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Importance of local non-fossil sources to carbonaceous aerosols at the eastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau, China: ΔC and δC evidences.

Environ Pollut 2022 Aug 11:119858. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Research Applications Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 80301, USA.

Carbonaceous particles are an important radiative forcing agent in the atmosphere, with large temporal and spatial variations in their concentrations and compositions, especially in remote regions. This study reported the ΔC and δC of total carbon (TC) and water-insoluble particulate carbon (IPC) of the total suspended particles (TSP) and PM at a remote site of the eastern Tibetan Plateau (TP), a region that is influenced by heavy air pollution from Southwest China. The average organic carbon and elemental carbon concentrations of TSP samples in this study were 3. Read More

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Revealing the role of liquid preordering in crystallisation of supercooled liquids.

Nat Commun 2022 Aug 4;13(1):4519. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of Fundamental Engineering, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8505, Japan.

The recent discovery of non-classical crystal nucleation pathways has revealed the role of fluctuations in the liquid structural order, not considered in classical nucleation theory. On the other hand, classical crystal growth theory states that crystal growth is independent of interfacial energy, but this is questionable. Here we elucidate the role of liquid structural ordering in crystal nucleation and growth using computer simulations of supercooled liquids. Read More

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Awareness regarding Teledentistry among Dental Professionals in Malaysia.

Biomed Res Int 2022 20;2022:3750556. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Orthodontics, Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Sakaka, Al Jouf 72345, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Teledentistry is considered to be a technological advancement in providing dental care to patients while effectively addressing the time management. Furthermore, the pandemic of COVID-19 has been here for quite long now, forcing the dental practitioners to ponder upon other methods of healthcare delivery apart from the traditional in-office direct clinical examination. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of dental professionals of Malaysia regarding teledentistry, which can act as a future pedestal for improvements in virtual dental practice and patient care. Read More

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Enhanced simulated early 21st century Arctic sea ice loss due to CMIP6 biomass burning emissions.

Sci Adv 2022 Jul 27;8(30):eabo2405. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA.

The mechanisms underlying decadal variability in Arctic sea ice remain actively debated. Here, we show that variability in boreal biomass burning (BB) emissions strongly influences simulated Arctic sea ice on multidecadal time scales. In particular, we find that a strong acceleration in sea ice decline in the early 21st century in the Community Earth System Model version 2 (CESM2) is related to increased variability in prescribed BB emissions in the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) through summertime aerosol-cloud interactions. Read More

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China's logistics green competitiveness promotion path: a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Library of Hebei University of Engineering, No. 19 Taiji Road, Handan Economic and Technological Development Zone, 056038, Hebei, People's Republic of China.

Increasingly serious environmental problems are forcing many industries to gradually turn to green development, and green competitiveness has become the vision of policymakers and industry practitioners. The impact of the development of the logistics industry on the environment cannot be ignored, but the promotion path of its green competitiveness has not been fully studied. Based on Porter's diamond model, this study uses fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to explore the condition configuration of the logistics industry in 30 provincial regions in mainland China to enhance green competitiveness and effectively combine theory with practice. Read More

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Realism of Lagrangian Large Eddy Simulations Driven by Reanalysis Meteorology: Tracking a Pocket of Open Cells Under a Biomass Burning Aerosol Layer.

J Adv Model Earth Syst 2021 Dec 25;13(12):e2021MS002664. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Chemical Sciences Laboratory Boulder CO USA.

An approach to drive Lagrangian large eddy simulation (LES) of boundary layer clouds with reanalysis data is presented and evaluated using satellite (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager, SEVIRI) and aircraft (Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Interactions and Forcing, CLARIFY) measurements. The simulations follow trajectories of the boundary layer flow. They track the formation and evolution of a pocket of open cells (POC) underneath a biomass burning aerosol layer in the free troposphere. Read More

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December 2021

A Poisson scaling approach to backward wave propagation in a tube.

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2022 Sep 18;380(2231):20210386. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Faculty of Engineering and Science, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, Aalborg 9220, Denmark.

A mathematical analysis of wave propagation along an elastic cylindrical tube is presented, with the aim of determining the range of Poisson's ratio for which backward wave propagation (i.e. at negative group velocity) can occur near the ring frequency. Read More

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September 2022

Role of tropical lower stratosphere winds in quasi-biennial oscillation disruptions.

Sci Adv 2022 Jul 6;8(27):eabm7229. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.

In 2016, the westerly quasi-biennial oscillation (WQBO) in the equatorial stratosphere was unprecedentedly disrupted by westward forcing near 40 hPa; this was followed by another disruption in 2020. Strong extratropical Rossby waves propagating toward the tropics were considered the main cause of the disruptions, but why the zonal wind is reversed only in the middle of the WQBO remains unclear. Here, we show that strong westerly winds in the equatorial lower stratosphere (70 to 100 hPa) help to disrupt the WQBO by hindering the wind reversal at its base. Read More

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Quantifying the importance of day length in process-based models for the prediction of temperate spring flowering phenology.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 18;843:156780. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Interdisciplinary Program in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; National Center for Agrometeorology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Research Institute for Agricultural and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Owing to climate change and frequent extreme weather events, changes in spring flowering phenology have been observed in temperate forests. The flowering time response to climate change is divergent among species and is difficult to predict due to the complexity of flowering mechanisms. To compare the effects of spring warming, winter chilling, and day length on spring flowering time, we evaluated eight process-based models (two types of forcing models, two types of chilling-forcing models, and four models with the effect of day length added to the aforementioned four models). Read More

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Global pattern of soil priming effect intensity and its environmental drivers.

Ecology 2022 Jun 19:e3790. Epub 2022 Jun 19.

College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

The microbial priming effect-the decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) induced by plant inputs-has long been considered an important driver of SOC dynamics, yet we have limited understanding about the direction, intensity, and drivers of priming across ecosystem types and biomes. This gap hinders our ability to predict how shifts in litter inputs under global change can affect climate feedbacks. Here, we synthesized 18,919 observations of CO effluxes in 802 soils across the globe to test the relative effects (i. Read More

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Evolution of light absorption properties during photochemical aging of straw open burning aerosols.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 2;838(Pt 3):156431. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Straw burning comprises more than 30% of all types of burned biomass in Asia, while the estimation of the emitted aerosols' direct radiative forcing effect suffers from large uncertainties, especially when atmospheric aging processes are considered. In this study, the light absorption properties of primary and aged straw burning aerosols in open fire were characterized at 7 wavelengths ranging from 370 nm to 950 nm in a chamber. The primary rice, corn and wheat straw burning bulk aerosols together had a mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of 2. Read More

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September 2022

Lowering the rate of timber harvesting to mitigate impacts of climate change on boreal caribou habitat quality in eastern Canada.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 28;838(Pt 3):156244. Epub 2022 May 28.

Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, 1055 rue du P.E.P.S., P.O. Box 10380, Stn. Sainte-Foy, Québec, Québec G1V 4C7, Canada.

Many boreal populations of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) have declined in Canada, a trend essentially driven by the increasing footprint of anthropogenic disturbances and the resulting habitat-mediated apparent competition that increases predation pressure. However, the influence of climate change on these ecological processes remains poorly understood. We evaluated how climate change will affect boreal caribou habitat over the 2030-2100 horizon and in a 9. Read More

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September 2022

Distribution and Oxidation Rates of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea Influenced by the Coastal Upwelling off Eastern Hainan Island.

Microorganisms 2022 Apr 30;10(5). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

CAS Key Laboratory for Experimental Study under Deep-Sea Extreme Conditions, Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China.

Coastal upwelling causes variations in temperature, salinity and inorganic nutrients in the water column, consequently leading to the shift of microbial populations and their metabolic activities. Impacts of the eastern Hainan upwelling (EHU) on the ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated based on the gene using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR at both DNA and cDNA levels, together with the determination of the ammonia oxidation (AO) rate measured with N-labelled ammonium. By comparing stations with and without upwelling influence, we found that coastal upwelling correlated with an increase in gene abundance, the dominance of distinct clades for AOA communities at the respective gene and transcript levels, and a large increase in the proportion of the SCM1-like (-like) cluster as well. Read More

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Reactive halogens increase the global methane lifetime and radiative forcing in the 21st century.

Nat Commun 2022 May 19;13(1):2768. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate, Institute of Physical Chemistry Rocasolano, CSIC, Madrid, 28006, Spain.

CH is the most abundant reactive greenhouse gas and a complete understanding of its atmospheric fate is needed to formulate mitigation policies. Current chemistry-climate models tend to underestimate the lifetime of CH, suggesting uncertainties in its sources and sinks. Reactive halogens substantially perturb the budget of tropospheric OH, the main CH loss. Read More

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Cognition and Its Shaping Effect on Sexual Conflict: Integrating Biology and Psychology.

Front Integr Neurosci 2022 18;16:826304. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Ecology and Evolution, Amsterdam Institute for Life and Environment (A-LIFE), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

While genetic variation is of crucial importance for organisms to be able to adapt to their ever-changing environments over generations, cognitive processes can serve the same purpose by acting at shorter time scales. Cognition, and its resulting behaviour, allows animals to display flexible, fast and reversible responses that, without implying a genetic change, are crucial for adaptation and survival. In the research field on sexual conflict, where studies focus on male and female mating strategies that increase the individual's reproductive fitness while forcing a cost on the partner, the role that cognition may play in how such strategies can be optimised has been widely overlooked. Read More

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A research and development roadmap to support applications of the enhanced BIOMASS methodology.

J Radiol Prot 2022 04 26;42(2). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Quintessa Limited, Videcom House, Newtown Road, Henley-on-Thames RG9 1HG, United Kingdom.

The International Atomic Energy Agency has coordinated an international project addressing enhancements of methods for modelling the biosphere in post-closure safety assessments of solid radioactive waste disposal. This has resulted in the enhanced BIOMASS methodology that is described elsewhere in this special issue. To a large degree, the enhancements to the BIOMASS methodology arose from experience gained in applying the original methodology, both in the context of other international projects and in assessments of existing or proposed disposal facilities for solid radioactive wastes. Read More

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Low-Resolution Precoding for Multi-Antenna Downlink Channels and OFDM.

Entropy (Basel) 2022 Apr 4;24(4). Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Institute for Communications Engineering, Technical University of Munich (TUM), 80333 Munich, Germany.

Downlink precoding is considered for multi-path multi-input single-output channels where the base station uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and low-resolution signaling. A quantized coordinate minimization (QCM) algorithm is proposed and its performance is compared to other precoding algorithms including squared infinity-norm relaxation (SQUID), multi-antenna greedy iterative quantization (MAGIQ), and maximum safety margin precoding. MAGIQ and QCM achieve the highest information rates and QCM has the lowest complexity measured in the number of multiplications. Read More

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Closed-Form Power Normalization Methods for a Satellite MIMO System.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Mar 28;22(7). Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Antenna and Sub-Millimetre Waves Section, European Space Agency, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.

The paper proposes a new set of normalization techniques for precoding/beamforming matrices applicable to broadband multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) satellite systems. The proposed techniques adapt known normalization methods to account for the signal attenuation experienced by users due to the degradation of antenna gain and free space losses towards the edge of the coverage. We use, as an example, an array-fed reflector (AFR) antenna onboard a satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO), which provides a favorable trade-off between high-directivity, reconfigurability, and the requirement for digital processing, but suffers from high scan losses away from broadside due to optical aberrations when considered for global coverage applications. Read More

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The Silver Generation in the labor market: Work and time management of the 65+ age group in North-Eastern Hungary.

J Women Aging 2022 Mar 24:1-24. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

The investigation of the labor market challenges generated by an aging society is currently one of the central subjects of international academic literature. Previous research mostly analyzed the labor market participation of people aged between 55 and 65. However, as the raising of the retirement age is on the agenda in several European countries, the ability and willingness of the 65+ age group to work has become a key issue. Read More

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Projected Aerosol Changes Driven by Emissions and Climate Change Using a Machine Learning Method.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 04 16;56(7):3884-3893. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China.

Projection of future aerosols and understanding the driver of the aerosol changes are of great importance in improving the atmospheric environment and climate change mitigation. The latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) provides various climate projections but limited aerosol output. In this study, future near-surface aerosol concentrations from 2015 to 2100 are predicted based on a machine learning method. Read More

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A spectrum of preferential flow alters solute mobility in soils.

Sci Rep 2022 03 11;12(1):4261. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 185 Ag Quad Lane, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA.

Preferential flow reduces water residence times and allows rapid transport of pollutants such as organic contaminants. Thus, preferential flow is considered to reduce the influence of soil matrix-solute interactions during solute transport. While this claim may be true when rainfall directly follows solute application, forcing rapid chemical and physical disequilibrium, it has been perpetuated as a general feature of solute transport-regardless of the magnitude preferential flow. Read More

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A Mixed-Methods Study of Creative Problem Solving and Psychosocial Safety Climate: Preparing Engineers for the Future of Work.

Front Psychol 2021 18;12:759226. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Australian Industrial Transformation Institute, College of Business, Government and Law, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

The future of work is forcing the world to adjust to a new paradigm of working. New skills will be required to create and adopt new technology and working methods. Additionally, cognitive skills, particularly , will be highly sought after. Read More

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February 2022

A comparative study of two-way and offline coupled WRF v3.4 and CMAQ v5.0.2 over the contiguous US: performance evaluation and impacts of chemistry-meteorology feedbacks on air quality.

Geosci Model Dev 2021 Nov;14(11):7189-7221

School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.

The two-way coupled Weather Research and Forecasting and Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model has been developed to more realistically represent the atmosphere by accounting for complex chemistry-meteorology feedbacks. In this study, we present a comparative analysis of two-way (with consideration of both aerosol direct and indirect effects) and offline coupled WRF v3.4 and CMAQ v5. Read More

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November 2021

An alternate approach to simulate the dynamics of perturbed liquid drops.

Chaos 2022 Feb;32(2):023106

Centro de Investigación en Ciencias-(IICBA), UAEM, Avenida Universidad 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

Liquid drops when subjected to external periodic perturbations can execute polygonal oscillations. In this work, a simple model is presented that demonstrates these oscillations and their characteristic properties. The model consists of a spring-mass network such that masses are analogous to liquid molecules and the springs correspond to intermolecular links. Read More

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February 2022

Gibbs Sampling Detection for Large MIMO and MTC Uplinks with Adaptive Modulation.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Feb 9;22(4). Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Instituto de Telecomunicações, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal.

Wireless networks beyond 5G will mostly be serving myriads of sensors and other machine-type communications (MTC), with each device having different requirements in respect to latency, error rate, energy consumption, spectral efficiency or other specifications. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems remain a central technology towards 6G, and in cases where massive antenna arrays or cell-free networks are not possible to deploy and only moderately large antenna arrays are allowed, the detection problem at the base-station cannot rely on zero-forcing or matched filters and more complex detection schemes have to be used. The main challenge is to find low complexity, hardware feasible methods that are able to attain near optimal performance. Read More

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February 2022

Financial stress among skin cancer patients: a cross-sectional review of the 2013-2018 National Health Interview Survey.

Arch Dermatol Res 2022 Feb 22. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Financial stress among skin cancer patients may limit treatment efficacy by forcing the postponement of care or decreasing adherence to dermatologist recommendations. Limited information is available quantifying the anxiety experienced by skin cancer patients from both healthcare and non-healthcare factors. Therefore, the present study sought to perform a retrospective cross-sectional review of the 2013-2018 cycles of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to determine the prevalence, at-risk groups, and predictive factors of skin cancer patient financial stress. Read More

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February 2022

Harvesting Light from BaHfO/Eu through Ultraviolet, X-ray, and Heat Stimulation: An Optically Multifunctional Perovskite.

ACS Omega 2022 Feb 1;7(6):5311-5323. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India.

Materials with optical multifunctionality such as photoluminescence (PL), radioluminescence, and thermoluminescence (TL) are a boon for a sustainable society. BaHfO (barium hafnium oxide [BHO]) under UV irradiation demonstrated visible PL endowed by oxygen vacancies (OVs). Eu doping in BHO (BHOE) introduces f-state impurity levels just below the conduction band for both [email protected] and [email protected] sites, causing efficient host-to-dopant energy transfer, generating intense D → F magnetic dipole transitions (MDT) with internal quantum yield of ∼70%. Read More

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February 2022

Inhibition of Nigral Microglial Activation Reduces Age-Related Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons and Motor Deficits.

Cells 2022 01 30;11(3). Epub 2022 Jan 30.

Taiwan International Graduate Program in Interdisciplinary Neuroscience, National Cheng Kung University and Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease caused by a selective loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Microglial activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. This study aimed to characterize the role of microglial activation in aging-related nigral DA neuron loss and motor deficits in mice. Read More

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January 2022

Opportunistic experiments to constrain aerosol effective radiative forcing.

Atmos Chem Phys 2022 Jan 17;22(1):641-674. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PU, UK.

Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACIs) are considered to be the most uncertain driver of present-day radiative forcing due to human activities. The nonlinearity of cloud-state changes to aerosol perturbations make it challenging to attribute causality in observed relationships of aerosol radiative forcing. Using correlations to infer causality can be challenging when meteorological variability also drives both aerosol and cloud changes independently. Read More

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January 2022

Frequency dependence and the predictability of evolution in a changing environment.

Evol Lett 2022 Feb 20;6(1):21-33. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

CEFE, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD Montpellier 34090 France.

Frequency-dependent (FD) selection, whereby fitness and selection depend on the genetic or phenotypic composition of the population, arises in numerous ecological contexts (competition, mate choice, crypsis, mimicry, etc.) and can strongly impact evolutionary dynamics. In particular, negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) is well known for its ability to potentially maintain stable polymorphisms, but it has also been invoked as a source of persistent, predictable frequency fluctuations. Read More

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February 2022