9,155 results match your criteria framework mapping

Transforming fire management in northern Australia through successful implementation of savanna burning emissions reductions projects.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 19;290:112568. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Darwin Centre for Bushfire Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT, 0909, Australia; Bushfire & Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, East Melbourne Vic, 3002, Australia; North Australian Land and Sea Management Alliance, PO Box 486 CDU NT 0815, Australia.

Savannas are the most fire-prone of Earth's biomes and currently account for most global burned area and associated carbon emissions. In Australia, over recent decades substantial development of savanna burning emissions accounting methods has been undertaken to incentivise more conservative savanna fire management and reduce the extent and severity of late dry season wildfires. Since inception of Australia's formal regulated savanna burning market in 2012, today 25% of the 1. Read More

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The African urban food environment framework for creating healthy nutrition policy and interventions in urban Africa.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0249621. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

UMR MoISA (Montpellier Interdisciplinary centre on Sustainable Agri-food systems), (Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, CIHEAM-IAMM, INRAE, Institut Agro, IRD), Montpellier, France.

This study developed, validated, and evaluated a framework of factors influencing dietary behaviours in urban African food environments, to inform research prioritisation and intervention development in Africa. A multi-component methodology, drawing on concept mapping, was employed to construct a framework of factors influencing dietary behaviours in urban Africa. The framework adapted a widely used socio-ecological model (developed in a high-income country context) and was developed using a mixed-methods research approach that comprised: i. Read More

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A generalized framework for analytic regularization of uniform cubic b-spline displacement fields.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Dept of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 100 Blossom Street, Cox Building, 302, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114, UNITED STATES.

Image registration is an inherently ill-posed problem that lacks the constraints needed for a unique mapping between voxels of the two images being registered. As such, one must regularize the registration to achieve physically meaningful transforms. The regularization penalty is usually a function of derivatives of the displacement-vector field, and can be calculated either analytically or numerically. Read More

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Genetically Distinct Behavioral Modules Underlie Natural Variation in Thermal Performance Curves.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 Jul;9(7):2135-2151

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto.

Thermal reaction norms pervade organismal traits as stereotyped responses to temperature, a fundamental environmental input into sensory and physiological systems. Locomotory behavior represents an especially plastic read-out of animal response, with its dynamic dependence on environmental stimuli presenting a challenge for analysis and for understanding the genomic architecture of heritable variation. Here we characterize behavioral reaction norms as thermal performance curves for the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae, using a collection of 23 wild isolate genotypes and 153 recombinant inbred lines to quantify the extent of genetic and plastic variation in locomotory behavior to temperature changes. Read More

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Development of the Niggle App for Supporting Young People on Their Dynamic Journey to Well-being: Co-design and Qualitative Research Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Apr 20;9(4):e21085. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Adolescence is a life stage characterized by intense development and increased vulnerability. Yet, young people rarely seek help for mental health, often due to stigma and embarrassment. Alarmingly, even those who do seek help may not be able to receive it. Read More

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Post-mortem CMR in a model of sudden death due to myocardial ischemia: validation with connexin-43.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Fondazione Toscana G. Monasterio, Via Giuseppe Moruzzi, 1, 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Objectives: We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PM-CMR) for the identification of myocardial ischemia as cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) when the time interval between the onset of ischemia and SCD is ≤ 90 min.

Methods: PM-CMR was performed in 8 hearts explanted from pigs with spontaneous death caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery: 4 with SCD after ≤ 40 min of coronary occlusion and 4 between 40 and 90 min. PM-CMR included conventional T1 and T2-weighted image and T1, T2, and T2* mapping techniques. Read More

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EXPRESS: Health economic evaluations of medical tests: translating laboratory information into value- a case study example.

Ann Clin Biochem 2021 Apr 19:45632211013852. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Drajon Health, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Healthcare providers and funders are focused on identifying value in all their services and that includes laboratories. This means that in order to gain a share of scarce resources laboratory professionals must also understand and assess the value of tests and that includes their economic impact. This can be assessed using health economic modelling tools which, when used in conjunction with a detailed value proposition for the test, can translate laboratory information into value. Read More

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Knowledge, attitude, perception, and preventative practices towards COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa: A scoping review.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0249853. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard Campus, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Knowledge, attitudes, perception, and preventative practices regarding coronavirus- 2019 (COVID-19) are crucial in its prevention and control. Several studies have noted that the majority of people in sub-Saharan African are noncompliant with proposed health and safety measures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and respective country health departments. In most sub-Saharan African countries, noncompliance is attributable to ignorance and misinformation, thereby raising questions about people's knowledge, attitudes, perception, and practices towards COVID-19 in these settings. Read More

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County-level predictors of retention in care status among people living with HIV in South Carolina from 2010 to 2016: a data-driven approach.

AIDS 2021 May;35(Suppl 1):S53-S64

South Carolina SmartState Center for Healthcare Quality.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the geospatial variation of retention in care (RIC) across the counties in South Carolina (SC) from 2010 to 2016 and identify the relevant county-level predictors.

Design: Aggregated data on county-level RIC among HIV patients from 2010 to 2016 were retrieved from an electronic HIV/AIDS reporting system in SC Department of Health and Environmental Control. Sociological framework of health was used to select potential county-level predictors from multiple public datasets. Read More

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Mapping evidence on the distribution of the costs associated with cancer of prostate, cervix, and female breast in the sub-Saharan Africa: protocol for a scoping review.

Syst Rev 2021 Apr 17;10(1):113. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Discipline of Public Health, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Mazisi Kunene Road, Durban, 4041, South Africa.

Background: Despite the well-documented information on cancer prevention and management, among noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), globally, cancer continues to be the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality with devastating economic consequences. The burden is disproportionately more among developing countries and the extent of evidence available on the economic consequences (direct and indirect costs) of cancer remains unknown in low-income countries particularly in the sub-Saharan region. Understanding the costs of illness is important to inform decision-making on setting up health care policies and informing economic evaluation of interventions. Read More

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Thermodynamic properties of the spin S=3/2 quantum ferromagnetic Blume-Capel model in a transverse crystal field.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032142

Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil.

The thermodynamic properties of the spin S=3/2 ferromagnetic Ising model in the presence of transverse and longitudinal crystal fields (equivalent to the Blume-Capel model with a transverse crystal field) have been studied by using two different approaches: (i) a zero-temperature mapping of the system onto a spin-1/2 quantum Ising model in longitudinal and transverse fields, together with time-independent quantum perturbation theory; and (ii) a standard mean-field approximation within the framework of the Bogoliubov inequality for the free energy. A very rich phase diagram, with different kinds of multicritical behavior, has been obtained. The results show first- and second-order transition lines, tricritical and tetracritical points, critical end points with a two-phase coexistence, double critical end points, and also double noncritical end points. Read More

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Strain fields in twisted bilayer graphene.

Nat Mater 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Van der Waals heteroepitaxy allows deterministic control over lattice mismatch or azimuthal orientation between atomic layers to produce long-wavelength superlattices. The resulting electronic phases depend critically on the superlattice periodicity and localized structural deformations that introduce disorder and strain. In this study we used Bragg interferometry to capture atomic displacement fields in twisted bilayer graphene with twist angles <2°. Read More

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Aeration of the Human Prussak's Space: A 3D Synchrotron Imaging Study.

Otol Neurotol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Uppsala University Department of Otolaryngology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Western University, London, Ontario Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Department of Medical Biophysics and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: Prussak's space (PS) is an intricate middle ear region which may play an essential role in the development of middle ear disease. The three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the human PS and its drainage routes remain relatively unknown. Earlier studies have histologically analyzed PS, by micro-dissection and endoscopy. Read More

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Assessing the aquatic toxicity and environmental safety of tracer compounds Rhodamine B and Rhodamine WT.

Water Res 2021 Apr 5;197:117109. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

Tracer tests represent a well-established method for delineating key environmental processes in various media and engineered systems. Tracers like Rhodamine B and WT are frequently applied due to their strong fluorescence even at low concentrations.. Read More

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Baby Buddy App for Breastfeeding and Behavior Change: Retrospective Study of the App Using the Behavior Change Wheel.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Apr 15;9(4):e25668. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Charles Perkins Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Camperdown NSW, Australia.

Background: Breastfeeding plays a major role in the health of mothers and babies and has the potential to positively shape an individual's life both in the short and long term. In the United Kingdom (UK), although 81% of women initiate breastfeeding, only 1% of women breastfeed exclusively to 6 months as recommended by the World Health Organization. In the UK, women who are socially disadvantaged and younger are less likely to breastfeed at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. Read More

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Pre-Implementation of the Age-Friendly Health Systems Evidence-Based 4Ms Framework in a Multi-State Convenient Care Practice.

Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 2021 Apr;18(2):118-128

MinuteClinic, Woonsocket, RI, USA.

Background: Quality issues in the delivery of healthcare services to older adults and changes in societal demographics call for a social movement to improve the care of older adults in a variety of healthcare settings, including ambulatory care and convenient care clinics.

Aims: To describe the pre-implementation phase to integrate the Age-Friendly Health Systems (AFHS) 4Ms (i.e. Read More

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A roadmap for bio-medical waste management research.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Ramaiah Public Policy Center, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Bio-Medical waste is solid or liquid waste generated from healthcare activities. Bio-Medical waste management (BMWM) is necessary to protect local community health and environment, to reduce its financial loss and to preserve its social and aesthetic values. BMWM encompasses the waste generation, segregation, collection, transportation, processing and disposal. Read More

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Mapping evidence on the effects of gender-affirming hormone therapy on the hard and soft tissues of the craniofacial complex in transgender people: a protocol for a scoping review.

Syst Rev 2021 Apr 14;10(1):109. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Center (Amsterdam UMC), Location AMC, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Gender-affirming hormone (GAH) therapy aims to support the transition of transgender people to their gender identity. GAHs can induce changes in their secondary sex characteristics such as the development of breasts in transgender females and increased muscle mass in transgender males. The face and its surrounding tissues also have an important role in gender confirmation. Read More

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Process mapping in healthcare: a systematic review.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 14;21(1):342. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) Northwest London, London, UK.

Introduction: Process mapping (PM) supports better understanding of complex systems and adaptation of improvement interventions to their local context. However, there is little research on its use in healthcare. This study (i) proposes a conceptual framework outlining quality criteria to guide the effective implementation, evaluation and reporting of PM in healthcare; (ii) reviews published PM cases to identify context and quality of PM application, and the reported benefits of using PM in healthcare. Read More

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VolPy: Automated and scalable analysis pipelines for voltage imaging datasets.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Apr 14;17(4):e1008806. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.

Voltage imaging enables monitoring neural activity at sub-millisecond and sub-cellular scale, unlocking the study of subthreshold activity, synchrony, and network dynamics with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. However, high data rates (>800MB/s) and low signal-to-noise ratios create bottlenecks for analyzing such datasets. Here we present VolPy, an automated and scalable pipeline to pre-process voltage imaging datasets. Read More

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Mapping evidence on ovarian, endometrial, vaginal, and vulva cancer research in Africa: a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2021 Apr 14;10(1):108. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Centre for Evidence-based Health Care, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, 7530, South Africa.

Background: Globally, cancer is generally recognized as a developmental threat yet most countries in Africa lack capacity to diagnose cancer especially gynecological cancers resulting in late detection and poor outcomes. However, most studies on gynecological cancers in Africa tend to focus on cervical cancer compared to the other gynecological cancers. Therefore, this scoping review will aim to describe the existing literature on the epidemiological burden of ovarian, endometrial, vaginal, and vulva cancers, their risk factors, and potential screening methods/techniques in Africa to identify priority research gaps for further research to inform health policy decisions. Read More

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Identification of authentic assessment in nursing curricula: An integrative review.

Nurse Educ Pract 2021 Mar 18;52:103011. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Australia.

This article aims to identify the application of authentic learning principles to the assessment of nursing students. An integrative review was undertaken using the Whittlemore and Knafl (2005) framework: identifying the problem/purpose, searching and evaluating the literature, data analysis and presentation or results. Primary searches were conducted using MeSH terms identified as key words across four search data bases (PubMed, Cinahl, Scopus and ProQuest). Read More

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Machine Learning and Systems Biology Approaches to Characterize Dosage-Based Gene Dependencies in Cancer Cells.

J Bioinform Syst Biol 2021 26;4(1):13-32. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Center for Individualized Medicine, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.

Mapping of cancer survivability factors allows for the identification of novel biological insights for drug targeting. Using genomic editing techniques, gene dependencies can be extracted in a high-throughput and quantitative manner. Dependencies have been predicted using machine learning techniques on -omics data, but the biological consequences of dependency predictor pairs has not been explored. Read More

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February 2021

Investigation of a Novel Deep Learning-Based Computed Tomography Perfusion Mapping Framework for Functional Lung Avoidance Radiotherapy.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:644703. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Functional lung avoidance radiation therapy aims to minimize dose delivery to the normal lung tissue while favoring dose deposition in the defective lung tissue based on the regional function information. However, the clinical acquisition of pulmonary functional images is resource-demanding, inconvenient, and technically challenging. This study aims to investigate the deep learning-based lung functional image synthesis from the CT domain. Read More

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Sequence-dependent nucleosome formation in trinucleotide repeats evaluated by in vivo chemical mapping.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 8;556:179-184. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo, 191-8506, Japan. Electronic address:

Trinucleotide repeat sequences (TRSs), consisting of 10 unique classes of repeats in DNA, are members of microsatellites and abundantly and non-randomly distributed in many eukaryotic genomes. The lengths of TRSs are mutable, and the expansions of several TRSs are implicated in hereditary neurological diseases. However, the underlying causes of the biased distribution and the dynamic properties of TRSs in the genome remain elusive. Read More

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Evaluating teamwork among medical staff: How to measure and compare aspects of the team mental models of doctors and nurses.

Appl Ergon 2021 Apr 7;94:103418. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Obstetric and Gynecology Division, Shamir Medical Center, Assaf Harofeh Campus, Tzrifin, 730000, Israel. Electronic address:

Shared perceptions of a task among those responsible for its completion are important for achieving successful outcomes. This study proposes a framework for eliciting various aspects of team members' "mental models" (TMMs) of complex medical tasks. The intention is to provide 'proof of concept' for a methodology to measure similarities and differences between team members' perceptions of selected attributes of the task. Read More

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Antigenic cartography reveals complexities of genetic determinants that lead to antigenic differences among pandemic GII.4 noroviruses.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Division of Viral Products, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993

Noroviruses are the predominant cause of acute gastroenteritis, with a single genotype (GII.4) responsible for the majority of infections. This prevalence is characterized by the periodic emergence of new variants that present substitutions at antigenic sites of the major structural protein (VP1), facilitating escape from herd immunity. Read More

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Leptospirosis prevalence and risk factors in India: Evidence gap maps.

Trop Doct 2021 Apr 9:494755211005203. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The George Institute for Global Health, New Delhi, India.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of public health importance in India. A country-level evidence gap map was developed to identify gaps on epidemiology of leptospirosis. It is the first such on leptospirosis globally and on any single disease condition in India. Read More

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Deep neural network ensemble for on-the-fly quality control-driven segmentation of cardiac MRI T1 mapping.

Med Image Anal 2021 Mar 11;71:102029. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Oxford University Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research (OCMR), Level 0, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.

Recent developments in artificial intelligence have generated increasing interest to deploy automated image analysis for diagnostic imaging and large-scale clinical applications. However, inaccuracy from automated methods could lead to incorrect conclusions, diagnoses or even harm to patients. Manual inspection for potential inaccuracies is labor-intensive and time-consuming, hampering progress towards fast and accurate clinical reporting in high volumes. Read More

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Mapping and modeling the components of human tolerance for black bears in eastern Oklahoma.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 7;288:112378. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Oklahoma State University, 008c Ag Hall, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA.

In North America, challenges associated with human-black bear (Ursus americanus) interactions have increased in recent decades. We used the structural equation modeling framework to understand how psychological factors such as perceived benefits, risks, social trust, salient value similarities, and locus of control interacted and described human tolerance of black bears in Oklahoma. Our results suggested that trust in the state wildlife agency's ability to manage black bears significantly affected both risk and benefits perception. Read More

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