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Exploring the optimization of aerobic food waste digestion efficiency through the engineering of functional biofilm Bio-carriers.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Sep 6;341:125869. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

The possibility of breaking down cellulose-rich food waste through biofilm engineering was investigated. Six previously isolated strains from naturally degrading fruits and vegetables, screened for biofilm-forming ability and cellulolytic activity, were selected to enrich a biocarrier seeding microbial consortium. The food waste model used in this study was cabbage which was aerobically digested under repeated water rinsing and regular effluent drainage. Read More

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September 2021

ADAM10 Partially Protects Mice against Influenza Pneumonia by Suppressing Specific Myeloid Cell Population.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, grid.26091.3cKeio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The influenza virus infection poses a serious health threat worldwide. Myeloid cells play pivotal roles in regulating innate and adaptive immune defense. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family of proteins contribute to various immune responses; however, the role of ADAM10 in influenza virus infection remains largely unknown. Read More

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September 2021

'Ten Years After'-a long-term settlement and bioerosion experiment in an Arctic rhodolith bed (Mosselbukta, Svalbard).

Geobiology 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Marine Research Department, Senckenberg am Meer, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

Rhodolith beds and bioherms formed by ecosystem engineering crustose coralline algae support the northernmost centres of carbonate production, referred to as polar cold-water carbonate factories. Yet, little is known about biodiversity and recruitment of these hard-bottom communities or the bioeroders degrading them, and there is a demand for carbonate budgets to include respective rates of polar carbonate build-up and bioerosion. To address these issues, a 10-year settlement and bioerosion experiment was carried out at the Arctic Svalbard archipelago in and downslope of a rhodolith bed. Read More

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September 2021

Large impact cratering during lunar magma ocean solidification.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 14;12(1):5433. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The lunar cratering record is used to constrain the bombardment history of both the Earth and the Moon. However, it is suggested from different perspectives, including impact crater dating, asteroid dynamics, lunar samples, impact basin-forming simulations, and lunar evolution modelling, that the Moon could be missing evidence of its earliest cratering record. Here we report that impact basins formed during the lunar magma ocean solidification should have produced different crater morphologies in comparison to later epochs. Read More

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September 2021

Insights into the local interaction mechanisms between fermenting broken maize and various binder materials for anaerobic digester structures.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 11;300:113735. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

LMDC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Concrete structures of anaerobic digestion plants face chemically aggressive conditions due to the contact with the complex liquid fraction of the fermenting biowaste. This paper aims to determine the biogeochemical dynamic interaction phenomena at play between the biowaste and cementitious matrices at the local scale, and to identify durable binders in such environments. Binder materials likely to show increased durability - slag and calcium aluminate cement, and a metakaolin-based alkali-activated geopolymer - and a reference Portland cement were inserted into sealed bioeactors during 5 cycles (245 days) of broken maize anaerobic digestion. Read More

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September 2021

Choledochus angulation by T-tube.

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2020 09 1;58(5):622-627. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital de Especialidades "Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda Gutiérrez", Servicio de Gastrocirugía. Ciudad de México, México.

Background: The presence of bile stasis is a frequent mechanism for presenting choledocholithiasis and recurrence of this one. The bile duct angulation, also known as "elbow sign," could be a risk factor for reducing the flow of bile and forming stones and it has been reported as a consequence secondary to the use of T-tube. The recurrence of choledocholithiasis without the use of T-tube in the bile duct is minimal, whereas in those with T-tube is four times higher in bile duct exploration surgeries. Read More

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September 2020

The dynamic land-cover of the Altai Mountains: Perspectives based on past and current environmental and biodiversity changes.

Ambio 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

University of Sheffield, Alfred Denny Building, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.

We present climate-dependent changes in the high-mountain forest ecotone, old-growth forests, alpine phytocenoses, and deglaciated forelands in the Aktru glacial basin (Altai Republic, Russia). A number of independent sources (variations in upper treeline altitude, dendrochronological data, analysis of lacustrine sediments and botanical and geographical studies linked with the dynamics of glacial-dammed lakes in the Chuya and Kurai intermountain depressions) suggest Holocene temperatures reached about 4 °C higher than today. Unlike the European Alps, glaciers in the continental Altai Mountains disappeared before forming again. Read More

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September 2021

Cell culture-based production of defective interfering influenza A virus particles in perfusion mode using an alternating tangential flow filtration system.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Chair of Bioprocess Engineering, Otto-Von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

Respiratory diseases including influenza A virus (IAV) infections represent a major threat to human health. While the development of a vaccine requires a lot of time, a fast countermeasure could be the use of defective interfering particles (DIPs) for antiviral therapy. IAV DIPs are usually characterized by a large internal deletion in one viral RNA segment. Read More

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September 2021

Higher Trimethylamine--Oxide Plasma Levels with Increasing Age Are Mediated by Diet and Trimethylamine-Forming Bacteria.

mSystems 2021 Sep 14:e0094521. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Microbial Interactions and Processes Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Researchgrid.7490.a, Braunschweig, Germany.

The gut microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine--oxide (TMAO) is linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Trimethylamine (TMA), which is subsequently oxidized to TMAO in the liver, is formed by intestinal bacteria via distinct biochemical routes from dietary precursors that are enriched in animal product-based foods. To get a full picture of the entire process of the diet > gut microbiota > TMAO axis, we quantified potential TMA-forming gut bacteria and plasma metabolites using gene-targeted assays and targeted metabolomics on a subsample ( = 425) of a German population-based cohort study. Read More

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September 2021

Dual aptamer recognition-based G-quadruplex nanowires to selectively analyze cancer-derived exosomes.

Talanta 2021 Dec 29;235:122748. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, PR China; Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, PR China. Electronic address:

Cancer-derived exosomes have emerged as a valuable biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, the heterogeneity of exosomes often leads to low selectivity based on the single recognition method. Given this, we have developed a dual-aptamer recognition strategy based on G-quadruplex nanowires for selective analysis of exosomes. Read More

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December 2021

Sequence Determines the Switch in the Fibril Forming Regions in the Low-Complexity FUS Protein and Its Variants.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Sep 13:9026-9032. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States.

Residues spanning distinct regions of the low-complexity domain of the RNA-binding protein, Fused in Sarcoma (FUS-LC), form fibril structures with different core morphologies. Solid-state NMR experiments show that the 214-residue FUS-LC forms a fibril with an S-bend (core-1, residues 39-95), while the rest of the protein is disordered. In contrast, the fibrils of the C-terminal variant (FUS-LC-C; residues 111-214) have a U-bend topology (core-2, residues 112-150). Read More

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September 2021

Characterization of a Nitro-Forming Enzyme Involved in Fosfazinomycin Biosynthesis.

Biochemistry 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States.

-hydroxylating monooxygenases (NMOs) are a subclass of flavin-dependent enzymes that hydroxylate nitrogen atoms. Recently, unique NMOs that perform multiple reactions on one substrate molecule have been identified. Fosfazinomycin M (FzmM) is one such NMO, forming nitrosuccinate from aspartate (Asp) in the fosfazinomycin biosynthetic pathway in some sp. Read More

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September 2021

Biochemical and crystallographic studies of monomeric and dimeric bovine cytochrome oxidase.

Biophys Physicobiol 2021 16;18:186-195. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Graduate School of Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Kouto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan.

Cytochrome oxidase (CcO), a terminal oxidase in the respiratory chain, catalyzes the reduction of O to water coupled with the proton pump across the membrane. Mitochondrial CcO exists in monomeric and dimeric forms, and as a monomer as part of the respiratory supercomplex, although the enzymatic reaction proceeds in the CcO monomer. Recent biochemical and crystallographic studies of monomeric and dimeric CcOs have revealed functional and structural differences among them. Read More

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Elastin-like Proteins to Support Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Guidance Conduits.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 09 4;7(9):4209-4220. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

Synthetic nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) offer an alternative to harvested nerve grafts for treating peripheral nerve injury (PNI). NGCs have been made from both naturally derived and synthesized materials. While naturally derived materials typically have an increased capacity for bioactivity, synthesized materials have better material control, including tunability and reproducibility. Read More

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September 2021

ERF9 of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. undergoes feedback regulation by ethylene and modulates cold tolerance via regulating a glutathione S-transferase U17 gene.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Plant ethylene-responsive factors (ERFs) play essential roles in cold stress response, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. In this study, we characterized PtrERF9 from trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. Read More

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September 2021

Treatment of Synthetic Ammonium Sulfate Wastewater by Mixed Culture of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Enriched Nitrobacteria.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Ammonium sulfate wastewater can cause eutrophication and black odor of water body. Although ammonia nitrogen can be used as nutrient of microalgae, high ammonia nitrogen levels could inhibit the growth of microalgae. Nitrobacteria can transform ammonia nitrogen into nitrate nitrogen. Read More

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September 2021

Sterilization of food packaging by UV-C irradiation: Is Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404 the best target microorganism for industrial bio-validations?

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Sep 6;357:109383. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Stazione Sperimentale per l'Industria delle Conserve Alimentari - SSICA, Viale F. Tanara, 31/A, 43121 Parma, Italy. Electronic address:

In food industries UV-C irradiation is used to achieve decontamination of some packaging devices, such as plastic caps or laminated foils, and of those smooth surfaces that can be directly irradiated. Since its effectiveness can be checked by microbial validation tests, some ascospore-forming molds (Aspergillus hiratsukae, Talaromyces bacillisporus, Aspergillus montevidensis, and Chaetomium globosum) were compared with one of the target microorganisms actually used in industrial bio-validations (Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404) to find the species most resistant to UV-C. Tests were carried out with an UV-C lamp (irradiance = 127 μW/cm; emission peak = 253. Read More

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September 2021

Analysis of Opsin Gene Family of Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus).

Gene 2021 Sep 9:145960. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Key Laboratory of Aquaculture in South China Sea for Aquatic Economic Animal of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Fisheries College, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524025, China. Electronic address:

Opsin is a fellow of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) superfamily. It can be divided into visual and non-visual opsin according to whether it is directly involved in visual imaging. Opsin plays an important role in visual image formation and the regulation of non-image forming functions such as circadian entrainment in the growth, development and evolution of fish. Read More

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September 2021

Human flavin-containing monooxygenase 1 and its long-sought hydroperoxyflavin intermediate.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Sep 9:114763. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Out of the five isoforms of human flavin-containing monooxygenase (hFMO), FMO1 and FMO3 are the most relevant to Phase I drug metabolism. They are involved in the oxygenation of xenobiotics including drugs and pesticides using NADPH and FAD as cofactors. Majority of the characterization of these enzymes has involved hFMO3, where intermediates of its catalytic cycle have been described. Read More

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September 2021

Flowerlike BiOCl nanospheres fabricated by an in situ self-assembly strategy for efficiently enhancing photocatalysis.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 4;607(Pt 1):423-430. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, PR China. Electronic address:

For semiconductor-based photocatalytic reactions, defect engineering has been proven as an efficient approach to enhance the photocatalytic performance. In this work, a synergistically PVP/EG-assisted in situ self-assembly strategy has been successfully developed for preparing flowerlike BiOCl nanospheres (NSP) assembled by ultrathin nanosheets (thickness of 3.8 nm) with abundant oxygen vacancies (OVs). Read More

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September 2021

Novel G-quadruplex prone sequences emerge in the complete assembly of the human X chromosome.

Biochimie 2021 Sep 9;191:87-90. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Institute of Biophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Královopolská 135, 612 65, Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

G-quadruplexes are non-B secondary structures with regulatory functions and therapeutic potential. Improvements in sequencing methods recently allowed the completion of the first human chromosome which is now available as a gapless, end-to-end assembly, with the previously remaining spaces filled and newly identified regions added. We compared the presence of G-quadruplex forming sequences in the current human reference genome (GRCh38) and in the new end-to-end assembly of the X chromosome constructed by high-coverage ultra-long-read nanopore sequencing. Read More

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September 2021

Construction of transplantable artificial vascular tissue based on adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells by a cell coating and cryopreservation technique.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 9;11(1):17989. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Neuroanatomy, Cell Biology and Histology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan.

Prevascularized artificial three-dimensional (3D) tissues are effective biomaterials for regenerative medicine. We have previously established a scaffold-free 3D artificial vascular tissue from normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) and umbilical vein-derived endothelial cells (HUVECs) by layer-by-layer cell coating technique. In this study, we constructed an artificial vascular tissue constructed by human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (hASCs) and HUVECs (ASCVT) by a modified technique with cryopreservation. Read More

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September 2021

From decimeter-scale elevated ionic conductivity regions in the cloud to lightning initiation.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 9;11(1):18016. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Advanced Wireless & Communication Research Center, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, 182-8585, Japan.

In this work, we represent the lightning initiation scenario as a sequence of two transitions of discharge activity to progressively larger spatial scales: the first one is from small-scale avalanches to intermediate-scale streamers; and the second one is from streamers to the lightning seed. We postulate the existence of ion production centers in the cloud, whose occurrence is caused by electric field bursts accompanying hydrometeor collisions (or near collisions) in the turbulent thundercloud environment. When a new ion production center is created inside (fully or partially) the residual ion spot left behind by a previously established center, there is a cumulative effect in the increasing of ion concentration. Read More

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September 2021

Saliva-derived microcosm biofilms grown on different oral surfaces in vitro.

NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 2021 Sep 9;7(1):74. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The microbial composition of a specific oral niche could be influenced by initial bacterial adherence, nutrient and physiological property of the local surface. To investigate the influence of nutrient and surface properties on microbial composition, saliva-derived biofilms were grown in agar on three substrata: Reconstructed Human Gingiva (RHG), a hydroxyapatite (HAP) surface, and a titanium (TI) surface. Agar was mixed with either Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) or Thompson (TP) medium. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 27;13(17). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Oncology Department, Institut de Cancérologie Strasbourg (ICANS), 67200 Strasbourg, France.

Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) represents a rare and aggressive malignancy arising from the renal pelvis or ureter. It can develop sporadically or have a hereditary origin, such as Lynch syndrome, caused by DNA mismatch repair deficiency, leading to microsatellite instability phenotype. According to molecular characterization studies, UTUC presents different mutational profiles as compared to urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas. Read More

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Charge-Transfer Interactions Stabilize G-Quadruplex-Forming Thrombin Binding Aptamers and Can Improve Their Anticoagulant Activity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 2;22(17). Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cintia 21, I-80126 Naples, Italy.

In the search for optimized thrombin binding aptamers (TBAs), we herein describe the synthesis of a library of TBA analogues obtained by end-functionalization with the electron-rich 1,5-dialkoxy naphthalene (DAN) and the electron-deficient 1,8,4,5-naphthalenetetra-carboxylic diimide (NDI) moieties. Indeed, when these G-rich oligonucleotides were folded into the peculiar TBA G-quadruplex (G4) structure, effective donor-acceptor charge transfer interactions between the DAN and NDI residues attached to the extremities of the sequence were induced, providing pseudo-cyclic structures. Alternatively, insertion of NDI groups at both extremities produced TBA analogues stabilized by π-π stacking interactions. Read More

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September 2021

Structural Features of a Full-Length Ubiquitin Ligase Responsible for the Formation of Patches at the Plasma Membrane.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 31;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Molecular Plant Physiology, Institute of Plant Science and Microbiology, Universität Hamburg, 22609 Hamburg, Germany.

Plant U-box armadillo repeat (PUB-ARM) ubiquitin (Ub) ligases have important functions in plant defense through the ubiquitination of target proteins. Defense against pathogens involves vesicle trafficking and the formation of extracellular vesicles. The PUB-ARM protein SENESCENCE ASSOCIATED UBIQUITIN E3 LIGASE1 (SAUL1) can form patches at the plasma membrane related to tethering multi-vesicular bodies (MVBs) to the plasma membrane. Read More

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Influence of Spin Coating Parameters on Gas Transport Properties of Thin-Film Composite Membranes.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 6;14(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

A.V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis RAS, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117912 Moscow, Russia.

The influence of casting centrifugation process parameters, such as a rotation speed (ω), the amount of the film-forming solution (V), and its concentration (C) on transport properties of composite membranes were investigated. A number of composite membranes based on poly (1-trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP) and micro- (MFFK-1) and ultrafiltration (UFFK) membranes were obtained using the spin-coating method. For the first time, an unexpected dependence of permeance and ideal selectivity on rotation speed had been discovered: the thickness of the selective layer decreases from 3. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of the Interfaces between Restorative and Regenerative Biomaterials Used in Vital Pulp Therapy.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 3;14(17). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Institute of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal.

Background: Calcium-silicate-based cements (CSC) have gained an increasing scientific and clinical relevance, enabling more conservative approaches, namely pulp preservation and regeneration therapies. This research aims to study the influence of four clinical variables on the interfaces between CSC and composite adhesive restoration, concerning shear bond strength (SBS) and ultra-morphological patterns.

Methods: SBS tests were performed in 320 specimens divided in 16 groups (n = 20) according to: two CSC (NuSmile NeoMTA, Biodentine); two adhesive systems (Clearfil SE Bond 2 (CSEB2), Clearfil Universal Bond Quick (CUBQ)); optional application of an additional hydrophobic bonding layer (HBL); two restoration times (immediate, seven days). Read More

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September 2021

Determining Johnson-Cook Constitutive Equation for Low-Carbon Steel via Taylor Anvil Test.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 25;14(17). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology of Building Materials and Components, Brno University of Technology, Veveří 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Tristal steel is low-carbon construction-type steel widely used in the automotive industry, e.g., for braking components. Read More

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