13,743 results match your criteria fossil environmental


Do international investment contribute to environmental pollution? Evidence from 20 African countries.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Cyprus International University, North Cyprus, Via Mersin 10, Nicosia, Turkey.

International investment is needed in every economy, and every economy is expected to grow and attract investment. Despite the need of the above in every country, the dilemma is whether it has something to do with the environment. Hence the study into the impact of FDI on environment takes into consideration twenty African countries from 1995 to 2016. Read More

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Insights into biogenic and diagenetic lead exposure in experimentally altered modern and archaeological bone: Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 1;790:148144. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon S7N 5E5, SK, Canada. Electronic address:

Bones represent a valuable biological archive of environmental lead (Pb) exposure for modern and archaeological populations. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging (SR-XFI) generates maps of Pb in bone on a microstructural scale, potentially providing insights into an individual's history of Pb exposure and, in the context of archaeological bone, the biogenic or diagenetic nature of its uptake. The aims of this study were to (1) examine biogenic spatial patterns for Pb from bone samples of modern cadavers compared with patterns observed archaeologically, and (2) test the hypothesis that there are spatial differences in the distribution of Pb for diagenetic and biogenic modes of uptake in bone. Read More

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Phytogeographic history of the Tea family inferred through high-resolution phylogeny and fossils.

Syst Biol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The tea family (Theaceae) has a highly unusual amphi-Pacific disjunct distribution: most extant species in the family are restricted to subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests in East Asia, while a handful of species occur exclusively in the subtropical and tropical Americas. Here we used an approach that integrates the rich fossil evidence of this group with phylogenies in biogeographic analysis to study the processes behind this distribution pattern. We first combined genome-skimming sequencing with existing molecular data to build a robust species-level phylogeny for c. Read More

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Diazotrophs for Lowering Nitrogen Pollution Crises: Looking Deep Into the Roots.

Front Microbiol 2021 24;12:637815. Epub 2021 May 24.

Division of Soil and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering-Campus-Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (NIBGE-C-PIEAS), Faisalabad, Pakistan.

During and after the green revolution in the last century, agrochemicals especially nitrogen (N) were extensively used. However, it resulted in a remarkable increase in crop yield but drastically reduced soil fertility; increased the production cost, food prices, and carbon footprints; and depleted the fossil reserves with huge penalties to the environment and ecological sustainability. The groundwater, rivers, and oceans are loaded with N excess which is an environmental catastrophe. Read More

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First record of a tomistomine crocodylian from Australia.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12158. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Based on the known fossil record, the majority of crocodylians from the Cenozoic Era of Australia are referred to the extinct clade Mekosuchinae. The only extant crocodylians in Australia are two species of Crocodylus. Hence, the viewpoint that Crocodylus and mekosuchines have been the only crocodylians inhabiting Australia during the Cenozoic has remained largely undisputed. Read More

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Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Light-Duty Transport in Line with the 2 °C Target.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.

Making, driving, and disposing of U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) account for 3% of global greenhouse gas emissions related to energy and processing. Read More

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Blood lead levels in indigenous peoples living close to oil extraction areas in the Peruvian Amazon.

Environ Int 2021 May 31:106639. Epub 2021 May 31.

Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Peru.

Background: High blood lead levels (BLLs) have been previously reported in indigenous people living in communities in the northern Peruvian Amazon. Oil extraction activities have been conducted in the area since the 1970s and have been identified as a source of lead exposure.

Objective: Measure BLL and assess risk factors associated with BLL among indigenous populations from four river basins of the northern Peruvian Amazon. Read More

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Intensive human contact correlates with smaller brains: differential brain size reduction in cattle types.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Jun 9;288(1952):20210813. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Palaeontological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich, Karl-Schmid-Strasse 4, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland.

Cattle are one of the most intensively bred domestic animals, providing humans with a multitude of products and uses. Using data from the fossil record, we test if their domestication, as for other taxa, has resulted in a reduction of their brain size. We not only conclude that (domestic cattle) have smaller brains than their wild ancestor, (aurochs), but that brain size varies significantly by breed, with some having much smaller brains than others. Read More

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Techno-economic evaluation of microalgae high-density liquid fuel production at 12 international locations.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Jun 7;14(1):133. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, 306 Carmody Road, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Background: Microalgae-based high-density fuels offer an efficient and environmental pathway towards decarbonization of the transport sector and could be produced as part of a globally distributed network without competing with food systems for arable land. Variations in climatic and economic conditions significantly impact the economic feasibility and productivity of such fuel systems, requiring harmonized technoeconomic assessments to identify important conditions required for commercial scale up.

Methods: Here, our previously validated Techno-economic and Lifecycle Analysis (TELCA) platform was extended to provide a direct performance comparison of microalgae diesel production at 12 international locations with variable climatic and economic settings. Read More

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Terrain-modulated deposition of atmospheric lead in the soils of alpine forest, central China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;790:148106. Epub 2021 May 29.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.

Alpine ecosystem has a potential to intercept the transport of atmospheric metals, while the regulation mechanisms with variations in altitude and slope direction remain unclear. In this study, the soil and moss samples on the northern and southern slopes of Shennongjia Mountain were collected with altitude to quantitatively identify the sources of lead (Pb) and to decipher the regulation mechanisms of altitude and slope on the Pb distribution. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb decreased evidently with soil depth, and in the O (organic soils) and A (surface mineral soils) horizons they increased with altitude. Read More

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Significant contributions of combustion NH and non-fossil fuel NO to increases of nitrogen deposition in southwestern China over past five decades.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

School of Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.

Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition have been increasing over past decades. However, spatiotemporal variations of N deposition levels and major sources remain unclear in many regions, which hinders making strategies of emission mitigation and evaluating effects of elevated N deposition. By investigating moss N contents and δ N values in southwestern China in 1954-1964, 1970-1994, and 2005-2015, we reconstructed fluxes and source contributions of atmospheric ammonium (NH ) and nitrate (NO ) deposition and their historical changes. Read More

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Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and incidence of asthma: the ELAPSE project.

Eur Respir J 2021 Jun 4;57(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Dept of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.

Background: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, although evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO) and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. Read More

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Using charcoal, ATR FTIR and chemometrics to model the intensity of pyrolysis: Exploratory steps towards characterising fire events.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 13;783:147052. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

This study describes a multivariate statistical model (derived using partial least squares regression, PLS-R) that derives charring intensity (reaction temperature and duration) from the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of charcoal. Data for the model was obtained from a library of charcoal samples produced under laboratory conditions at charring intensities (CI) relevant to wildfires and a series of feedstocks representing common tree species collected from Australia. The PLS-R model developed reveals the potential of FTIR to determine the charring intensity of charcoal. Read More

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[Microbial green manufacturing of higher alcohols].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 May;37(5):1721-1736

Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Biotherapy, School of Life Sciences, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Higher alcohols that contain more than two carbon atoms have better fuel properties than ethanol, making them important supplements and alternatives to fossil fuels. Using microbes to produce higher alcohols from renewable biomass can alleviate the current energy and environmental crises, and has become a major future direction for green biomanufacturing. Since natural microbes can only produce a few higher alcohols in small amounts, it is necessary to reconstruct the synthetic pathways for higher alcohols in model industrial strains through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology to overcome the metabolic bottlenecks. Read More

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Genomic insights into the adaptation and evolution of the Nautilus, an ancient but evolving "living fossil".

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361002, PR China.

The nautilus, commonly known as a "living fossil," is endangered and may be at risk of extinction. The lack of genomic information hinders a thorough understanding of the biology and evolution of nautilus, which can shed light on the conservation of this endangered species. Here, we report the first high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly of Nautilus pompilius. Read More

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Mirroring risk to investment within the EKC hypothesis in the United States.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 1;293:112890. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Cag University, Mersin, Turkey; Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Finance, Asia University, 500, Lioufeng Rd., Wufeng, Taichung, 41354, Taiwan. Electronic address:

In reality, economic expansion cannot be paced-up enough. This account for a potential trade-off between income and environmental degradation that is expectedly feasible at a maximum level of income. On this note, the current study looked at the validity of income-environmental degradation (Environmental Kuznets Curve, EKC) hypothesis especially amidst risk to investment in the United States over the period 1984-2017. Read More

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Potential economic indicators and environmental quality in African economies: new insight from cross-sectional autoregressive distributed lag approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Economics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Growing economic development and substantial demographic shifts may have a momentous consequence on environmental quality in a number of African countries. Consequently, this recent study offers the opportunity to explore the nexus among unobserved influential economic indicators and environmental quality (measured through CO emissions) in a panel of 26 African economies spanning from 1990 to 2018. The aggregated panel is sub-classified into net exporters (NEC) and net importers (NIC) of embodied carbon. Read More

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Directional changes in Levallois core technologies between Eastern Africa, Arabia, and the Levant during MIS 5.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 1;11(1):11465. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Centre for Quaternary Research, Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK.

Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, ~ 130 to 71 thousand years ago, was a key period for the geographic expansion of Homo sapiens, including engagement with new landscapes within Africa and dispersal into Asia. Occupation of the Levant by Homo sapiens in MIS 5 is well established, while recent research has documented complementary evidence in Arabia. Here, we undertake the first detailed comparison of Levallois core technology from eastern Africa, Arabia, and the Levant during MIS 5, including multiple sites associated with Homo sapiens fossils. Read More

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An overview to process design, simulation and sustainability evaluation of biodiesel production.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Jun 1;14(1):129. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Industrial Biocatalysis, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

The overwhelming concerns due to over exploitation of fossil resources necessitate the utilization of alternative energy resources. Biodiesel has been considered as one of the most adaptable alternative to fossil-derived diesel with similar properties and numerous environmental benefits. Although there are various approaches for biodiesel production, development of cost-effective and robust catalyst with efficient production methods and utilization of a variety of feedstock could be the optimum solution to bring down the production cost. Read More

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Evolutionary drivers, morphological evolution and diversity dynamics of a surviving mammal clade: cainotherioids at the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Jun 2;288(1952):20210173. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Institut des Sciences de l'évolution de Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, EPHE, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) represents a period of global environmental changes particularly marked in Europe and coincides with a dramatic biotic turnover. Here, using an exceptional fossil preservation, we document and analyse the diversity dynamics of a mammal clade, Cainotherioidea (Artiodactyla), that survived the EOT and radiated rapidly immediately after. We infer their diversification history from Quercy Konzentrat-Lagerstätte (south-west France) at the species level using Bayesian birth-death models. Read More

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Evaluation of Hydrogenation Kinetics and Life Cycle Assessment on MgNiH-CaO Composites.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 26;14(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju 27469, Korea.

Magnesium-based alloys are attractive as hydrogen storage materials due to their lightweight and high absorption, but their high operating temperatures and very slow kinetics are obstacles to practical applications. Therefore, the effect of CaO has improved the hydrogenation kinetics and slowed down the degradation. The MgNiH-CaO composites were prepared by hydrogen-induced mechanical alloying (HIMA). Read More

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Advances in Low-Density Flexible Polyurethane Foams by Optimized Incorporation of High Amount of Recycled Polyol.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 26;13(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Faculty of Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, University Politehnica Timișoara, C. Telbisz 6, 300001 Timișoara, Romania.

An industrially manufactured recycled polyol, obtained by acidolysis process, was for the first time proved to be a possible replacement of the reference fossil-based polyol in a low-density formulation suitable for industrial production of flexible polyurethane foams. The influence of increasing recycled polyol amounts on the properties of the polyurethane foam has been studied, also performing foam emission tests to evaluate the environmental impact. Using 10 pbw recycled polyol in the standard formulation, significant differences of the physical properties were not observed, but increase of the recycled polyol amount to 30 pbw led to a dramatic decrease of the foam air flow and a very tight foam. Read More

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Process Development for Flexible Films of Industrial Cellulose Pulp Using Superbase Ionic Liquids.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 28;13(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Centre for Mechanical Engineering, Materials and Processes (CEMMPRE), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Sílvio Lima-Polo II, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal.

Due to environmental concerns, more attention has been given to the development of bio-based materials for substitution of fossil-based ones. Moreover, paper use is essential in daily routine and several applications of industrial pulp can be developed. In this study, transparent films were produced by industrial cellulose pulp solubilization in tetramethylguanidine based ionic liquids followed by its regeneration. Read More

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Assessment of Home-Based and Mobility-Based Exposure to Black Carbon in an Urban Environment: A Pilot Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 10;18(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576, Singapore.

The combustion of fossil fuels is a significant source of particulate-bound black carbon (BC) in urban environments. The personal exposure (PE) of urban dwellers to BC and subsequent health impacts remain poorly understood due to a lack of observational data. In this study, we assessed and quantified the levels of PE to BC under two exposure scenarios (home-based and mobility-based exposure) in the city of Trivandrum in India. Read More

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Transition Metal Oxide Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors: A Review of Recent Developments.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 10;11(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan 528000, China.

In the past decades, the energy consumption of nonrenewable fossil fuels has been increasing, which severely threatens human life. Thus, it is very urgent to develop renewable and reliable energy storage devices with features of environmental harmlessness and low cost. High power density, excellent cycle stability, and a fast charge/discharge process make supercapacitors a promising energy device. Read More

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ESI-MS Analysis of Thiol-yne Click Reaction in Petroleum Medium.

Molecules 2021 May 13;26(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 47, 119991 Moscow, Russia.

Petroleum contains a large number of heteroatomic compounds, but today, most of them are not efficiently utilized. The constant development of the sustainability concept recalls for rethinking the usage of fossil resources with improved chemical utility. In order to initiate research aimed at involving active petroleum compounds in chemical transformations, a new analytical method for product detection is needed. Read More

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Spatial Origin and Diversification of the Species Group (Coleoptera, Cantharidae), with Descriptions of Four New Species from China and Vietnam.

Insects 2021 May 13;12(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

The Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Application, School of Life Science, Institute of Life Science and Green Development, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China.

Five previously known species were attributed to the species group, including (Pic 1926), (Gorham 1889), (Švihla 2004), (Fairmaire 1887), and (Wittmer, 1995). Four new species of this group were discovered from China and Vietnam, sp. nov. Read More

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Spatial distribution and source identification of traditional and emerging persistent toxic substances in the offshore sediment of South Korea.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 24;789:147996. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences & Research Institute of Oceanography, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

While the coastal pollution of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) has been widely documented, information on offshore environments remains limited. Here, we investigated the spatial distribution and sources of PTSs in the offshore sediments (n = 34) of South Korea. Sediment samples collected from the Yellow Sea (n = 18), the South Sea (n = 10), and the East Sea (n = 6), in 2017-18 were analyzed for a total of 71 PTSs. Read More

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Energy and carbon budgeting of traditional land use change with groundnut based cropping system for environmental quality, resilient soil health and farmers income in eastern Indian Himalayas.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 29;293:112892. Epub 2021 May 29.

ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Centre, Lamphelpat, Imphal, 795004, India.

Energy intensive traditional cereals based monoculture often lead to high greenhouse gas emissions and degradation of land and environmental quality. Present study aimed at evaluating the energy and carbon budget of diversified groundnut (Arachis hypogea L) based cropping system with over existing traditional practice towards the development of a sustainable production technology through restoration of soil and environmental quality and enhancement of farming resiliency by stabilizing farmers' income. The trials comprised of three introduced groundnut based systems viz. Read More

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Discharge of lithium-ion batteries in salt solutions for safer storage, transport, and resource recovery.

Waste Manag Res 2021 Jun 1:734242X211022658. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

The use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has grown in recent years, making them a promising source of secondary raw materials due to their rich composition of valuable materials, such as Cobalt and Nickel. Recycling LIBs can help reduce fossil energy consumption, CO emissions, environmental pollution, and consumption of valuable materials with limited supplies. On the other hand, the hazards associated with spent LIBs recycling are mainly due to fires and explosions caused by unwanted short-circuiting. Read More

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