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Early benefits of bariatric surgery on subclinical cardiac function: contribution of visceral fat mobilization.

Metabolism 2021 Apr 7:154773. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Canada; Faculty of pharmacy, Laval University, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Aims: We explored the early effects of bariatric surgery on subclinical myocardial function in individuals with severe obesity and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction.

Methods: Thirty-eight patients with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥35kg/m] and preserved LV ejection fraction (≥ 50%) who underwent bariatric surgery (biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch [BPD-DS]) (Surgery group), 19 patients with severe obesity managed with usual care (Medical group), and 18 age and sex-matched non-obese controls (non-obese group) were included. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) was evaluated with echocardiography speckle tracking imaging. Read More

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Immune cells lacking Y chromosome show dysregulation of autosomal gene expression.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Epidemiological investigations show that mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in leukocytes is associated with earlier mortality and morbidity from many diseases in men. LOY is the most common acquired mutation and is associated with aberrant clonal expansion of cells, yet it remains unclear whether this mosaicism exerts a direct physiological effect. We studied DNA and RNA from leukocytes in sorted- and single-cells in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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Neurophysiologic Profiling of At-Risk Low and Very Low Birth-Weight Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Authors:
Ying Qi Jingni He

Front Physiol 2021 23;12:638868. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Low birth-weight (LBW) and very low birth-weight (VLBW) newborns have increased risks of brain injuries, growth failure, motor difficulties, developmental coordination disorders or delay, and adult-onset vascular diseases. However, relatively little is known of the neurobiologic underpinnings. To clarify the pathophysiologic vulnerabilities of such neonates, we applied several advanced techniques for assessing brain physiology, namely T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phase-contrast (PC) MRI. Read More

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Metaproteomic sample preparation methods bias the recovery of host and microbial proteins according to taxa and cellular compartment.

J Proteomics 2021 Apr 5:104219. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia; Correspondence should be addressed to A/Prof Emma Hamilton-Williams, The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, 37 Kent St, Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia. Electronic address:

Faecal proteomics studies have focussed on identification of microbial proteins, however; stool represents a valuable resource to interrogate the host interactions with the microbiota without the need for invasive intestinal biopsies. As the widely used enrichment method (differential centrifugation, DC) enriches for microbial proteins, we compared two other methods for enrichment of host proteins, termed 'host enriched' (HE) and ALL (all proteins). The HE and ALL protocols identified 1. Read More

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Unravelling the anthelmintic bioactives from Jasminum grandiflorum L. subsp. Floribundum adopting in vitro biological assessment.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 5:114083. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Departement of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, P.O. Box 12211, Egypt. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Jasminum grandiflorum L. is a medicinal plant widely used in the traditional system of Medicine as an anthelmintic in ringworm infections, for treating ulcers, stomatitis, skin diseases, and wounds.

Aim Of The Study: The emergence of resistance by different parasites to currently used chemicals has been reported. Read More

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Echocardiographic assessment of chamber size and ventricular function during the first year after heart transplantation.

Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Cardiology, Lund, Sweden.

Aims: Detecting changes in ventricular function after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is important but interpretation of findings is complicated by lack of data on early graft adaptation. We sought to evaluate echocardiographic measures of ventricular size and function the first year following OHT including speckle tracking derived strain. We also aimed to compare echocardiographic findings to hemodynamic parameters obtained by right heart catheterization (RHC). Read More

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Protective effects of berberine on senile osteoporosis in mice.

J Bone Miner Metab 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The incidence of osteoporosis is positively correlated with age. Berberine has been reported to treat osteoporosis due to its beneficial actions on bone formation. However, the direct effects of berberine on senile osteoporosis remain unclear. Read More

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Effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Endocrinology, Xuzhou Medical College Affiliated Hospital, Xuzhou, 221006, China. Electronic address:

Background: To investigate the overall effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) on cardiovascular outcomes in a broad spectrum of heart failure (HF) patients, and further stratified by status of ejection fraction and diabetes mellitus.

Methods: Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials that compared SGLT-2i with placebo in patients with HF. Efficacy outcomes included the composite of cardiovascular death (CVD) or hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), individual CVD, individual HHF, and all-cause mortality (ACM). Read More

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Evaluation of biological activities of and isolation of a new glucosinolate derivated compound.

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Near East University, 99138 Nicosia, N Cyprus, Turkey.

The aim of the present study is to determine the potent biological activities and carry out isolation studies on . The antioxidant capacity of the species was evaluated by total phenolic content, FRAP, CUPRAC, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Anticancer activity studies were performed by MTT assay in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, Hep3B, PC-3, A549, HCT116, L-929 cell lines. Read More

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Development of non-viral, ligand-dependent, EPHB4-specific chimeric antigen receptor T cells for treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2021 Mar 5;20:646-658. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.

Ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EPHB4), expressed in tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma, is a suitable target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. Ligand-independent activation of EPHB4 causes cell proliferation and malignant transformation in rhabdomyosarcoma, whereas ligand-dependent stimulation of EPHB4 induces apoptosis in rhabdomyosarcoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that ligand-based, EPHB4-specific CAR-T cells may kill rhabdomyosarcoma cells without stimulating downstream cell proliferation mechanisms. Read More

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In Vitro Anticancer Potential of and Its Main Components against Human Amelanotic Melanoma Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 25;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, ul. Mickiewicza 2a, 15-230 Białystok, Poland.

L. (Campanulaceae) is used in traditional Belarusian herbal medicine for sleep disorders in children, but the chemical composition and biological activity have not been investigated. In this study, the activities of extracts, their fractions and main compounds were evaluated in amelanotic melanoma C32 (CRL-1585) cells and normal fibroblasts (PCS-201-012). Read More

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Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Potentials of and Its Bioactive Polyphenol Metabolites.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Mar 15;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

CAS Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, China.

Delile (Moraceae), a reputed plant that is used in herbal medicine, is of high medicinal and nutritional value in local communities primarily ascribed to its phytochemical profile. Currently, there are hardly any fine details on the chemical profiling and pharmacological evaluation of this species. In this study, the flavonoids and phenolics contents of the ethanol extracts and four extracted fractions (petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA), -butanol, and water) of the stem bark of were firstly quantified. Read More

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Kinematic Measurements of Novel Chaotic Micromixers to Enhance Mixing Performances at Low Reynolds Numbers: Comparative Study.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Mar 28;12(4). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea.

In this work, a comparative investigation of chaotic flow behavior inside multi-layer crossing channels was numerically carried out to select suitable micromixers. New micromixers were proposed and compared with an efficient passive mixer called a Two-Layer Crossing Channel Micromixer (TLCCM), which was investigated recently. The computational evaluation was a concern to the mixing enhancement and kinematic measurements, such as vorticity, deformation, stretching, and folding rates for various low Reynolds number regimes. Read More

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Electrochemical treatment of ex vivo human abdominal skin and potential use in scar management: A pilot study.

Scars Burn Heal 2021 Jan-Dec;7:2059513120988532. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Beckman Laser Institute & Medical Clinic, University of California - Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Introduction: Scar treatments aim to address pathologic collagen deposition; however, they can be expensive or difficult to control. Electrochemical therapy (ECT) offers a simple alternative treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine the acid-base and histological changes in ex vivo human abdominal skin following ECT. Read More

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Effect of Musk Tongxin Dropping Pill on Myocardial Remodeling and Microcirculation Dysfunction in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 18;2021:6620564. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Cardiology, Shaoxing People's Hospital (Shaoxing Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine), Shaoxing, Zhejiang 312000, China.

Objective: To explore the effect of Musk Tongxin Dropping Pill (MTDP) on myocardial remodeling and microcirculation dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Methods: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (control group,  = 10), DCM model group (DCM group,  = 10), DCM model + pioglitazone group (DCM + PLZ group,  = 10), and DCM model + MTDP group (DCM + MTDP group,  = 10). An intraperitoneal single injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) was used to establish rat model of DCM and the rats in control group were treated with the same dose of sodium citrate buffer solution. Read More

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Evaluation of phosphodiesterase 9A as a novel biomarker in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Heart Center Leipzig at University of Leipzig, Strümpellstraße 39, Leipzig, 04289, Germany.

Aims: Murine models implicate phosphodiesterase 9A (PDE9A) as a nitric oxide-independent regulator of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and promising novel therapeutic target in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This study describes PDE9A expression in endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from patients with different HF phenotypes.

Methods And Results: Endomyocardial biopsies and PBMNCs were obtained from patients with HFpEF (n = 24), HF with reduced ejection fraction (n = 22), and inflammatory cardiomyopathy (n = 24) and patients without HF (n = 7). Read More

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Phenotypic characterization of leukemia-initiating stem cells in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

Leukemia 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Medicine I, Division of Hematology and Hemostaseology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a stem cell-derived neoplasm characterized by dysplasia, uncontrolled expansion of monocytes, and substantial risk to transform to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). So far, little is known about CMML-initiating cells. We found that leukemic stem cells (LSC) in CMML reside in a CD34/CD38 fraction of the malignant clone. Read More

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Antigen presentation in cancer: insights into tumour immunogenicity and immune evasion.

Nat Rev Cancer 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Immune checkpoint blockade, which blocks inhibitory signals of T cell activation, has shown tremendous success in treating cancer, although success still remains limited to a fraction of patients. To date, clinically effective CD8 T cell responses appear to target predominantly antigens derived from tumour-specific mutations that accumulate in cancer, also called neoantigens. Tumour antigens are displayed on the surface of cells by class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA-I). Read More

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Osteocyte- and late Osteoblast-derived NOTUM Reduces Cortical Bone Mass in Mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research at Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease, with increased risk of fractures. Currently available osteoporosis treatments reduce the risk of vertebral fractures, mainly dependent on trabecular bone, whereas the effect on non-vertebral fractures, mainly dependent on cortical bone, is less pronounced. WNT signaling is a crucial regulator of bone homeostasis, and the activity of WNTs is inhibited by NOTUM, a secreted WNT lipase. Read More

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[Light-absorbing Properties and Sources of PM Organic Components at a Suburban Site in Northern Nanjing].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Mar;42(3):1228-1235

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China.

The light absorption of organic components in PM was investigated at a suburban site in northern Nanjing from September 2018 to September 2019, and PM compositional data and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to identify the sources of light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon, BrC). The results showed that the average light absorption coefficients of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and methanol extractable organic carbon (MEOC) were (3.22±2. Read More

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Variability of "Reported Fetal Fraction" in Noninvasive Prenatal Screening (NIPS).

Clin Chem 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

PerkinElmer Inc., Waltham, MA.

Background: Fetal fraction is often used to designate no-calls in noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS). We wished to compare the variability in determining fetal fraction to gold standard methods.

Methods: We identified 6 publications with datasets consisting of methods capable of measuring fetal fraction for all samples that also had comparison data from gold standard methods. Read More

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Region-specific preservation of Purkinje cell morphology and motor behavior in the ATXN1[82Q] mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia 1.

Brain Pathol 2021 Mar 16:e12946. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Purkinje cells are the primary processing units of the cerebellar cortex and display molecular heterogeneity that aligns with differences in physiological properties, projection patterns, and susceptibility to disease. In particular, multiple mouse models that feature Purkinje cell degeneration are characterized by incomplete and patterned Purkinje cell degeneration, suggestive of relative sparing of Purkinje cell subpopulations, such as those expressing Aldolase C/zebrinII (AldoC) or residing in the vestibulo-cerebellum. Here, we investigated a well-characterized Purkinje cell-specific mouse model for spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) that expresses human ATXN1 with a polyQ expansion (82Q). Read More

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GIPR Signaling in Immune Cells Maintains Metabolically Beneficial Type 2 Immune Responses in the White Fat From Obese Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:643144. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

The Research Center for Digestive Tract and Liver Diseases, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center Affiliated to Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) communicates information on energy availability from the gut to peripheral tissues. Disruption of its signaling in myeloid immune cells during high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity impairs energy homeostasis due to the unrestrained metabolically deleterious actions of S100A8/A9 alarmin. White adipose tissue (WAT) type 2 immune cell networks are important for maintaining metabolic and energy homeostasis and limiting obesity-induced inflammation. Read More

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February 2021

Long-term presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in experimentally infected bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Feb 25;12(4):101693. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a vector-borne pathogen that can cause serious neurological symptoms in humans. Across large parts of Eurasia TBEV is found in three traditional subtypes: the European, the Siberian and the Far-eastern subtype. Small mammalian animals play an important role in the transmission cycle as they enable the spread of TBEV among the vector tick population. Read More

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February 2021

Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia is Associated with Increased Plasma Immunoglobulin G Agonist Autoantibodies Targeting the 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A Receptor.

Authors:
Mark B Zimering

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab J 2021 Feb;5(1):1-9

Veterans Affairs New Jersey Healthcare System, East Orange NJ, USA.

Aims: To test whether plasma autoantibodies targeting the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor increase in COVID-19 infection; and to characterize the pharmacologic specificity, and signaling pathway activation occurring downstream of receptor binding in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells and cell toxicity of the autoantibodies.

Methods: Plasma obtained from nineteen, older COVID-19 patients having mild or severe infection was subjected to protein-A affinity chromatography to obtain immunoglobulin G fraction. One-fortieth dilution of the protein-A eluate was tested for binding to a linear synthetic peptide QN. Read More

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February 2021

Experimental and computational studies of an antiplasmodial derivative of allantoin; antimycobacterial essential oil from Cordia batesii WERNHAM (Boraginaceae).

BMC Chem 2021 Mar 5;15(1):15. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Background: Chemical and pharmacological investigations were performed on the stems of Cordia batesii (Boraginaeae); chemical studies included quantum calculations applied on a newly described compound.

Results: A new derivative of allantoin (1) named batesiin (2) was characterized. Thirteen other known compounds involving allantoin (1) were either isolated or identified. Read More

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The Effects of New Zealand Grown Ginseng Fractions on Cytokine Production from Human Monocytic THP-1 Cells.

Molecules 2021 Feb 22;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

School of Food and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

Pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators that regulate the inflammatory response in inflammation-related diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate different New Zealand (NZ)-grown ginseng fractions on the productions of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Four NZ-grown ginseng fractions, including total ginseng extract (TGE), non-ginsenoside fraction extract (NGE), high-polar ginsenoside fraction extract (HPG), and less-polar ginsenoside fraction extract (LPG), were prepared and the ginsenoside compositions of extracts were analyzed by HPLC using 19 ginsenoside reference standards. Read More

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February 2021

Preparation and Neutralization Efficacy of Novel Jellyfish Antivenoms against Toxins.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Feb 21;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China.

Jellyfish stings are a common issue globally, particularly in coastal areas in the summer. Victims can suffer pain, itching, swelling, shock, and even death. Usually, hot water, vinegar, or alumen is used to treat the normal symptoms of a jellyfish sting. Read More

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February 2021

Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activity of the Fractionated Trunk Bark Essential Oil from (Vahl) Mast. Growing in Tunisia.

Molecules 2021 Feb 19;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Heterocyclic Chemistry, Natural Products and Reactivity (LR11ES39), Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Team, Faculty of Science of Monastir, University of Monastir, Avenue of Environment, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia.

The aim of the present research was to determine the chemical composition and the cytotoxic effects of trunk bark essential oil (HEE) obtained by steam distillation and five fractions obtained by normal phase silica chromatographic separation. Chemical analysis allowed the identification of 54 known compounds. Relatively high amounts of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (44. Read More

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February 2021

Targeting rare and non-canonical driver variants in NSCLC - An uncharted clinical field.

Lung Cancer 2021 Apr 19;154:131-141. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Heidelberg, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Berlin, Munich and Heidelberg Partner Sites, Germany. Electronic address:

Objectives: Implementation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and other targeted therapies was a main advance in thoracic oncology with survival gains ranging from several months to years for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. High-throughput comprehensive molecular profiling is of key importance to identify patients that can potentially benefit from these novel treatments.

Material And Methods: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on 4500 consecutive formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of advanced NSCLC (n = 4172 patients) after automated extraction of DNA and RNA for parallel detection of mutations and gene fusions, respectively. Read More

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