353 results match your criteria free calvarial


A Case of Large Aplasia Cutis Congenita with Underlying Skull Defect: Effective Surgical Treatment with Integra® Dermal Regeneration Template.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2021 Apr 7:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by the absence of a portion of skin at birth which most commonly involves the scalp and can affect the galea, the pericranium, the bone, and the dura mater. It can be an isolated condition or associated with other disorders.

Case Report: We present a case of ACC with a large defect of the scalp and the underlying bone treated with the use of Integra® Dermal regeneration template. Read More

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Acid Dentin Lysate Failed to Modulate Bone Formation in Rat Calvaria Defects.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Oral Biology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Autogenous tooth roots are increasingly applied as a grafting material in alveolar bone augmentation. Since tooth roots undergo creeping substitution similar to bone grafts, it can be hypothesized that osteoclasts release the growth factors stored in the dentin thereby influencing bone formation. To test this hypothesis, collagen membranes were either soaked in acid dentin lysates (ADL) from extracted porcine teeth or serum-free medium followed by lyophilization. Read More

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Neural crest-derived cells in nasal conchae of adult mice contribute to bone regeneration.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Mar 30;554:173-178. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan.

Neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs), a class of adult stem cells not restricted to embryonic tissues, are attractive tissue regenerative therapy candidates because of their ease of isolation, self-renewing properties, and multipotency. Although adult NCDCs can undergo osteogenic differentiation in vitro, whether they induce bone formation in vivo remains unclear. Previously, our group reported findings showing high amounts of NCDCs scattered throughout nasal concha tissues of adult mice. Read More

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone decreases the risk of osteoporosis by regulating osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Mar 16;21(1):49. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250021, Shandong, China.

Background: As the incidence of secretory osteoporosis has increased, bone loss, osteoporosis and their relationships with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) have received increased attention. In this study, the role of TSH in bone metabolism and its possible underlying mechanisms were investigated.

Methods: We analyzed the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and TSH and the bone mineral density (BMD) levels of 114 men with normal thyroid function. Read More

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Application of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based cell tracking approach in bone tissue engineering.

J Tissue Eng 2021 Jan-Dec;12:2041731421995465. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Division of Orthodontics, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry, Columbus, OH, USA.

Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) has emerged as a popular in vivo tracking modality in bone regeneration studies stemming from its clear advantages: non-invasive, real-time, and inexpensive. We recently adopted bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) principle to improve BLI cell tracking and generated the brightest bioluminescent signal known to date, which thus enables more sensitive real-time cell tracking at deep tissue level. In the present study, we brought BRET-based cell tracking strategy into the field of bone tissue engineering for the first time. Read More

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February 2021

Neural crest-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells enhance cranial allograft integration.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 May 29;10(5):797-809. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Orthopaedic Stem Cell Research Laboratory, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Replacement of lost cranial bone (partly mesodermal and partly neural crest-derived) is challenging and includes the use of nonviable allografts. To revitalize allografts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (mesoderm-derived BM-MSCs) have been used with limited success. We hypothesize that coating of allografts with induced neural crest cell-mesenchymal progenitor cells (iNCC-MPCs) improves implant-to-bone integration in mouse cranial defects. Read More

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Implications of Free Temporoparietal Fascial Flap Reconstruction in the Pediatric Population.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center (UTHSC), Memphis, TN.

Abstract: The temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF) is a versatile tool that can be used in the reconstruction of head and neck and distal upper and lower extremity defects. The TPFF may be harvested as a pedicle or free flap as well as with the temporalis muscle and/or adjacent calvarial bone as a composite flap. As a free flap, the TPFF has been used as a joint gliding surface with coverage of nerves and tendons, for extremity soft tissue repair, for tracheal and pharyngeal coverage and for defects of the nose, scalp, and auricle. Read More

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January 2021

2D titanium carbide(MXene) nanosheets and 1D hydroxyapatite nanowires into free standing nanocomposite membrane: in vitro and in vivo evaluations for bone regeneration.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jan 11;118:111367. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

Bone loss or insufficiency remains a great challenge for implant integrated and subsequently functional loading, where developing biomaterials to augment bone quantity and regenerate alveolar bone defects at implant site is vitally necessary. Recently, MXene, as a large new family of 2D materials, exhibits a great prospect in biomedical applications owing to its ultrathin structure and morphology with a range of extraordinary properties such as chemical, electronic, optical and biological properties etc. Besides, hydroxyapatite is a favorable biomaterial with outstanding bioactivity and osteogenic capacity. Read More

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January 2021

Thinning of Calvarial Bone by Skull Growth in a Pediatric Patient After Skull Grinding Injury.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Several treatment options have been suggested for the treatment of scalp defects that occur following head trauma. Growth changes should be considered, especially for children. The authors report a case of delayed cranial bone absorption after successful free latissimus dorsi flap coverage following skull grinding injury in a pediatric patient. Read More

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November 2020

Generation of Small RNA-Modulated Exosome Mimetics for Bone Regeneration.

ACS Nano 2020 09 11;14(9):11973-11984. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.

Administration of exosomes is considered an attractive cell-free approach to skeletal repair and pathological disease treatment. However, poor yield for the production technique and unexpected therapeutic efficacy of exosomes have been obstacles to their widespread use in clinical practices. Here, we report an alternative strategy to produce exosome-related vesicles with high yields and improved regenerative capability. Read More

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September 2020

Acid bone lysates reduce bone regeneration in rat calvaria defects.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 May 10;109(5):659-665. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Acid bone lysates (ABLs) represent the growth factors and other molecules released during autologous graft resorption. However, the impact of these bone-derived growth factors on the healing of bone defects has not yet been investigated. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to examine the impact of ABLs adsorbed to collagen membranes on bone regeneration. Read More

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Reconstruction of Full Thickness Calvarial Defect With Dermal Regeneration Template and Full Thickness Skin Graft After Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jul-Aug;31(5):e514-e516

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI.

Full-thickness defects of the calvarium often present reconstructive challenges, necessitating large rotational flaps or microsurgical free tissue transfer. Although the vascularity of the scalp is robust, there is an increased risk of wound healing complications after both direct and indirect intracranial revascularization procedures as compared to routine craniotomies, as these procedures utilize extracranial scalp vasculature to supply the ischemic brain. Patients presenting with wound healing complications following intracranial revascularization surgeries may not be candidates for extensive reconstructive procedures, as they are often medically comorbid with cardiac disease, diabetes, and a paucity of recipient vessels for free tissue transfer due to underlying vascular disease that prompts initial revascularization surgery. Read More

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November 2020

Impact of multidisciplinary engagement in a quality improvement blood conservation protocol for craniosynostosis.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Jun 12:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

1Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland.

Objective: Patients undergoing open cranial vault remodeling for craniosynostosis frequently experience substantial blood loss requiring blood transfusion. Multiple reports in the literature have evaluated the impact of individual blood conservation techniques on blood transfusion rates during craniosynostosis surgery. The authors engaged a multidisciplinary team and assessed the impact of input from multiple stakeholders on the evolution of a comprehensive quality improvement protocol aimed at reducing or eliminating blood transfusion in patients undergoing open surgery for craniosynostosis. Read More

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Magnetic lanthanum-doped hydroxyapatite/chitosan scaffolds with endogenous stem cell-recruiting and immunomodulatory properties for bone regeneration.

J Mater Chem B 2020 06;8(24):5280-5292

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233, China.

Generally, the addition of exogenous stem cells and host-to-scaffold immune responses restricts the clinical applications of hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan (CS) scaffolds for bone regeneration. To achieve "facilitated endogenous tissue engineering", magnetic M-type hexagonal ferrite (SrFe12O19) nanoparticles were incorporated into bone scaffolds to recruit endogenous stem cells. Then, lanthanum incorporation was utilized to regulate host-to-scaffold immune responses and to provide a pro-regenerative environment for recruited endogenous stem cells. Read More

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Treatment of Large and Complicated Scalp Defects with Free Flap Transfer.

Biomed Res Int 2020 10;2020:2748219. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Spine and Orthopedic Trauma, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630, China.

Background: Large scalp defects, especially those complicated by calvarial defects, titanium mesh exposure, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, pose a challenge for the neurosurgeon and plastic surgeon. Here, we describe our experience of reconstructing the complex scalp defect with free flap transfer.

Methods: From October 2012 to September 2017, 8 patients underwent free flap transfer for the reconstruction of the scalp or complicated scalp and calvarial defects. Read More

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February 2021

Rapid bone repair with the recruitment of CD206M2-like macrophages using non-viral scaffold-mediated miR-133a inhibition of host cells.

Acta Biomater 2020 06 3;109:267-279. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Tissue Engineering Research Group, Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), 123 Saint Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Dublin, Ireland; Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; Advanced Materials and Bioengineering Research Centre (AMBER), RCSI and TCD, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

microRNAs offer vast therapeutic potential for multiple disciplines. From a bone perspective, inhibition of miR-133a may offer potential to enhance Runx2 activity and increase bone repair. This study aims to assess the therapeutic capability of antagomiR-133a delivery from collagen-nanohydroxyapatite (coll-nHA) scaffolds following cell-free implantation in rat calvarial defects (7 mm diameter). Read More

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Bone Regeneration: A Novel Osteoinductive Function of Spongostan by the Interplay between Its Nano- and Microtopography.

Cells 2020 03 7;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Molecular Neurobiology, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany.

Scaffold materials for bone regeneration are crucial for supporting endogenous healing after accidents, infections, or tumor resection. Although beneficial impacts of microtopological or nanotopological cues in scaffold topography are commonly acknowledged, less consideration is given to the interplay between the microscale and nanoscale. Here, micropores with a 60. Read More

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Calvarial Reconstruction With Autologous Sagittal Split Rib Bone Graft and Latissimus Dorsi Rib Myoosseocutaneous Free Flap.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jan/Feb;31(1):e103-e107

Department of Plastic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Objective: Cranioplasty is essential because cranial defects cause cosmetic and functional problems, and neurologic sequalae in patients. However, reconstruction options are limited in patients with unfavorable conditions. This study aimed to review our experience with skull defect reconstruction using autogenous bone with sagittal split rib bone grafts or latissimus dorsi rib myoosseocutaneous free flaps. Read More

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Two-stage free flap reconstruction of the scalp and calvaria for large neurosurgical resections.

Microsurgery 2020 Mar 28;40(3):331-336. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

APHM, Plastic Department, Conception University Hospital, Marseille, France.

Background: Free tissue transfer is occasionally necessary during reconstruction of large scalp and calvarial bone resections. A single-stage procedure is usually performed but if a flap becomes necrotic it exposes brain tissue or the meninges. Performing a two-stage procedure, the surgeon must preserve flap vitality and manage flap complications before resecting a tumor, and therefore before exposing the brain or meninges. Read More

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Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Cranial Deformity in Hyperostotic Convexity Meningioma.

Contemp Clin Dent 2018 Oct-Dec;9(4):674-677

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Cranial defects lead to unesthetic appearance and are a constant source of apprehension to the patient. Meningioma with calvarial extension requires the excision of the involved bone for complete excision. Such total excision would leave behind a bony defect which would need reconstruction. Read More

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November 2019

Improved vascularisation but inefficient in vivo bone regeneration of adipose stem cells and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate scaffolds in xeno-free conditions.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Feb 12;107:110301. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, MG, Brazil; Department of Pathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos- 6627, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, MG, Brazil.

Bone defects are a common clinical situation. However, bone regeneration remains a challenge and faces the limitation of poor engraftment due to deficient vascularisation. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHB-HV) and human adipose stem cells (hASC) are promising for vascularisation and bone regeneration. Read More

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February 2020

Fabrication of vascularized and scaffold-free bone tissue using endothelial and osteogenic cells differentiated from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Tissue Cell 2019 Dec 7;61:21-29. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

School of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, No.199, Donggang West Road, Lanzhou City, Gansu Province 730000, China. Electronic address:

Over-dependence on existing synthetic scaffolds and insufficient vascularization limit the development of tissue engineered bone (TEB). The purpose of this study is to fabricate vascularized and scaffold-free bone tissue using cell sheet technology and to assess its feasibility to repair critical-sized calvarial defects in rats. Firstly, the pre-vascularized cell sheet was formed by seeding BMSC-derived endothelial cells (ECs) on an undifferentiated BMSCs cell sheet layer in vitro. Read More

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December 2019

Dimethyloxaloylglycine-stimulated human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes enhance bone regeneration through angiogenesis by targeting the AKT/mTOR pathway.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2019 11 20;10(1):335. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Yishan Rd 600, Shanghai, 200233, People's Republic of China.

Background: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes have been recognized as new candidate agents for treating critical-sized bone defects; they promote angiogenesis and may be an alternative to cell therapy. In this study, we evaluated whether exosomes derived from bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) preconditioned with a low dose of dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG), DMOG-MSC-Exos, exert superior proangiogenic activity in bone regeneration and the underlying mechanisms involved.

Methods: To investigate the effects of these exosomes, scratch wound healing, cell proliferation, and tube formation assays were performed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Read More

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November 2019

Outcomes following proton therapy for Ewing sarcoma of the cranium and skull base.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 02 17;67(2):e28080. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida.

Purpose: Despite the dosimetric advantages of proton therapy, little data exist on patients who receive proton therapy for Ewing sarcoma of the cranium and skull base. This study reports local disease control and toxicity in such patients.

Materials/methods: We reviewed 25 patients (≤21 years old) with nonmetastatic Ewing sarcoma of the cranium and skull base treated between 2008 and 2018. Read More

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February 2020

A Standard Algorithm for Reconstruction of Scalp Defects With Simultaneous Free Flaps in an Interdisciplinary Two-Team Approach.

Front Oncol 2019 25;9:1130. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany.

Reconstructions of complex scalp after ablative resection or by post-traumatic tissue loss, can present difficulties regarding recipient vessel selection, functional, and aesthetic outcome. The harvesting method for many microvascular free flaps requires a need for changing patients position during surgery and makes a simultaneous interdisciplinary two-team approach complicated, which is a major disadvantage regarding safety and operation time. The ideal flap for scalp reconstruction has yet to be described, although the microvascular latissimus dorsi flap is frequently referred to as the first choice in this context, especially after resection of large defects. Read More

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October 2019

A Novel Technique to Secure the Skull Post in a Thin Skull Allowing for Surgical Navigation in Infants.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Feb 15;78(2):284.e1-284.e4. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Head, Department of Neurosurgery, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain.

Several surgical procedures have been described to correct the deformities associated with craniosynostosis. To simplify the prediction of results, virtual planning techniques and image-guided surgery have been used. Digital planning can be transferred to the operating room using osteotomy and cutting guides or surgical navigation. Read More

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February 2020

Clumps of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/Extracellular Matrix Complexes Generated with Xeno-Free Conditions Facilitate Bone Regeneration via Direct and Indirect Osteogenesis.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Aug 15;20(16). Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Department of Periodontal Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan.

Three-dimensional clumps of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)/extracellular matrix (ECM) complexes (C-MSCs) consist of cells and self-produced ECM. We demonstrated previously that C-MSCs can be transplanted into bone defect regions with no artificial scaffold to induce bone regeneration. To apply C-MSCs in a clinical setting as a reliable bone regenerative therapy, the present study aimed to generate C-MSCs in xeno-free/serum-free conditions that can exert successful bone regenerative properties and to monitor interactions between grafted cells and host cells during bone healing processes. Read More

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Licorice isoliquiritigenin-encapsulated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for osteoclast inhibition and bone loss prevention.

Theranostics 2019 9;9(18):5183-5199. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China.

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are extensively used in bone tissue regeneration and local drug delivery. However, the effects of MSNs alone on osteoclast formation and function, as well as the utilization of MSNs to deliver natural molecules against bone resorption, remain unexplored. Here, we report the development of licorice-derived bioactive flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ISL)-encapsulated MSNs (MSNs-ISL) as a potent bone-bioresponsive nanoencapsulation system for prevention of osteoclast-mediated bone loss and . Read More

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Regenerative Effect of Resorbable Scaffold Embedded Boron-Nitride/Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Rat Parietal Bone.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2020 Feb;20(2):680-691

Department of Moleculary Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Yeditepe University, 34100 Istanbul, Turkey.

BN has important roles in several physiological events, including bone growth and immune system. New infection-free cranioplasty and has an osteogenic activities material that are compatible with tissue are being developed. We aimed in our study to examine whether different combinations of Boron-nitride/Hydroxyapatite are embedded into the scaffold in the treatment of calvarial defects. Read More

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February 2020