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Cocktail strategy for 'cold' tumors therapy via active recruitment of CD8+ T cells and enhancing their function.

J Control Release 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

In immunotherapy, 'cold' tumors, with low T cells infiltration, hardly benefit from the treatment of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). To address this issue, we screened two 'cold' tumor models for mice with high expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3) and designed a cocktail strategy to actively recruit CD8+ T cells into the tumor microenvironment (TME), which reversed 'cold' tumors into 'hot' and remarkably elevated their ICIs-responsiveness. Gal-3, an important driving force of tumorigenesis, inhibits T cell infiltration into tumor tissue that shapes 'cold' tumor phenotype, and promotes tumor metastasis. Read More

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Intestinal microbiota influences clinical outcome and side effects of early breast cancer treatment.

Cell Death Differ 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Gustave Roussy Cancer Center, Villejuif, France.

The prognosis of early breast cancer (BC) relies on cell autonomous and immune parameters. The impact of the intestinal microbiome on clinical outcome has not yet been evaluated. Shotgun metagenomics was used to determine the composition of the fecal microbiota in 121 specimens from 76 early BC patients, 45 of whom were paired before and after chemotherapy. Read More

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Shear Wave Elastography: A Review on the Confounding Factors and Their Potential Mitigation in Detecting Chronic Kidney Disease.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biomedical Imaging, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Department of Biomedical Imaging, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Early detection of chronic kidney disease is important to prevent progression of irreversible kidney damage, reducing the need for renal transplantation. Shear wave elastography is ideal as a quantitative imaging modality to detect chronic kidney disease because of its non-invasive nature, low cost and portability, making it highly accessible. However, the complexity of the kidney architecture and its tissue properties give rise to various confounding factors that affect the reliability of shear wave elastography in detecting chronic kidney disease, thus limiting its application to clinical trials. Read More

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Psychological Traits and the Persuasiveness of Lung Cancer Screening Health Messages.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Electronic address:

Background: Lung cancer screening remains underutilized despite its proven mortality benefit. Health systems have attempted to increase screening awareness through advertising. Psychological theories suggest that construal level (a personal orientation towards the big picture or the details) and regulatory focus (goals emphasizing acquisition of a good, or avoidance of a bad outcome) play a key role in health advertising effectiveness. Read More

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Chromosome-level genome of Himalayan yew provides insights into the origin and evolution of the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway.

Mol Plant 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Key Laboratory of Systems Microbial Biotechnology, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, 300308, China; National Center of Technology Innovation for Synthetic Biology, Tianjin, 300308, China.

Taxus, commonly known as yew, is a well-known gymnosperm with great ornamental and medicinal value. Here by assembling a chromosome-level genome of the Himalayan yew (Taxus wallichiana) with 10.9 Gb in 12 chromosomes, we revealed that the driving force of gene family evolution in the genome was tandem duplication, that not only clustered the main genes of taxadiene synthase, P450s and transferases for paclitaxel biosynthesis on the same chromosome, but also provided genetic resources for the nature to sculpture the core structure of taxoids at different positions and subsequently established the complex pathway of paclitaxel by neofunctionalization. Read More

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Imaging Dual-Moiré Lattices in Twisted Bilayer Graphene Aligned on Hexagonal Boron Nitride Using Microwave Impedance Microscopy.

Nano Lett 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, United States.

Moiré superlattices (MSLs) formed in van der Waals materials have become a promising platform to realize novel two-dimensional electronic states. Angle-aligned trilayer structures can form two sets of MSLs which could potentially interfere. In this work, we directly image the moiré patterns in both monolayer and twisted bilayer graphene aligned on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), using combined scanning microwave impedance microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy. Read More

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Direct laser writing for cardiac tissue engineering: a microfluidic heart on a chip with integrated transducers.

Lab Chip 2021 May;21(9):1724-1737

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. and Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA and Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

We have developed a microfluidic platform for engineering cardiac microtissues in highly-controlled microenvironments. The platform is fabricated using direct laser writing (DLW) lithography and soft lithography, and contains four separate devices. Each individual device houses a cardiac microtissue and is equipped with an integrated strain actuator and a force sensor. Read More

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Whole-body vibration training versus conventional balance training in patients with severe COPD-a randomized, controlled trial.

Respir Res 2021 May 4;22(1):138. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Philipps-University of Marburg, German Center for Lung Research, Malterhoeh 1, 83471 Schoenau Am Koenigssee, Marburg, Germany.

Background: Whole-body vibration training (WBV) performed on a vibration platform can significantly improve physical performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has been suggested that an important mechanism of this improvement is based on an improvement in balance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of WBV compared to conventional balance training. Read More

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Flexible integrated sensing platform for monitoring wound temperature and predicting infection.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710000, China.

Wound infection is a challenging clinical problem that imposes substantial economic and psychological burdens on patients. However, the wound covered by a dressing is in an 'unknown' state. Recently, researchers have focused on understanding the condition of the wound without removing the dressing. Read More

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Effects of hippotherapy on postural balance, functional mobility, self-perceived fatigue, and quality of life in people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Secondary results of an exploratory clinical trial.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Apr 20;52:102948. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Human Motion Analysis, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) results in worsening of postural balance, functional mobility, and self-perceived fatigue as influences of quality of life.

Objective: To examine the effects of hippotherapy on postural balance, functional mobility, self-perceived fatigue, and quality of life in people with MS.

Methods: Participants were assigned into a hippotherapy intervention group (n= 17) or a control group (n= 16). Read More

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Chitosan/hyaluronic acid based hollow microcapsules equipped with MXene/gold nanorods for synergistically enhanced near infrared responsive drug delivery.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Advanced Nylon Materials and Application, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China. Electronic address:

TiC MXenes, a novel two-dimensional material, have attracted lots of attention in biomedical filed for its large surface area and excellent near-infrared (NIR) responsiveness. In this paper, a pH/near-infrared (NIR) multi-responsive drug delivery platform consisted of hollow hydroxyapatite (HAP), chitosan (CS)/hyaluronic acid (HA) multilayers, gold nanorods (AuNRs) and MXene had been fabricated via a layer-by-layer (LbL) approach. Chitosan/hyaluronic acid multilayers were deposited on the surface of hollow HAP to retard the burst release of DOX in the initial delivery stage. Read More

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Beyond Color: The New Carbon Ink.

Adv Mater 2021 May 2:e2005890. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.

For thousands of years, carbon ink has been used as a black color pigment for writing and painting purposes. However, recent discoveries of nanocarbon materials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and their various derivative forms, together with the advances in large-scale synthesis, are enabling a whole new generation of carbon inks that can serve as an intrinsically programmable materials platform for developing advanced functionalities far beyond color. The marriage between these multifunctional nanocarbon inks with modern printing technologies is facilitating and even transforming many applications, including flexible electronics, wearable and implantable sensors, actuators, and autonomous robotics. Read More

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Estimating the "Pull" on a Pullthrough Wire: A Pilot Study.

EJVES Vasc Forum 2021 13;50:24-26. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Groupe Européen de Recherche sur les Prothèses appliquées à la Chirurgie Vasculaire, Strasbourg, France.

Objective: Pullthrough/body floss wires are used to track endovascular devices across tortuous aorto-iliac anatomy encountered during endovascular repair of abdominal or thoracic aortic aneurysms. The tension imparted on such wires is arbitrary and has never been quantified. This pilot study attempted to quantify the tension used to stiffen the floppy hydrophilic wires typically used in such a scenario. Read More

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January 2021

Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the regulatory mechanism of the gibberellic acid pathway of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) dwarf mutants.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Apr 30;21(1):206. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Bioengineering, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, 030801, Shanxi, China.

Background: Tartary buckwheat is an important minor crop species with high nutritional and medicinal value and is widely planted worldwide. Cultivated Tartary buckwheat plants are tall and have hollow stems that lodge easily, which severely affects their yield and hinders the development of the Tartary buckwheat industry.

Methods: Heifeng No. Read More

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The Lucerne Protocol for the Production of Autologous Serum Eyedrops.

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2021 Apr 30;238(4):346-348. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Augenklinik, Luzerner Kantonsspital, Luzern, Switzerland.

Background: There are a variety of protocols for manufacturing autologous serum (AS) eye drops. The Lucerne protocol for the production of AS eye drops uses a slightly reduced gravitational (g)-force and time for the centrifugation process (2500 × g for 10 minutes), compared to previously published optimised protocols, to obtain high levels of epitheliotropic growth factors (3000 × g for 15 minutes). The goal of this study was to compare the concentrations of growth factors, albumin and lysozyme in autologous serum eye drops manufactured with these protocols. Read More

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Critical Strain-Induced Photoresponse in Folded Graphene Superlattices.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

The Key Laboratory of Weak Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Teda Applied Physics Institute, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Strain engineering is the most effective method to break the symmetry of the graphene lattice and achieve graphene band gap tunability. However, a critical strain (>20%) is required to open the graphene band gap, and it is very difficult to achieve such a large strain. This limits the development of experimental research and optoelectronic devices based on graphene strain. Read More

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Computational Simulation of Exosome Transport in Tumor Microenvironment.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 13;8:643793. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

Cellular exosome-mediated crosstalk in tumor microenvironment (TME) is a critical component of anti-tumor immune responses. In addition to particle size, exosome transport and uptake by target cells is influenced by physical and physiological factors, including interstitial fluid pressure, and exosome concentration. These variables differ under both normal and pathological conditions, including cancer. Read More

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Heat Scanning for the Fabrication of Conductive Fibers.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Soft Energy Systems and Laser Applications Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea.

Conductive fibers are essential building blocks for implementing various functionalities in a textile platform that is highly conformable to mechanical deformation. In this study, two major techniques were developed to fabricate silver-deposited conductive fibers. First, a droplet-coating method was adopted to coat a nylon fiber with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs). Read More

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Assessment of Gait after Treatment of Tibial Nonunion with the Ilizarov Method.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 16;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Physiotherapy in Motor Disorders and Dysfunctions, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Al. IJ Paderewskiego 35, 51-612 Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: Tibial nonunion is a common bone union disorder leading to abnormal gait, and thus reducing quality of life in the social dimension.

Research Question: The aim of our work was to comprehensively assess gait parameters of patients who had undergone Ilizarov treatment for tibial nonunion compared to a control group of healthy individuals.

Methods: This study evaluated patients treated for aseptic tibial nonunion with the Ilizarov method. Read More

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High Throughput Virtual Screening and Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Identifying a Putative Inhibitor of Bacterial CTX-M-15.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Background: Multidrug resistant bacteria are a major therapeutic challenge. CTX-M-type enzymes are an important group of class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). ESBLs are the enzymes that arm bacterial pathogens with drug resistance to an array of antibiotics, notably the advanced-generation cephalosporins. Read More

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: Virtual Reality Mobile Application for Training in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Techniques.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;21(7). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Escuela Superior de Turismo, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México 07630, Mexico.

Deaths due to heart diseases are a leading cause of death in Mexico. Cardiovascular diseases are considered a public health problem because they produce cardiorespiratory arrests. During an arrest, cardiac and/or respiratory activity stops. Read More

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Ultrasound-assisted production and optimization of mini-emulsions in a microfluidic chip in continuous-flow.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Apr 15;74:105556. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratorio de Biofisicoquímica, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico. Electronic address:

The use of ultrasound to generate mini-emulsions (50 nm to 1 μm in diameter) and nanoemulsions (mean droplet diameter < 200 nm) is of great relevance in drug delivery, particle synthesis and cosmetic and food industries. Therefore, it is desirable to develop new strategies to obtain new formulations faster and with less reagent consumption. Here, we present a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic device that generates oil-in-water or water-in-oil mini-emulsions in continuous flow employing ultrasound as the driving force. Read More

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Individuals following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction practice underloading strategies during daily activity.

J Orthop Res 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Human Performance Laboratory, Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Underloading the surgical limb has been described in biomechanical studies across recovery time points following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr). This study aimed to examine the extent to which laboratory findings translate to daily activities. Limb loading was quantified during a sit-to-stand task in laboratory testing and throughout two days of daily activity in 15 individuals 114. Read More

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[Mirror-type rehabilitation training with dynamic adjustment and assistance for shoulder joint].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(2):351-360

Institute of Robot Information Perception and Control, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, P.R.China.

The real physical image of the affected limb, which is difficult to move in the traditional mirror training, can be realized easily by the rehabilitation robots. During this training, the affected limb is often in a passive state. However, with the gradual recovery of the movement ability, active mirror training becomes a better choice. Read More

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A 2D video-analysis scoring system of 90° change of direction technique identifies football players with high knee abduction moment.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

2nd Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Clinic, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: Abnormal joint biomechanics and poor neuromuscular control are modifiable risk factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury. Although 3D motion capture is the gold standard for the biomechanical evaluation of high-speed multidirectional movements, 2D video analysis is a growing-interest alternative because of its higher cost-effectiveness and interpretability. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible association between a 2D evaluation of a 90° change of direction (COD) and the KAM measured with gold standard 3D motion analysis. Read More

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Review on the Vascularization of Organoids and Organoids-on-a-hip.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 12;9:637048. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Cell Biology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The use of human cells for the construction of 3D organ models based on cell self-assembly and engineering design has recently increased in popularity in the field of biological science. Although the organoids are able to simulate the structures and functions of organs , the 3D models have difficulty in forming a complex vascular network that can recreate the interaction between tissue and vascular systems. Therefore, organoids are unable to survive, due to the lack of oxygen and nutrients, as well as the accumulation of metabolic waste. Read More

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The SE-AssessWrist for robot-aided assessment of wrist stiffness and range of motion: Development and experimental validation.

J Rehabil Assist Technol Eng 2021 Jan-Dec;8:2055668320985774. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Physical human-robot interaction offers a compelling platform for assessing recovery from neurological injury; however, robots currently used for assessment have typically been designed for the requirements of rehabilitation, not assessment. In this work, we present the design, control, and experimental validation of the SE-AssessWrist, which extends the capabilities of prior robotic devices to include complete wrist range of motion assessment in addition to stiffness evaluation.

Methods: The SE-AssessWrist uses a Bowden cable-based transmission in conjunction with series elastic actuation to increase device range of motion while not sacrificing torque output. Read More

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Escape dynamics of active particles in multistable potentials.

Nat Commun 2021 04 27;12(1):2446. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Rare transitions between long-lived metastable states underlie a great variety of physical, chemical and biological processes. Our quantitative understanding of reactive mechanisms has been driven forward by the insights of transition state theory and in particular by Kramers' dynamical framework. Its predictions, however, do not apply to systems that feature non-conservative forces or correlated noise histories. Read More

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Fluorescent sensor based on quantum dots and nano-porphyrin for highly sensitive and specific determination of ethyl carbamate in fermented food.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, P. R. China.

Background: Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a potentially toxic carcinogen produced during fermentation and storage of fermented foods, and many countries have set thresholds for its content in food. Therefore, sensitive, rapid and accurate detection of EC is meaningful to ensure the quality of fermented food.

Results: This study introduces a CdTe quantum dots/nano-5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-methoxyphenyl)-porphyrin (nano TPP-OCH ) fluorescence sensor system detection of EC. Read More

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Cell division in the archaeon Haloferax volcanii relies on two FtsZ proteins with distinct functions in division ring assembly and constriction.

Nat Microbiol 2021 May 26;6(5):594-605. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

The iThree Institute, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

In bacteria, the tubulin homologue FtsZ assembles a cytokinetic ring, termed the Z ring, and plays a key role in the machinery that constricts to divide the cells. Many archaea encode two FtsZ proteins from distinct families, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, with previously unclear functions. Here, we show that Haloferax volcanii cannot divide properly without either or both FtsZ proteins, but DNA replication continues and cells proliferate in alternative ways, such as blebbing and fragmentation, via remarkable envelope plasticity. Read More

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