics. In this study, a new type of Si microstructure, named single-crystalline Si frameworks (sc-SiFs), is developed, through a combination of wet-etching and microfabrication technologies. Read More

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Underwater Communication and Optical Camouflage Ionogels.

Adv Mater 2021 May 6:e2008479. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, P. R. China.

Marine animals, such as leptocephalus and jellyfish, can sense external stimuli and achieve optical camouflage in the aquatic environment. Fabricating an intelligent soft sensor that can mimic the capabilities of transparent marine animals and function underwater can enable transformative applications in various novel fields. However, previously reported soft sensors struggle to meet the requirements of adhesion, self-healing ability, optical transparency, and stable conductivity in the aquatic environment. Read More

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Facile preparation of solid dispersions by dissolving drugs in N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and photopolymerization.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 26;124:112063. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850, China; Pharmaceutical College of Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China; Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China. Electronic address:

Drug solid dispersions improve the dissolution of drugs in aqueous media for enhancement of oral bioavailability. The current preparation methods of drug solid dispersions mainly involve the evaporation of solvents or the melting of drugs and matrix. Here, we create a new and simple method for the preparation of drug solid dispersions by dissolving drugs in N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and then NVP photopolymerization. Read More

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Physical Investigations on Bias-Free, Photo-Induced Hall Sensors Based on Pt/GaAs and Pt/Si Schottky Junctions.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Natural Sciences, Florida Polytechnic University, 4700 Research Way, Lakeland, FL 33805, USA.

Hall-effect in semiconductors has wide applications for magnetic field sensing. Yet, a standard Hall sensor retains two problems: its linearity is affected by the non-uniformity of the current distribution; the sensitivity is bias-dependent, with linearity decreasing with increasing bias current. In order to improve the performance, we here propose a novel structure which realizes bias-free, photo-induced Hall sensors. Read More

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Rapid and Easy-to-Use Method for Accurate Characterization of Target Binding and Kinetics of Magnetic Particle Bioconjugates for Biosensing.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Str., 119991 Moscow, Russia.

The ever-increasing use of magnetic particle bioconjugates (MPB) in biosensors calls for methods of comprehensive characterization of their interaction with targets. Label-free optical sensors commonly used for studying inter-molecular interactions have limited potential for MPB because of their large size and multi-component non-transparent structure. We present an easy-to-use method that requires only three 20-min express measurements to determine the key parameters for selection of optimal MPB for a biosensor: kinetic and equilibrium characteristics, and a fraction of biomolecules on the MPB surface that are capable of active targeting. Read More

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Free-Standing Composite Films Based on Thiol-Ene and PEDOT: PSS Layers for Optoelectronic Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko 59, LT51423 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Free-standing composite films were fabricated by combining the plane parallel layers of thiol-ene based on pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate)-1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (PETMP-TTT) UV curable polymer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive polymer. A systematic analysis was performed with the focus on mechanical performance of the free-standing composite films. The PEDOT:PSS/PETMP-TTT composite exhibited higher values of adhesion force compared to the free-standing PETMP-TTT film due to hydrophilic nature of the PEDOT:PSS layer. Read More

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ALD Deposited ZnO:Al Films on Mica for Flexible PDLC Devices.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Electrophysics, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan.

In this work, highly conductive Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films are deposited on transparent and flexible muscovite mica substrates by using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. AZO-mica structures possess high optical transmittance at visible and near-infrared spectral range and retain low electric resistivity, even after continuous bending of up to 800 cycles. Structure performances after bending tests have been supported by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Read More

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Segregation-controlled self-assembly of silver nanowire networks using a template-free solution-based process.

Nanoscale 2021 May;13(18):8442-8451

Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, South Korea.

Metal conductive patterning has been studied as an alternative to the most commonly used indium tin oxide electrodes. Printed electrodes are fabricated by several complicated processes including etching, photolithography, and laser- and template-based techniques. However, these patterning methods have increasingly encountered critical issues of long manufacturing times and high equipment costs that necessitate vacuum and high-temperature conditions. Read More

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Palliative Reconstructive Surgery for Advanced Maxillofacial Osteosarcoma in the Peak of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Matter of Ethical Decision-making.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Mar 29;9(3):e3545. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Mich.

The coronavirus disease 2019 posed an unprecedented strain to plastic surgery services. The scarcity of validated guidelines-at the beginning of this healthcare crisis-to direct clinical, ethical, transparent decision-making for head and neck cancer patients requiring palliative reconstructive surgery was a difficult situation. We report a 15-year-old girl with an advanced chemoresistant rare radiotherapy-induced mandibular osteosarcoma during the early phase of the pandemic in the United States in mid-March 2020, when official recommendations for triage were still developing. Read More

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Implantable photonic neural probes for light-sheet fluorescence brain imaging.

Neurophotonics 2021 Apr 19;8(2):025003. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

California Institute of Technology, Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, Pasadena, California, United States.

Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) is a powerful technique for high-speed volumetric functional imaging. However, in typical light-sheet microscopes, the illumination and collection optics impose significant constraints upon the imaging of non-transparent brain tissues. We demonstrate that these constraints can be surmounted using a new class of implantable photonic neural probes. Read More

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Visual interpretability in 3D brain tumor segmentation network.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 19;133:104410. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Medical Imaging and Diagnostics Lab, National Centre of Artificial Intelligence (NCAI), Pakistan; Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Islamabad, 45550, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Medical image segmentation is a complex yet one of the most essential tasks for diagnostic procedures such as brain tumor detection. Several 3D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architectures have achieved remarkable results in brain tumor segmentation. However, due to the black-box nature of CNNs, the integration of such models to make decisions about diagnosis and treatment is high-risk in the domain of healthcare. Read More

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Constructing and analysing dynamic models with modelbase v1.2.3: a software update.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 Apr 20;22(1):203. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Quantitative and Theoretical Biology, Heinrich Heine University, Universitätsstr. 1, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Computational mathematical models of biological and biomedical systems have been successfully applied to advance our understanding of various regulatory processes, metabolic fluxes, effects of drug therapies, and disease evolution and transmission. Unfortunately, despite community efforts leading to the development of SBML and the BioModels database, many published models have not been fully exploited, largely due to a lack of proper documentation or the dependence on proprietary software. To facilitate the reuse and further development of systems biology and systems medicine models, an open-source toolbox that makes the overall process of model construction more consistent, understandable, transparent, and reproducible is desired. Read More

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Synthesis of dextrin-polyacrylamide and boric acid based tough and transparent, self-healing, superabsorbent film.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 16;182:712-721. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry, Dr B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar 144 011, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

Stretchabiliy, transparency and self-healing ability of bio-based materials are some of the important features for their utilization in the biomedical field. Recently, robust self-healing super porous materials possessing multifunctional nature have raised enormous interest among the researchers in order to design different materials which can be used in industrial, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Herein, a novel self-healing, stretchable and transparent superabsorbent film based on Dextrin-polyacrylamide and Boric Acid (D-cl-polyAAm) was synthesized using a free radical reaction mechanism. Read More

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Voltage tunable mid-wave infrared reflective varifocal metalens via an optomechanic cavity.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(8):1930-1933

Metalenses enable the multifunctional control of light beams with an optically thin layer of nanoantennas. Efficient on-chip voltage tuning of the focal length is the crucial step toward the integration of metalenses into dynamically tunable optical systems. We propose and numerically investigate the on-chip electrical tuning of a reflective metalens via an optomechanic cavity. Read More

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Organelle degradation in the lens by PLAAT phospholipases.

Nature 2021 Apr 14;592(7855):634-638. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

The eye lens of vertebrates is composed of fibre cells in which all membrane-bound organelles undergo degradation during terminal differentiation to form an organelle-free zone. The mechanism that underlies this large-scale organelle degradation remains largely unknown, although it has previously been shown to be independent of macroautophagy. Here we report that phospholipases in the PLAAT (phospholipase A/acyltransferase, also known as HRASLS) family-Plaat1 (also known as Hrasls) in zebrafish and PLAAT3 (also known as HRASLS3, PLA2G16, H-rev107 or AdPLA) in mice-are essential for the degradation of lens organelles such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes. Read More

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Aberration-free digital holographic phase imaging using the derivative-based principal component analysis.

J Biomed Opt 2021 Apr;26(4)

Hangzhou Dianzi University, School of Automation and Artificial Intelligence, Hangzhou, China.

Significance: Digital holographic microscopy is widely used to get the quantitative phase information of transparent cells.

Aim: However, the sample phase is superimposed with aberrations. To quantify the phase information, aberrations need to be fully compensated. Read More

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Templateless, Plating-Free Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Electrodes with Embedded Silver Mesh by Electric-Field-Driven Microscale 3D Printing and Hybrid Hot Embossing.

Adv Mater 2021 May 7;33(21):e2007772. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Shandong Engineering Research Center for Additive Manufacturing, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao, 266520, China.

Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs) with an embedded metal mesh are considered a promising alternative to traditional indium tin oxide (ITO) due to their excellent photoelectric performance, surface roughness, and mechanical and environmental stability. However, great challenges remain for achieving simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly manufacturing of high-performance FTEs with embedded metal mesh. Herein, a maskless, templateless, and plating-free fabrication technique is proposed for FTEs with embedded silver mesh by combining an electric-field-driven (EFD) microscale 3D printing technique and a newly developed hybrid hot-embossing process. Read More

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Directly Patterning Conductive Polymer Electrodes on Organic Semiconductor via In Situ Polymerization in Microchannels for High-Performance Organic Transistors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 7;13(15):17852-17860. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Molecular Aggregation Science, Tianjin University, 300072 Tianjin, China.

Conductive polymers are considered promising electrode materials for organic transistors, but the reported devices with conductive polymer electrodes generally suffer from considerable contact resistance. Currently, it is still highly challenging to pattern conductive polymer electrodes on organic semiconductor surfaces with good structure and interface quality. Herein, we develop an in situ polymerization strategy to directly pattern the top-contacted polypyrrole (PPy) electrodes on hydrophobic surfaces of organic semiconductors by microchannel templates, which is also applicable on diverse hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. Read More

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