124,740 results match your criteria food feeding


Trajectory of leptin and leptin receptor in vertebrates: Structure, function and their regulation.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jul 31:110652. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India. Electronic address:

The present review provides a comparative insight into structure, function and control of leptin system in fishes, herptiles, birds and mammals. In general, leptin acts as an anorexigenic hormone since its administration results in decrease of food intake in vertebrates. Nonetheless, functional paradox arises in fishes from contradictory observations on level of leptin during fasting and re-feeding. Read More

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Impact of maternal nutrition in viral infections during pregnancy.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jul 31:166231. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain; Epidemiología Clínica y Riesgo Cardiovascular, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBIS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas/Universidad de Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain.

Other than being a physiological process, pregnancy is a condition characterized by major adaptations of maternal endocrine and metabolic homeostasis that are necessary to accommodate the fetoplacental unit. Unfortunately, all these systemic, cellular, and molecular changes in maternal physiology also make the mother and the fetus more prone to adverse outcomes, including numerous alterations arising from viral infections. Common infections during pregnancy that have long been recognized as congenitally and perinatally transmissible to newborns include toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex viruses (originally coined as ToRCH infections). Read More

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Factors impacting on childhood nutrition: The experience of mothers in a rural Ghanaian community.

Appetite 2021 Jul 31:105617. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

The University of Manchester, England, UK.

Despite globally recommended infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, inadequate Child feeding remains a global challenge and the root cause of undernutrition. Most mothers who primarily feed children in most developing settings appear to have received information on the IYCF practices. We explored mothers' limitations to provide children optimally in a rural Ghanaian community. Read More

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Immunoreactive Response of Plast-MIPs to Fasting and Their Functional Role in the Reduction of Hemolymph Reducing Sugars in the Brown-Winged Green Bug, .

Zoolog Sci 2021 Aug;38(4):332-342

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043, Japan.

Animals survive nutrient deficiency by controlling their physiology, such as sugar metabolism and energy-consuming developmental events. Although research on the insect neural mechanisms of the starvation-induced modulation has progressed, the mechanisms have not been fully understood due to their complexity. Myoinhibitory peptides are known to be neuropeptides involved in various physiological activities, development, and behavior. Read More

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Phloridzin Ameliorates Lipid Deposition in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Mice with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Inhibiting the mTORC1/SREBP-1c Pathway.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China.

We aimed to investigate whether phloridzin could alleviate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice, which was induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD). We initially analyzed the effect of phloridzin on alleviating HFD-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice and oleic acid (OA)-stimulated human normal liver L-02 cells (L02). Then, we investigated the mechanism of phloridzin on the mTORC1/sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) signaling pathway by siRNA analysis, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis and . Read More

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Nutrient adequacy, dietary patterns and diet quality among children with and without intellectual disabilities.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) frequently have feeding problems, but there has been limited research on nutrient intake, dietary patterns and diet quality in this population.

Method: Nutrient intakes, dietary patterns and the Healthy Eating Index were compared between 48 children with ID and 55 typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years who participated in the Children's Mealtime Study. Three-day food records that included two weekdays and one weekend day were used to assess dietary intake. Read More

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The WeanCare nutritional intervention in institutionalized dysphagic older people and its impact on nursing workload and costs: a quasi-experimental study.

J Nurs Manag 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università degli Studi di Genova, Italy.

Aim: to explore how a nutritional intervention that improves the biochemical and functional profile of dysphagic older people impacts on nursing workload and costs for nursing homes.

Background: Dysphagic institutionalised older people particularly at risk of malnutrition require more intensive support from nursing staff and higher costs for nursing homes.

Method: An open pre-post longitudinal multicentre quasi-experimental study without a control group. Read More

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Captive Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) Are Colonized throughout Their Lives by a Community of Species with Species-Specific Genomic Content That Can Support Adaptation to Distinct Metabolic Niches.

mBio 2021 Aug 3:e0115321. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Nebraska Food for Health Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.

The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is an omnivorous New World primate whose diet in the wild includes large amounts of fruit, seeds, flowers, and a variety of lizards and invertebrates. Marmosets also feed heavily on tree gums and exudates, and they have evolved unique morphological and anatomical characteristics to facilitate gum feeding (gummivory). In this study, we characterized the fecal microbiomes of adult and infant animals from a captive population of common marmosets at the Callitrichid Research Center at the University of Nebraska at Omaha under their normal dietary and environmental conditions. Read More

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Rare sugars and their health effects in humans: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the evidence from human trials.

Nutr Rev 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto , Toronto, ON, Canada.

Context: Rare sugars are monosaccharides and disaccharides (found in small quantities in nature) that have slight differences in their chemical structure compared with traditional sugars. Little is known about their unique physiological and cardiometabolic effects in humans.

Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and synthesis of controlled intervention studies of rare sugars in humans, using PRISMA guidelines. Read More

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Results of an International Survey on Feeding Management in Infants with Short Bowel Syndrome-Associated Intestinal Failure (SBS-IF).

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Paediatric Nutrition Service-Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy Department of Gastroenterology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, WC1N 3JH UK Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC - University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Unit, University Hospital of Lille, Lille, France Paediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, Robert Debré Hospital, Paris, France Paediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy Division of Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition, Necker-Enfants Malades University of Paris, Paris, France.

Objectives: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a complex and rare condition (incidence 1200/ 100,000 live births) that requires a multidisciplinary team approach to management. In January 2019 the first European Reference Network on Rare and Inherited Congenital Anomalies (ERNICA) Intestinal Failure (IF) workshop was held. Several questions about the strategies used in managing IF associated with short bowel syndrome (SBS) were devised. Read More

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Adoptive transfer of -disrupted hematopoietic cells to wild-type mice exacerbates diet-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation.

Liver Res 2020 Sep 5;4(3):136-144. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Department of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Background And Objectives: Hepatic steatosis and inflammation are key characteristics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, whether and how hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation are differentially regulated remains to be elucidated. Considering that disruption of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (iPfk2) dissociates fat deposition and inflammation, the present study examined a role for iPfk2 in hematopoietic cells in regulating hepatic steatosis and inflammation in mice. Read More

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September 2020

Effects of intermittent fasting on liver physiology and metabolism in mice.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Sep 5;22(3):950. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Key Laboratory of Biotechnology and Bioengineering of State Ethnic Affairs Commission, Biomedical Research Center, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730030, P.R. China.

A broad spectrum of health benefits from intermittent fasting have been reported in studies on animal models and human subjects. However, the underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects remain largely elusive. The present study aimed to explore the effects and potential mode of action of intermittent fasting in mouse models with a focus on the liver. Read More

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September 2021

The Potato of the Future: Opportunities and Challenges in Sustainable Agri-food Systems.

Potato Res 2021 Jul 24:1-40. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

International Potato Center (CIP), CGIAR Research Program on Roots Tubers and Bananas, Lima, Peru.

In the coming decades, feeding the expanded global population nutritiously and sustainably will require substantial improvements to the global food system worldwide. The main challenge will be how to produce more food with the same or fewer resources and waste less. Food security has four dimenespecially the case in Africa wheresions: food availability, food access, food use and quality, and food stability. Read More

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Addition of dietary methionine but not dietary taurine or methyl donors/receivers to a grain-free diet increases postprandial homocysteine concentrations in adult dogs.

J Anim Sci 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Animal Biosciences, Ontario Agricultural College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Grain based ingredients are replaced in part by pulse ingredients in grain-free pet foods. Pulse ingredients are lower in methionine and cysteine, amino acid (AA) precursors to taurine synthesis in dogs. While recent work has investigated plasma and whole blood taurine concentrations when feeding grain-free diets, supplementation of a grain-free diet with various nutrients involved in the biosynthesis of taurine has not been evaluated. Read More

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Effects of pramlintide on energy intake and food preference in rats given a choice diet.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jul 29:113541. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, School of Public Health and Health Professions Buffalo, NY 14214, USA; Center for Ingestive Behavior Research, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA. Electronic address:

Amylin is a peptide hormone involved in the control of energy balance, making the amylin system a potential target for pharmacotherapies to treat obesity. Pramlintide, an amylin analogue, is an FDA-approved medication for the treatment of diabetes that also has food intake- and body weight-suppressive effects. However, it is unknown whether pramlintide may preferentially reduce intake of highly palatable, energy dense food, the overconsumption of which is thought to play a role in the etiology of obesity. Read More

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Morphological identification in skull between spotted seal and harbor seal using geometric morphometrics.

J Morphol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Graduate School of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Abashiri, Hokkiado, Japan.

The morphology of the skull contains considerable ecological information about a species, because the skull contains sensory organs that are used to look for food, compete for mates, or to migrate. Spotted seals (Phoca largha) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) are similar in body size and pelage color but differ in habitat use and reproductive biology. The current study aims to clarify differences in the shapes of skulls in the spotted and harbor seals using geometric morphometrics and to discuss whether ecological differences can explain morphological differences in skulls. Read More

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Antioxidant Activities and Selenogene Transcription in the European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Liver Depend, in a Non-linear Manner, on the Se/Hg Molar Ratio of the Feeds.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Research Center for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology - Plentziako Itsas Estazioa (PiE), University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Areatza 47, 48620, Plentzia, Bizkaia, Spain.

Feeding 3.9 and 6.7 mg Hg/kg (Se/Hg molar ratios of 0. Read More

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The attractive effects of amino acids and some classical substances on grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Pond Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most essential fishing species in China. The bait for this fish is rapidly developing. However, the study on the attractants in the bait for this fish lacks. Read More

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Effects of vegetable oil supplementation on rumen fermentation and microbial population in ruminant: a review.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jul 31;53(4):422. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Product Development and Technical Advisory Services Division, Persiaran Institusi, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, No. 6, 43000, Bandar Baru Bangi, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Understanding the nature of ruminant nutrition and digestion is essential to improve feeding management and animal production. Among many approaches, manipulating ruminant nutrition and fermentation through feed supplementation is being practised and researched. Over the last decade, the utilization of vegetable oils in feed formulation and their effects on various aspects of ruminants have been reported by many researchers. Read More

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Mechanical property gradients of taenioglossan radular teeth are associated with specific function and ecological niche in Paludomidae (Gastropoda: Mollusca).

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Zoological Institute, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 9, 24118 Kiel, Germany; Department of Mammalogy and Palaeoanthropology, Center of Natural History (CeNak), Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Biological tissues may exhibit graded heterogeneities in structure and mechanical properties that are crucial to their function. One biological structure that shows variation in both structure and function is the molluscan radula: the organ comprises a chitinous membrane with embedded teeth and serves to process and gather food. The tooth morphologies had been well studied in the last decades, but the mechanical properties of the teeth are not known for the vast majority of molluscs. Read More

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A Comparison of re-presentation and modified chin prompt to treat different topographies of liquid expulsion.

J Appl Behav Anal 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Psychology, University of Florida.

Treatment of one behavior in the chain of consumption might be associated with the emergence of other problematic behaviors. For example, some children with feeding disorders expel liquid. Moreover, the form in which children expel liquid might vary and influence whether a treatment to reduce liquid expulsion will result in clinically meaningful outcomes. Read More

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Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice on first aid management of choking and associated factors among kindergarten teachers in Addis Ababa governmental schools, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional institution-based study.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(7):e0255331. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Choking refers to a blockage of upper airways by food or other objects resulting in interruption of breathing. It is a medical emergency that needs immediate action by anyone near by the victim to save life. Chocking is a major cause of illness and death in the pediatric population under the age of 5 years. Read More

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Transformation of fish waste protein to Hermetia illucens protein improves the efficacy of poultry by-products in the culture of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 15;796:149045. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, 1 Turner Avenue, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.

Promoting a circular economy via the transformation of food waste into alternative and high-value protein sources for aquaculture diets is a novel approach to developing alternative raw materials to fishmeal (FM). This approach can reduce the ecological impact on the aquatic environment and simultaneously can provide an option for sustainable food waste management. In this context, we report a 56-day trial of feeding barramundi, Lates calcarifer on four iso‑nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets where the control (0PBM-0HI) was a FM-based diet and the other test diets replaced FM protein with mixtures of a poultry by-product meal (PBM) and a full-fat Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae meal reared on fish waste: the test diets were 85% PBM + 15% HI (85PBM-15HI), 80% PBM + 20% HI (80PBM-20HI) and 75% PBM + 25% HI (75PBM-25HI). Read More

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Sharing a bed with mites: preferences of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae in a temperature gradient.

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507/73, CZ-161 06, Prague 6-Ruzyne, Czechia.

House dust mites inhabit bed mattresses contaminating them with allergens. A strong temperature/moisture gradient exists in mattresses when it is used by humans daily. Here, we studied migration patterns of the mite Dermatophagoides farinae in continuous and time-discontinuous temperature gradients consisting of five sectors with 19-23, 23-28, 28-32, 32-36 and 36-41 °C, containing dye-labeled diets as an indicator of mite presence and feeding. Read More

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Selective recruitment for pollen and nectar sources in honeybees.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Laboratorio de Insectos Sociales, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) use cues and signals to recruit nestmates to profitable food sources. Here we investigate whether the type of resource advertised within the colony (i.e. Read More

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Predictive models to identify Holstein cows at risk of metritis and clinical cure and reproductive/productive failure following antimicrobial treatment.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Jul 13;194:105431. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32610, USA; Department of Animal Sciences, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32610, USA. Electronic address:

Precision dairy farming, specifically the design of management strategies according to the animal's needs, may soon become the norm since automated technologies that generate large amounts of data for each individual are becoming more affordable. Our objectives were to determine whether the use of behavioral changes could improve the accuracy of prediction of the risk of metritis and the risk of clinical cure of cows diagnosed with metritis. Addition of behavioral data to the algorithms to predict the outcomes of interest increased their accuracy by 7 to 32%. Read More

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Raw Meat-Based Pet Feeding and Food Safety: Netnography Study of Pet Owner Comments and Review of Manufacturers' Information Provision.

J Food Prot 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

UNITED KINGDOM.

Feeding raw meat to domestic pets is a popular practice. Because of the potential food safety implications associated with handling raw meat, concerns about pet owner health have increased. For this study, a netnographic content analysis approach was used to analyze posts from 'PetForums Community' online archives, relating to 'raw meat-based feeding' and 'food safety' ( n =308). Read More

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Inclusion of photoautotrophic cultivated diatom biomass in salmon feed can deter lice.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0255370. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of diatom (microalgae) biomass as a lice-reducing ingredient in salmon feed. The original hypothesis was based on the fact that polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), e.g. Read More

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Molecular diet studies of water mites reveal prey biodiversity.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0254598. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America.

Water mites are diverse aquatic invertebrates that provide potentially important ecosystem and economic services as bioindicators and mosquito biocontrol; however, little is known about water mite digestive physiology, including their diet in nature. Water mites, much like their spider relatives, liquefy their prey upon consumption. This results in the absence of morphologically identifiable prey in water mite mid-gut. Read More

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Differences in immune status and fecal SCFA between Indonesian stunted children and children with normal nutritional status.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0254300. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Centre for Healthy Eating & Food Innovation, Maastricht University-Campus Venlo, Venlo, The Netherlands.

We recently showed that the gut microbiota composition of stunted children was different from that of children with normal nutritional status. Here, we compared immune status and fecal microbial metabolite concentrations between stunted and normal children, and we correlated macronutrient intake (including energy), metabolites and immune status to microbiota composition. The results show that macronutrient intake was lower in stunted children for all components, but after correction for multiple comparison significant only for energy and fat. Read More

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