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Pathology and systemic therapy of non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma: an overview.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Medical Clinic II, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Introduction: Non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC) represents a highly heterogenous group of kidney cancer entities. As most clinical trials predominantly include patients with clear cell RCC (ccRCC), nccRCC treatment guidelines are mainly extrapolated from recommendations in ccRCC. Here, we review and elucidate current data on the pathologic classification and treatment of nccRCC. Read More

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Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors: Comprehensive review and implications in hypertension treatment.

Hypertens Res 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

The Department of Geriatric and General Medicine, Osaka university Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs) are a new class of cardiovascular agents characterized by their dual action on the major regulators of the cardiovascular system, including the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the natriuretic peptide (NP) system. The apparent clinical benefit of one ARNI, sacubitril/valsartan, as shown in clinical trials, has positioned the drug class as a first-line therapy in patients with heart failure, particularly with reduced ejection fraction. Accumulating evidence also suggests that sacubitril/valsartan is superior to conventional RAS blockers in lowering blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Read More

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Are We Underestimating Anthropogenic Microfiber Pollution? A Critical Review of Occurrence, Methods and Reporting.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3B2, Canada.

Anthropogenic microfibers, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, can be categorized as synthetic, semi-synthetic or natural according to material of origin and production process. Although natural fibers, such as cotton and wool, originated from natural sources, they often contain chemical additives, including colorants (e.g. Read More

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Structural and Drug Targeting Insights on Mutant p53.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 3;13(13). Epub 2021 Jul 3.

LAQV/REQUIMTE, Laboratório de Microbiologia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

p53 is a transcription factor with a pivotal role in cell homeostasis and fate. Its impairment is a major event in tumor onset and development. In fact, about half of human cancers bear mutations that not only halt the normal function of p53, but also may acquire oncogenic gain of functions that favor tumorigenesis. Read More

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Histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat induces antitumor activity in epithelioid sarcoma and rhabdoid tumor by growth factor receptor modulation.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jul 20;21(1):833. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Gustave Roussy Cancer Center, INSERM U1015, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Background: Epithelioid sarcomas and rhabdoid tumors are rare, aggressive malignancies with poor prognosis. Both are characterized by INI1 alterations and deregulation of growth factor receptors albeit their interaction has not been elucidated.

Methods: In this study, we investigated the activity of a panel of epigenetic modulators and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in vitro on respective cell lines as well as on primary patient-derived epithelioid sarcoma cells, and in vivo on xenografted mice. Read More

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Colorectal cancer treatment using bacteria: focus on molecular mechanisms.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Jul 19;21(1):218. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Biology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Colorectal cancer which is related to genetic and environmental risk factors, is among the most prevalent life-threatening cancers. Although several pathogenic bacteria are associated with colorectal cancer etiology, some others are considered as highly selective therapeutic agents in colorectal cancer. Nowadays, researchers are concentrating on bacteriotherapy as a novel effective therapeutic method with fewer or no side effects to pay the way of cancer therapy. Read More

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Nitric Oxide System and Bronchial Epithelium: More Than a Barrier.

Front Physiol 2021 30;12:687381. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Airway epithelium forms a physical barrier that protects the lung from the entrance of inhaled allergens, irritants, or microorganisms. This epithelial structure is maintained by tight junctions, adherens junctions and desmosomes that prevent the diffusion of soluble mediators or proteins between apical and basolateral cell surfaces. This apical junctional complex also participates in several signaling pathways involved in gene expression, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Read More

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Antimicrobial textile: recent developments and functional perspective.

Polym Bull (Berl) 2021 Jul 13:1-25. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Biosciences, Manipal University Jaipur, Jaipur-303007, Rajasthan, India.

Antimicrobial textiles are functionally active textiles, which may kill the microorganisms or inhibit their growth. The present article explores the applications of different synthetic and natural antimicrobial compounds used to prepare antimicrobial textiles. Different types of antimicrobial textiles including: antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral have also been discussed. Read More

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The Infectious Disease Ontology in the age of COVID-19.

J Biomed Semantics 2021 07 18;12(1):13. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

National Center for Ontological Research, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Background: Effective response to public health emergencies, such as we are now experiencing with COVID-19, requires data sharing across multiple disciplines and data systems. Ontologies offer a powerful data sharing tool, and this holds especially for those ontologies built on the design principles of the Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. These principles are exemplified by the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), a suite of interoperable ontology modules aiming to provide coverage of all aspects of the infectious disease domain. Read More

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Pharmacogenomics of Impaired Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Response: Lessons Learned From Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia.

Front Pharmacol 2021 28;12:696960. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.

The use of small molecules became one key cornerstone of targeted anti-cancer therapy. Among them, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are especially important, as they were the first molecules to proof the concept of targeted anti-cancer treatment. Since 2001, TKIs can be successfully used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Read More

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Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Risk Factors, Autoantibodies, and the Effect of Antirheumatic Therapies.

Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord 2021 28;14:11795441211028751. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Objective: To scope the current published evidence on cardiovascular risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) focusing on the role of autoantibodies and the effect of antirheumatic agents.

Methods: Two reviews were conducted in parallel: A targeted literature review (TLR) describing the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in RA patients; and a systematic literature review (SLR) identifying and characterizing the association between autoantibody status and CVD risk in RA. A narrative synthesis of the evidence was carried out. Read More

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Structural and biophysical aspects of l-asparaginases: a growing family with amazing diversity.

IUCrJ 2021 Jul 30;8(Pt 4):514-531. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland.

l-Asparaginases have remained an intriguing research topic since their discovery ∼120 years ago, especially after their introduction in the 1960s as very efficient antileukemic drugs. In addition to bacterial asparaginases, which are still used to treat childhood leukemia, enzymes of plant and mammalian origin are now also known. They have all been structurally characterized by crystallography, in some cases at outstanding resolution. Read More

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Effects of venoms on neutrophil respiratory burst: a major inflammatory function.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2021 28;27:e20200179. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Université de Paris, INSERM-U1149, CNRS-ERL8252, Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation (CRI), Laboratoire d'Excellence Inflamex, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat, Paris, France.

Neutrophils play a pivotal role in innate immunity and in the inflammatory response. Neutrophils are very motile cells that are rapidly recruited to the inflammatory site as the body first line of defense. Their bactericidal activity is due to the release into the phagocytic vacuole, called phagosome, of several toxic molecules directed against microbes. Read More

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An update on Alzheimer's disease: Immunotherapeutic agents, stem cell therapy and gene editing.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 8;282:119790. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management SVKM's NMIMS, Mumbai, India.

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic lifestyle ailment whose occurrence has come to light with the increasing life expectancy due to better healthcare. The patient burden for AD is set to double by the year 2060 and advancement in research is of utmost importance to combat this problem. AD is characterized by the pathological hallmarks of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Read More

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An Update on the Pathogenic Role of Macrophages in Adult-Onset Still's Disease and Its Implication in Clinical Manifestations and Novel Therapeutics.

J Immunol Res 2021 20;2021:8998358. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Rheumatology and Immunology Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Increasing evidence indicates a pivotal role of macrophages in innate immunity, which contributes to the pathogenesis of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD). Despite the available reviews that summarized the pathogenic role of proinflammatory cytokines in AOSD, a systematic approach focusing on the crucial role of macrophages in this disease is still lacking. This review summarizes the updated functions of macrophages in AOSD and their implication in clinical manifestations and therapeutics. Read More

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Argasid Ticks of Palearctic Bats: Distribution, Host Selection, and Zoonotic Importance.

Front Vet Sci 2021 22;8:684737. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

The soft ticks (Ixodida: Argasidae) are ectoparasites of terrestrial vertebrates with a wide geographic distribution, occurring on all continents. These ticks are obligate blood-feeders, most of them show high degrees of host-specialization and several species in arid and tropical regions are important parasites of livestock and men. Species commonly occurring on domestic animals and man are generally well-known, with many studies focusing on their ecology, distribution or vectorial role. Read More

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One year in review 2021: novelties in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Jul-Aug;39(4):705-720. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara and Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria S. Anna, Cona, Ferrara, and Epidemiology Unit, Italian Society for Rheumatology, Milan, Italy.

Management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has evolved over the years as a result of better understanding of the role of different therapeutic strategies, as well as following an increasing availability of new disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. However, the role of patients in sharing decisions, as well as the rules informing precision medicine or the principles to follow in case of specific comorbidities or extra-articular manifestations are still areas for improvement. Moreover, in 2020, the novel Coronavirus disease-19 outbreak has completely changed many attitudes in terms of assessment and treatment paradigms in most clinical diseases, including RA. Read More

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Targeted therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: current advances and future trends.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Jul 8;14(1):108. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women in the US and worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common variety accounting for 84% of the cases. For a subset of patients with actionable mutations, targeted therapy continues to provide durable responses. Read More

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Chagas Disease across Contexts: Scientific Knowledge in a Globalized World.

Med Anthropol 2021 Jul 8:1-18. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique, Inst, Systèmes Complexes, Université de Lyon, ENS de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Chagas is the most important endemic disease in Latin America. It was progressively constructed as a relevant public issue, starting as a medical problem, focusing later on housing conditions, poverty, or vector agents. In recent decades, research has mainly focused on the parasite's biological characterization. Read More

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Evaluating and Mitigating Risk of Acute Kidney Injury with the Combination of Vancomycin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam in Children.

Paediatr Drugs 2021 Jul 7;23(4):373-380. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Divisions of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Mercy Hospital and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO, 64108, USA.

The antibiotic combination of vancomycin (VAN) and piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) has been associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in both adult and pediatric patients. In this review, we highlight some of the limitations of existing pediatric studies evaluating the combination of VAN/PTZ, focusing on AKI risk in specific pediatric patient populations. We also review the variability in defining AKI in children and provide guidance to clinicians for use of prospective surveillance and stewardship in mitigating the risk of AKI in pediatric patients treated with combination of VAN/PTZ. Read More

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Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Phage vB_SalP_TR2.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:664810. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

is a widely distributed foodborne pathogen. The use of phages as biocontrol agents has recently gained significant interest. Because the genus has high diversity, efforts are necessary to identify lytic phages focusing on different serovars. Read More

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Overview of Viral Pneumonia Associated With Influenza Virus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, and Coronavirus, and Therapeutics Based on Natural Products of Medicinal Plants.

Front Pharmacol 2021 21;12:630834. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Basic Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

Viral pneumonia has been a serious threat to global health, especially now we have dramatic challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Approximately six million cases of community-acquired pneumonia occur every year, and over 20% of which need hospital admission. Influenza virus, respiratory virus, and coronavirus are the noteworthy causative agents to be investigated based on recent clinical research. Read More

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Nephrotoxicity of cancer therapeutic drugs: Focusing on novel agents.

Min Hee Hong

Kidney Res Clin Pract 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei Cancer Center, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Kidney injury caused by anticancer agents is a common problem that can interfere with and affect the dose intensity of anticancer therapy, thus restricting patient survival. Recent advances in targeted and immunotherapeutic agents have transformed the landscape of medical oncology, and these agents have been widely employed in clinical practice. While typically associated with favorable toxicity profiles, several novel anticancer drugs present distinctive nephrotoxicities. Read More

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Insights Into the Results of Sotagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Trials: Is Dual Inhibition the Cherry on the Cake of Cardiorenal Protection?

Drugs 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Diabetes Center, First Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA University Hospital, 1 St. Kiriakidi Street, 54636, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Sotagliflozin is a dual sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, manifesting a 20-fold higher inhibitory activity for SGLT2 than for SGLT1. Differences in SGLT2 over SGLT1 selectivity of the available agents have been proposed to relate to variability in efficacy and safety characteristics. In contrast to other SGLT2 inhibitors, the cardiorenal effects of sotagliflozin in type 2 diabetes had not been explored until recently, when the results of SOLOIST-WHF (focusing on heart failure [HF] outcomes) and SCORED (focusing on renal outcomes) were published. Read More

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Safety issues of raw milk: evaluation of bacteriological and physicochemical characteristics of human milk from a bank in a teaching hospital, focusing on Staphylococcus species.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2021 5;63:e54. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Produção Animal e Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Many infants are nurtured with milk supplied by human banks, whose bacteriological and physical-chemical profiles are a major issue. We investigated the bacteriological and physical-chemical characteristics, as well as genotypic and phenotypic and profiles of Staphylococcus species isolated from 240 samples of breast milk from a bank in a teaching hospital. Dornic acidity of milk revealed that 95. Read More

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Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for Liver Cirrhosis 2020.

J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 7;56(7):593-619. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Guidelines Committee for Creating and Evaluating the "Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Liver Cirrhosis", The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology / The Japan Society of Hepatology, 6F Shimbashi i-MARK Building, 2-6-2 Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0004, Japan.

The first edition of the clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis was published in 2010, and the second edition was published in 2015 by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE). The revised third edition was recently published in 2020. This version has become a joint guideline by the JSGE and the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH). Read More

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Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis 2020.

Hepatol Res 2021 Jul 6;51(7):725-749. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Guidelines Committee for Creating and Evaluating the Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Liver Cirrhosis, The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology/the Japan Society of hepatology, Tokyo, Japan.

The first edition of the clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis was published in 2010, and the second edition was published in 2015 by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE). The revised third edition was recently published in 2020. This version has become a joint guideline by the JSGE and the Japanese Society of Hepatology (JSH). Read More

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Detection of significant antiviral drug effects on COVID-19 with reasonable sample sizes in randomized controlled trials: A modeling study.

PLoS Med 2021 07 6;18(7):e1003660. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Development of an effective antiviral drug for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health priority. Although several candidate drugs have been identified through in vitro and in vivo models, consistent and compelling evidence from clinical studies is limited. The lack of evidence from clinical trials may stem in part from the imperfect design of the trials. Read More

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Emerging therapies for AML with myelodysplasia-related changes: slowly but surely moving the needle.

Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2021 Jul 6:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) have historically poor outcomes with conventional chemotherapy regimens. Current treatment strategies focus on intensive induction therapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplant or a less intensive approach with hypomethylating agents with or without venetoclax. CPX-351 is a liposomal formulation of cytarabine and daunorubicin that has been shown to significantly improve response rates and survival compared with 7 + 3 (continuous infusion cytarabine plus anthracyclines). Read More

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A Retrospective Study of 3,000 Indian Patients with Vitiligo Treated with Phototherapy or Topical Monotherapy.

J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2021 Feb 1;14(2):46-49. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Drs. J. Sakhiya, Virmani, Gajjar, Kaklotar, Khambhati and Mr. Daruwala and Mr. Dudhatra are with Sakhiya Skin Clinic Pvt. Ltd. in Surat, Gujarat, India.

Vitiligo-affected individuals, especially patients with darker skin tones, can suffer from negative psychosocial impacts due to unpredictable development of the condition and perceived cosmetic concerns. However, given that spontaneous repigmentation can be gained in vitiligo, many patients ask for treatment due to these cosmetic concerns. In the literature, only a few studies have been documented focusing on the outcome of various treatment modalities for vitiligo. Read More

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February 2021