1,920 results match your criteria formal description


Integrative taxonomy uncovers a new Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midge species from Thailand.

Acta Trop 2021 May 2:105941. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand.

Fully understanding biodiversity often requires an integrated approach especially for small insects because species diagnostic morphological characters are limited. In this study, morphological characters and DNA barcodes were used to examine previously recognized genetically divergent lineages detected in the biting midge, Culicoides arakawae (Arakawa), from Thailand. Morphological examinations revealed that specimens belonging to one lineage are morphologically different from C. Read More

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Understanding the characteristics of US cancer survivors with informal caregivers.

Cancer 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Maryland.

Background: Although informal caregivers such as family and friends provide people with cancer needed physical care and emotional support, little is known about which individuals have access to such caregivers. The purpose of this article is to provide a nationally representative description of the sociodemographic characteristics of cancer survivors who have or had an informal caregiver in the United States.

Methods: Cross-sectional data were taken from the Experiences With Cancer Survivorship Supplement of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey in 2011, 2016, and 2017. Read More

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How detection ranges and usage stops impact digital contact tracing effectiveness for COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 05 3;11(1):9414. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.

To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries around the globe have adopted digital contact tracing apps. Various technologies exist to trace contacts that are potentially prone to different types of tracing errors. Here, we study the impact of different proximity detection ranges on the effectiveness and efficiency of digital contact tracing apps. Read More

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"What Is Right for Me, Is Not Necessarily Right for You": The Endogenous Factors Influencing Nonparticipation in Medical Assistance in Dying.

Qual Health Res 2021 May 3:10497323211008843. Epub 2021 May 3.

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Access to medical assistance in dying (MAID) is influenced by legislation, health care providers (HCPs), the number of patient requests, and the patients' locations. This research explored the factors that influenced HCPs' nonparticipation in formal MAID processes and their needs to support this emerging practice area. Using an interpretive description methodology, we interviewed 17 physicians and 18 nurse practitioners who identified as non-participators in formal MAID processes. Read More

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How to publish a new fungal species, or name, version 3.0.

IMA Fungus 2021 May 3;12(1):11. Epub 2021 May 3.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

It is now a decade since The International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF) produced an overview of requirements and best practices for describing a new fungal species. In the meantime the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp) has changed from its former name (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) and introduced new formal requirements for valid publication of species scientific names, including the separation of provisions specific to Fungi and organisms treated as fungi in a new Chapter F. Equally transformative have been changes in the data collection, data dissemination, and analytical tools available to mycologists. Read More

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Parallel diversification of the African tree toad genus Nectophryne (Bufonidae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Apr 29;162:107184. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Museum für Naturkunde - Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Biodiversity Dynamics, Invalidenstr. 43, Berlin 10115, Germany.

African amphibian diversity remains underestimated with many cryptic lineages awaiting formal description. An important hotspot of amphibian diversification is the Guineo-Congolian rainforest in Central Africa, its richness attributable to present day and ancestral range fragmentation through geological barriers, habitat expansion and contraction, and the presence of steep ecological gradients. The charismatic Nectophryne tree toads present an interesting case study for diversification in this region. Read More

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Improvement of Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Reporting program measure: Screening for metabolic disorders through pharmacy collaborative practice agreement.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Background: Second-generation antipsychotics are associated with lower risks of extrapyramidal symptoms, including tardive dyskinesia. However, many second-generation antipsychotics are associated with metabolic adverse effects, including weight gain, impaired blood glucose control, and hyperlipidemia. Metabolic monitoring for patients prescribed antipsychotic medication is 1 of several measures of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Reporting program. Read More

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Overview of Prognostic Systems for Hepatocellular Carcinoma and ITA.LI.CA External Validation of MESH and CNLC Classifications.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Semeiotics, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Prognostic assessment in patients with HCC remains an extremely difficult clinical task due to the complexity of this cancer where tumour characteristics interact with degree of liver dysfunction, patient general health status, and a large span of available treatment options. Several prognostic systems have been proposed in the last three decades, both from the Asian and European/North American countries. Prognostic scores, such as the CLIP score and the recent MESH score, have been generated on a solid statistical basis from real life population data, while staging systems, such as the BCLC scheme and the recent CNLC classification, have been created by experts according to recent HCC prognostic evidences from the literature. Read More

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Abortion hotlines around the world: a mixed-methods systematic and descriptive review.

Sex Reprod Health Matters 2021 Dec;29(1):1907027

Medical Officer, Department of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research and UNDP-UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Barriers to access abortion services globally have led to the development of alternative methods to assist and support women who seek an abortion. One such method is the use of hotlines, currently utilised globally for abortion care. This review aimed to understand (1) how abortion hotlines facilitate access to abortion; and (2) how women and stakeholders describe the impact of hotlines on abortion access. Read More

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December 2021

A new, enigmatic species of black-eyed gecko (Reptilia: Diplodactylidae: Mokopirirakau/) from North Otago, New Zealand.

Zootaxa 2021 Apr 21;4964(1):zootaxa.4964.1.7. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Wildlands Consultants Ltd, 764 Cumberland St, North Dunedin, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand.

The New Zealand endemic gecko genus, Mokopirirakau, is notable for its ecology, with some species inhabiting extreme alpine environments, as well as for the large number of geographically circumscribed, species-level lineages awaiting formal description. In, 2018, a population superficially similar in colour and morphology to the black-eyed gecko (M. kahutarae) was discovered in alpine greywacke rock outcrops in the Oteake Conservation Park, North Otago, ~400 km south of the nearest M. Read More

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A fossil-calibrated time-tree of all Australian freshwater fishes.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Apr 20;161:107180. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Australian freshwater fishes are a relatively species-poor assemblage, mostly comprising groups derived from older repeated freshwater invasions by marine ancestors, plus a small number of Gondwanan lineages. These taxa are both highly endemic and highly threatened, but a comprehensive phylogeny for Australian freshwater fishes is lacking. This has hampered efforts to study their phylogenetic diversity, distribution of extinction risk, speciation rates, and rates of trait evolution. Read More

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An Automatic Ontology-Based Approach to Support Logical Representation of Observable and Measurable Data for Healthy Lifestyle Management: Proof-of-Concept Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 9;23(4):e24656. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Health and Nursing Science, Centre for e-Health, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway.

Background: Lifestyle diseases, because of adverse health behavior, are the foremost cause of death worldwide. An eCoach system may encourage individuals to lead a healthy lifestyle with early health risk prediction, personalized recommendation generation, and goal evaluation. Such an eCoach system needs to collect and transform distributed heterogenous health and wellness data into meaningful information to train an artificially intelligent health risk prediction model. Read More

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Appropriate Use of Short-Course Antibiotics in Common Infections: Best Practice Advice From the American College of Physicians.

Ann Intern Med 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

and American College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (A.Q.).

Description: Antimicrobial overuse is a major health care issue that contributes to antibiotic resistance. Such overuse includes unnecessarily long durations of antibiotic therapy in patients with common bacterial infections, such as acute bronchitis with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), urinary tract infections (UTIs), and cellulitis. This article describes best practices for prescribing appropriate and short-duration antibiotic therapy for patients presenting with these infections. Read More

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Development of the Wits Face Database: an African database of high-resolution facial photographs and multimodal closed-circuit television (CCTV) recordings.

F1000Res 2021 19;10:131. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Human Variation and Identification Research Unit (HVIRU), School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng, 2193, South Africa.

Forensic facial comparison is a commonly used, yet under-evaluated method employed in medicolegal contexts across the world. Testing the accuracy and reliability of facial comparisons requires large scale controlled and matching facial image databases. Databases that contain images of individuals on closed-circuit television (CCTV), with matching formal and informal photographs are needed for this type of research. Read More

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February 2021

Gunshot Fractures of the Forearm: A Multicenter Evaluation.

J Orthop Trauma 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA Louisiana State University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New Orleans, LA MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH Saint Louis University Hospital, St Louis, MO Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC Florida Orthopaedic Institute, Tampa, FL Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Indianapolis, IN Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA.

Objectives: To evaluate a large series of open fractures of the forearm following gunshot wounds in order to determine complication rates and factors that may lead to infection, nonunion, or compartment syndrome.

Design: Multi-center retrospective review.

Setting: Nine Level 1 Trauma CentersPatients/Participants: 168 patients had 198 radius and ulna fractures due to firearm injuries. Read More

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Vagueness and Ambiguity in Communication of Case Management: A Content Analysis in the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme.

Int J Integr Care 2021 Mar 19;21(1):17. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Australian National University, Australia.

Case management (CM) is an integrated care strategy, characterised by a set of actions to support person-centred planning, coordination of health and social services. Decades of CM, organisational psychology and occupational research highlight how vagueness and ambiguity in role communication can create role conflict and job stress, negatively impacts staff turnover, intra-organisational collaboration, job performance, and that poor communication of CM impedes policy, quality analysis service development and practice. We conducted a detailed top-down hierarchical, quality analysis of communication about CM roles and responsibilities in a Scheme for people with disability in Australia. Read More

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Engaging Carers in Co-Design: Development of the Carer Readiness Tool.

Int J Integr Care 2021 Mar 15;21(1):13. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Clinical Safety, Quality and Governance Directorate, Central Coast Local Health District, Gosford, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: The Carer Support Unit (CSU) of the Central Coast Local Health District (CCLHD), NSW, Australia, developed, trialled and implemented a Carer Readiness Tool (CRT) to help carers gauge their readiness to care at home, highlight to hospital staff areas for additional support for carers, and provide evidence of carer engagement in discharge planning.

Description: A rigorous co-design process was followed with carer consultation at key milestones in development of the CRT. The tool was piloted in two cancer/chronic renal disease inpatient units commencing November 2019. Read More

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Preiser's disease or avascular osteonecrosis of the scaphoid: An updated literature review.

Hand Surg Rehabil 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Centre de la Main, 47 Rue de la Foucaudière, 49800 Trélazé, France. Electronic address:

Avascular necrosis of the scaphoid, often referred to as Preiser's disease, is little known despite the scaphoid being the second most frequently involved location in avascular pathology of the carpal bones after the lunate (Kienböck's disease). Nonetheless, very few cases have been reported in the medical literature over the last century. Its pathophysiology is not completely elucidated although the unique vascularization of the scaphoid and several risk factors seem to be recurrently incriminated. Read More

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Taxonomy of the Apicomplexan Symbionts of Coral, including Corallicolida ord. nov., Reassignment of the Genus Gemmocystis, and Description of New Species Corallicola aquarius gen. nov. sp. nov. and Anthozoaphila gnarlus gen. nov. sp. nov.

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2021 Mar 25:e12852. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Corals (Metazoa; Cnidaria; Anthozoa) have recently been shown to play host to a widespread and diverse group of intracellular symbionts of the phylum Apicomplexa. These symbionts, colloquially called "corallicolids", are mostly known through molecular analyses, and no formal taxonomy has been proposed. Another apicomplexan, Gemmocystis cylindrus (described from the coral Dendrogyra cylindrus), may be related to corallicolids, but lacks molecular data. Read More

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Successful management of an intraluminal superior sagittal sinus meningioma causing elevated intracranial pressure using gamma knife radiosurgery in subacute setting: A case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 8;12:86. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pennsylvania, United States.

Background: Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) facilitates precisely focused radiation to an intracranial target while minimizing substantial off-target radiation in the surrounding normal tissue. Meningiomas attached to or invading the superior sagittal sinus may result in sinus occlusion and are often impossible to completely resect safely. The authors describe successful management of a patient with a meningioma located completely inside the posterior aspect of the superior sagittal sinus. Read More

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Molecular evidence for deeper diversity in Australian Tanypodinae (Chironomidae): Yarrhpelopia and related new taxa.

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 24;4949(1):zootaxa.4949.1.1. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Evolution and Ecology, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia..

The diversity and endemism of Australian Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) has been unclear from morphological comparisons with well-grounded northern hemisphere taxonomy. As part of a comprehensive study, here we focus on one of the few described endemic genera, Yarrhpelopia Cranston. Extensive and intensive new sampling and newly-acquired molecular data provides clarity for the type species, Yarrhpelopia norrisi Cranston and allows recognition of congeners and potential sister group(s). Read More

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Back in time to unlock the future: tracing the type-specimens of Corallus hortulana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Serpentes: Boidae), with designation of a lectotype for the Amazon tree boa.

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 8;4941(2):zootaxa.4941.2.6. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Museu de História Natural do Ceará Prof. Dias da Rocha, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Av. Dr. Silas Munguba, 1700, Campus Itaperi, 60741-000, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Departamento de Vertebrados, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão, 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil..

Corallus hortulana presents a large array of tones and color pattern variability throughout its distribution (= polychromatism), which trigged the description of several taxa now considered to be primary synonyms. Linnaeus described two of these (Boa enydris and Boa hortulana) on the same page of the 10th Edition of the Systema Naturae. However, both names had been widely used in literature almost in an optional way, until their formal synonymization more than two centuries after the original description. Read More

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Ten new species of Phyllodoce Lamarck, 1818 (Phyllodocidae, Annelida)
from Brazil.

Zootaxa 2021 Feb 3;4924(1):zootaxa.4924.1.1. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Centro de Estudos do Mar, Universidade Federal do Paraná. Av. Beira-Mar s/n, CP 50002; CEP 83255-976. Pontal do Sul, Paraná, Brazil. Graduate Program in Zoology..

Herein we provide a taxonomic revision of Phyllodoce species from Brazil, describing 10 new species in addition to two new records, Phyllodoce longipes Kinberg, 1866 and Phyllodoce cf. madeirensis Langerhans, 1880. Phyllodoce sp. Read More

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February 2021

Revision of the deep-sea Eulimidae (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda) from off Northeast Brazil.

Zootaxa 2021 Feb 16;4927(4):zootaxa.4927.4.1. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Setor de Malacologia, Departamento de Invertebrados, Museu Nacional-Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..

The present study reviews the taxonomy of the marine gastropods belonging to the family Eulimidae Philippi, 1853 from the continental slope off Northeast Brazil. The genera Abyssoaclis Barros, Mello, Barros, Lima, Santos, Cabral Padovan, 2003 and Aclis Lovén, 1846 were not treated here. A total of 20 taxa were identified in this region, excluding Eulima hebes Watson, 1883, a species with a doubtful classification in Eulimidae. Read More

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February 2021

Airapus rakovici (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae: Eupariini), a new species from Fujian, China.

Zootaxa 2021 Jan 27;4920(1):zootaxa.4920.1.8. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 10010, People's Republic of China. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, CZ-128 43 Praha 2, Czech Republic..

The genus Airapus Stebnicka Howden, 1996 currently comprises 26 extant species distributed in the Australian and Oriental zoogeographical regions (Stebnicka Howden 1996; Stebnicka 1998, 2009; Rakovič et al. 2019; Král et al. 2019; Minkina 2020) and one fossil species from the Eocene Baltic amber (Tamutis et al. Read More

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January 2021

Hidden diversity of the most basal tapeworms (Cestoda, Gyrocotylidea), the enigmatic parasites of holocephalans (Chimaeriformes).

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 9;11(1):5492. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Institute of Parasitology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovak Republic.

Gyrocotylideans are evolutionary ancient parasitic flatworms, and like their hosts-a relict group of holocephalan fishes (Chimaeriformes)-they are considered to be "living fossils" of a vanished past. However, the species diversity, host associations and biogeography of these most basal tapeworms are poorly known. Herein, we provide evidence of a conspicuous contrast between the genetic and morphological data based on an examination of newly collected and properly processed Gyrocotyle specimens (hologenophores) isolated from holocephalans off Taiwan and Argentina. Read More

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Dynamical properties of feedback signalling in B lymphopoiesis: A mathematical modelling approach.

J Theor Biol 2021 Mar 19;522:110685. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Mathematics, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain; Biomedical Research and Innovation Institute of Cádiz (INiBICA), Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, Spain.

Haematopoiesis is the process of generation of blood cells. Lymphopoiesis generates lymphocytes, the cells in charge of the adaptive immune response. Disruptions of this process are associated with diseases like leukaemia, which is especially incident in children. Read More

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Mental Health and Community-Based Rehabilitation: A Qualitative Description of the Experiences and Perspectives of Service Users and Carers in Bangladesh.

Community Ment Health J 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Centre for Global Mental Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Since 2016, Promotion of Human Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Bangladesh (PHRPB) has been working to include people with psychosocial disabilities in their community-based inclusive development work, and to increase access to formal mental health care. Field visits were carried out to PHRPBD catchment areas in Dhaka and Chittagong for a case study on the integration of mental health into community-based rehabilitation (CBR). This paper synthesizes the results of twenty-five semi-structured interviews carried out as part of the case study. Read More

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Genetic characterisation of Campylobacter concisus: Strategies for improved genomospecies discrimination.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2021 Feb 20;44(3):126187. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

Although at least two genetically distinct groups, or genomospecies, have been well documented for Campylobacter concisus, no phenotype has yet been identified for their differentiation and thus formal description as separate species. C. concisus has been isolated from a variety of sites in the human body, including saliva and stool samples from both healthy and diarrhoeic individuals. Read More

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February 2021

Binary surrogate endpoints in clinical trials from the perspective of case definitions.

Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

1Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medicine Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

Introduction: Surrogate endpoints are widely used in clinical trials, especially in situations where the endpoint of interest is not directly observable or to avoid long trial periods. A typical example for this case is frequently found in clinical trials in oncology, where overall survival (OS) as endpoint of interest and progression free survival (PFS) as surrogate endpoint are discriminated.

Methods: Based on the perspective of case definitions on surrogate endpoints, we provide a formal definition of such endpoints followed by a description of the structure of surrogate endpoints. Read More

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