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Effects of load mass and position on the dynamic loading of the knees, shoulders and lumbar spine during lifting: a musculoskeletal modelling approach.

Appl Ergon 2021 Jun 11;96:103491. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Materials and Production, Aalborg University, Fibigerstræde 16, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark. Electronic address:

Musculoskeletal models may enhance our understanding of the dynamic loading of the joints during manual material handling. This study used state-of-the-art musculoskeletal models to determine the effects of load mass, asymmetry angle, horizontal location and deposit height on the dynamic loading of the knees, shoulders and lumbar spine during lifting. Recommended weight limits and lifting indices were also calculated using the NIOSH lifting equation. Read More

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Effect of COVID-19 on control of T1DM patients in Aseer region of Saudi Arabia.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1737-1740. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Pediatric Endocrinologist, King Faisal Medical City, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The novel corona virus disease, also known as COVID-19, has emerged as a major health concern globally. Its association with comorbid condition has increased its mortality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased risk of infection in comparison to general population. Read More

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Capturing the anorexia nervosa phenotype: Conceptual and normative issues in ICD-11.

Authors:
Jennifer Radden

J Eval Clin Pract 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Philosophy Department, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: ICD-11's diagnostic definition possesses conceptual lacunae and normative implications calling for further attention.

Method: Assumptions underlying it and their ethical implications, are examined employing philosophical analysis; particularly, these are (1) changes to eliminate implications of voluntary agency to caloric restriction; (2) definitions of "dangerously low weight;" and (3) disorder boundaries as stated in qualifications and exclusions.

Results: (1) The extent to which AN behaviour can be acknowledged to be driven by forces out of, or limiting, voluntary control is unresolved; this is illustrated using the contested part played by excessive exercise, clarification of which requires understanding of AN motivation. Read More

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Dietary Intakes From Ad Libitum Consumption of Canadian Armed Forces Field Rations Compared With Usual Home Dietary Intakes and Military Dietary Reference Intakes.

Mil Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, CA M5S 1A8, Canada.

Introduction: Diet has an impact on weight status, health, and physical performance. Assessing the usual at-home dietary intakes of military personnel can help ascertain their nutritional status before field training or operations. Preference for foods consumed on a routine basis can also impact the military's preference for and consumption of field rations. Read More

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Effects of additional load at different heights on gait initiation: A statistical parametric mapping of center of pressure and center of mass behavior.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0242892. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Physical Education Department, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different vertical positions of an asymmetrical load on the anticipatory postural adjustments phase of gait initiation. Sixty-eight college students (32 males, 36 females; age: 23.65 ± 3. Read More

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Mechanical Efficiency Investigation of an Ankle-assisted Robot for Human Walking with a Backpack-Load.

J Biomech Eng 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Shien-ming Wu School of Intelligent Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 511442, P.R. China.

The purpose of this work is to investigate the efficiency of wearable assistive devices under different load-carried walking. We designed an experimental platform, with a lightweight ankle-assisted robot. Eight subjects were tested in three experimental conditions: free walk with load (FWL), power-off with load (POFL), and power-on with load (PONF) for different levels of force at a walking speed of 3. Read More

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Impact of a personalized mHealth program for type 2 diabetes mellitus during the COVID-19 pandemic: single-group pre-post retrospective analysis.

JMIR Diabetes 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

NOVI Health, Singapore, SG.

Background: With increasing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence, there is a need for effective programs that support diabetes management and improve T2DM outcomes. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have shown promising results. With advances in wearable sensors and improved integration, mHealth programs could become more accessible and personalized. Read More

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Intermittent Fasting: Can It Help Optimize Human Performance?

J Spec Oper Med 2021 ;21(2):92-97

Nutritional fitness is a key goal of every Special Operations Forces (SOF) Operator, and nutrition is one way of potentially gaining a necessary edge. Although fad diets are popular among SOF Operators, many have no evidence with regard to military-specific tasks. One fad diet-intermittent fasting (IF)-is clearly the rage across the United States (US) and popular as a dietary pattern. Read More

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Using a simple rope-pulley system that mechanically couples the arms, legs, and treadmill reduces the metabolic cost of walking.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 Jun 7;18(1):96. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Center for Neuromotor and Biomechanics Research, University of Houston, 3875 Holman St., Rm 104 Garrison, Houston, TX, 77204-6015, USA.

Background: Emphasizing the active use of the arms and coordinating them with the stepping motion of the legs may promote walking recovery in patients with impaired lower limb function. Yet, most approaches use seated devices to allow coupled arm and leg movements. To provide an option during treadmill walking, we designed a rope-pulley system that physically links the arms and legs. Read More

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Generic scaled versus subject-specific models for the calculation of musculoskeletal loading in cerebral palsy gait: Effect of personalized musculoskeletal geometry outweighs the effect of personalized neural control.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 Jun 1;87:105402. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Human Movement Biomechanics Research Group, KU Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Musculoskeletal modelling is used to assess musculoskeletal loading during gait. Linear scaling methods are used to personalize generic models to each participant's anthropometry. This approach introduces simplifications, especially when used in paediatric and/or pathological populations. Read More

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Sodium hyaluronate supplemented culture medium combined with joint-simulating mechanical loading improves chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

Eur Cell Mater 2021 06 6;41:616-632. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

AO Research Institute Davos, Davos,

In vitro models aim to recapitulate the in vivo situation. To more closely mimic the knee joint environment, current in vitro models need improvements to reflect the complexity of the native tissue. High molecular weight hyaluronan (hMwt HA) is one of the most abundant bioactive macromolecules in healthy synovial fluid, while shear and dynamic compression are two joint-relevant mechanical forces. Read More

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SPORT CLASSES AS EFFECTIVE MEANS FOR PSYCHOPHYSICAL HEALTH IMPROVEMENT OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE SECURITY AND DEFENSE SECTOR.

Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(5):1142-1176

ODESA MILITARY ACADEMY, ODESA, UKRAINE.

Objective: The aim: Is to investigate the influence of sport classes on the psychophysical health of Ukrainian Armed Forces' servicemen.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: The level of servicemen's health was estimated according to the professor Apanasenko's methodology based on the anthropometric and functional indicators. In the research there were 120 cadets aged 18 to 22 from Odesa Military Academy. Read More

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Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among the tribal populations in India.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0251519. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Communicable Diseases (ECD), Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

Importance: There is no concrete evidence on the burden of TB among the tribal populations across India except for few studies mainly conducted in Central India with a pooled estimation of 703/100,000 with a high degree of heterogeneity.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of TB among the tribal populations in India.

Design, Participants, Setting: A survey using a multistage cluster sampling design was conducted between April 2015 and March 2020 covering 88 villages (clusters) from districts with over 70% tribal majority populations in 17 States across 6 zones of India. Read More

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Osteotomies around the knee lead to corresponding frontal realignment of the ankle.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department for Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, BG Klinik, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Introduction: Despite the fact that osteotomies around the knee represent well-established treatment options for the redistribution of loads and forces within and around the knee joint, unforeseen effects of these osteotomies on the ankle are still to be better understood. It was therefore the aim of this study to determine the influence of osteotomies around the knee on the coronal alignment of the ankle. We hypothesize that osteotomies around the knee for correction of genu varum or valgum lead to a change of the ankle orientation in the frontal plane by valgisation or varisation. Read More

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Effect of asymmetrical buttock pressure on forces exerted in buttock movement when using a reclining chair.

J Phys Ther Sci 2021 May 15;33(5):401-405. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Physical Therapy, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare: 288 Matsushima, Kurashiki, Okayama 701-0193, Japan.

[Purpose] To clarify the effect of asymmetrical buttock pressure on the shear forces exerted on a buttock. [Participants and Methods] Sixteen healthy adult males participated in this study. A cushion 0 or 2 cm high was placed on the left side of the seat for all participants. Read More

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Preparatory Knee Flexion-Extension Movements Enhance Rapid Sidestepping Performance in Collegiate Basketball Players.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 17;3:670649. Epub 2021 May 17.

College of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Japan.

Lower-limb weight-bearing load distribution in stationary standing influences the timing of rapid first step initiation of importance for functional movement activities and agility performance in sports. This study investigated the effect of pre-step lower-limb loading and unloading with preparatory knee flexion-extension movements on sidestepping performance in fifteen male collegiate basketball players. Participants performed two-choice (step limb) reaction time sidestepping under two conditions: without preparatory movements before the go cue (no-prep-NP) and with continuous alternating knee extension and flexion movements (prep-P). Read More

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Development of Prototype Low-Cost QTSS™ Wearable Flexible More Enviro-Friendly Pressure, Shear, and Friction Sensors for Dynamic Prosthetic Fit Monitoring.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 28;21(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Lusstech, NETpark, Thomas Wright Way, Sedgefield TS21 3FD, UK.

There is a current healthcare need for improved prosthetic socket fit provision for the masses using low-cost and simple to manufacture sensors that can measure pressure, shear, and friction. There is also a need to address society's increasing concerns regarding the environmental impact of electronics and IoT devices. Prototype thin, low-cost, and low-weight pressure, shear, and loss of friction sensors have been developed and assembled for trans-femoral amputees. Read More

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A Symmetric Three Degree of Freedom Tensegrity Mechanism with Dual Operation Modes for Robot Actuation.

Biomimetics (Basel) 2021 May 18;6(2). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Electronic Engineering, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK.

Tensegrity robots that use bio-inspired structures have many superior properties over conventional robots with regard to strength, weight, compliance and robustness, which are indispensable to planetary exploration and harsh environment applications. Existing research has presented various tensegrity robots with abundant capabilities in broad scenarios but mostly not focused on articulation and manipulability. In this paper, we propose a novel tensegrity mechanism for robot actuation which greatly improves the agility and efficiency compared with existing ones. Read More

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Carbocycle-Based Organogelators: Influence of Chirality and Structural Features on Their Supramolecular Arrangements and Properties.

Authors:
Rosa M Ortuño

Gels 2021 May 1;7(2). Epub 2021 May 1.

Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

The rational design and engineer of organogel-based smart materials and stimuli-responsive materials with tuned properties requires the control of the non-covalent forces driving the hierarchical self-assembly. Chirality, as well as relative configuration, also plays a crucial role promoting the morphology and characteristics of the aggregates. Cycloalkane derivatives can provide chiral chemical platforms allowing the incorporation of functional groups and hydrophobic structural units able for a convenient molecular stacking leading to gels. Read More

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Purification and characterization of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptide derived from Alaska pollack skins.

J Food Sci 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, PR China.

Hydrolysates containing angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptide were prepared from protein of Alaska pollack skins using alcalase and trypsin. The protein hydrolysate was separated by ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), from which a novel purified peptide was obtained. Both random coil structure and β-sheet in the purified peptide were revealed in Fourier transform infrared spectrum. Read More

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Postural organization and inter-limb coordination are altered after stroke when an isometric maximum bilateral pushing effort of the upper limbs is performed.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 Jun 23;86:105388. Epub 2021 May 23.

École de réadaptation, Faculté de médecine, Université de Montréal, Pavillon du Parc, Bureau 402-18, C.P.6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada; Laboratoire de pathokinésiologie, Institut universitaire sur la réadaptation en déficience physique de Montréal-Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire en réadaptation du Montréal métropolitain, 6300 avenue Darlington, Montréal, QC H3S 2J4, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Postural strategies of the trunk and the lower limbs are linked to upper limb motor activities. The objective was to analyze the postural organization at the lower limbs as well as the inter-limb coordination during isometric maximal bilateral pushing of upper limbs.

Methods: Fifteen individuals after stroke and 17 healthy participants were assessed with an instrumented exerciser paired with an instrumented sitting surface while they executed isometric bilateral pushes with the upper limbs. Read More

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Embodiment of intra-abdominal pressure in a flexible multibody model of the trunk and the spinal unloading effects during static lifting tasks.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

The role of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in spinal load reduction has remained controversial, partly because previous musculoskeletal models did not introduce the pressure generating mechanism. In this study, an integrated computational methodology is proposed to combine the IAP change with core muscle activations. An ideal gas relationship was introduced to calculate pressure distribution within the abdominal cavity. Read More

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Multimodal cues facilitate ripe-fruit localization and extraction in free-ranging pteropodid bats.

Behav Processes 2021 May 25;189:104426. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu, 636011, India. Electronic address:

Sensory cues play an important role in any plant-animal interaction. Yet, we know very little about the cues used by wild mammals during fruit selection. Existing evidence mainly comes from captive studies and suggests that the pteropodid bats rely on olfaction to find fruits. Read More

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Clinical efficacy of Curcuvet and Boswellic acid combined with conventional nutraceutical product: An aid to canine osteoarthritis.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(5):e0252279. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

Introduction: Osteoarthritis is a progressive degenerative joint disease which is high prevalent in dogs. In the late stage of the disease, it determines chronic neuropathic pain which leads to reduced quality-of-life in affected patients. To date it has not yet been identified a specific treatment, but it has been proved that nutraceutical and dietary supplements may play an important role in controlling inflammation and pain. Read More

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Electrostatic bellow muscle actuators and energy harvesters that stack up.

Sci Robot 2021 Feb;6(51)

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

Future robotic systems will be pervasive technologies operating autonomously in unknown spaces that are shared with humans. Such complex interactions make it compulsory for them to be lightweight, soft, and efficient in a way to guarantee safety, robustness, and long-term operation. Such a set of qualities can be achieved using soft multipurpose systems that combine, integrate, and commute between conventional electromechanical and fluidic drives, as well as harvest energy during inactive actuation phases for increased energy efficiency. Read More

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February 2021

Hovering flight in hummingbird hawkmoths: kinematics, wake dynamics and aerodynamic power.

J Exp Biol 2021 May 27;224(10). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Biology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden.

Hovering insects are divided into two categories: 'normal' hoverers that move the wing symmetrically in a horizontal stroke plane, and those with an inclined stroke plane. Normal hoverers have been suggested to support their weight during both downstroke and upstroke, shedding vortex rings each half-stroke. Insects with an inclined stroke plane should, according to theory, produce flight forces only during downstroke, and only generate one set of vortices. Read More

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Experimental assessment of a linear actuator driven by magnetorheological clutches for automotive active suspensions.

J Intell Mater Syst Struct 2021 May 11;32(9):955-970. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Créatek, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

The main functions of automotive suspensions are to improve passenger comfort as well as vehicle dynamic performance. Simultaneously satisfying these functions is not possible because they require opposing suspension adjustments. This fundamental design trade-off can be solved with an active suspension system providing real-time modifications of the suspension behavior and vehicle attitude corrections. Read More

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A robotized handheld smart tool for orthopedic surgery.

Int J Med Robot 2021 May 25:e2289. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Biomechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Handheld surgical robots offer functionalities, such as active guidance, tremor suppression and force reflection, for surgeons to enhance their skill in manipulating surgical tools during medical intervention. In orthopaedic surgery, the robot additionally has to offer sufficient rigidity and power for bone machining. The size and weight of the mechanical design, together with the control behaviour associated with involuntary hand motion, navigation and reflected force to the human, all influence the overall performance of an orthopaedic handheld robot. Read More

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Optimal conditions for graft survival and reinnervation of denervated muscles after embryonic motoneuron transplantation into peripheral nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Hand Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Motoneuron transplantation into peripheral nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration may have applications in treating diseases causing muscle paralysis. We investigated whether functional reinnervation of denervated muscle could be achieved by early or delayed transplantation after denervation. Adult rats were assigned to six groups with increasing denervation periods (0, 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks) before inoculation with culture medium containing (transplantation group) or lacking (surgical control group) dissociated embryonic motoneurons into the peroneal nerve. Read More

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