6,452 results match your criteria foci detected

Low monoenergetic DECT detection of pyelonephritis extent.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jul 8;142:109837. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Radiology, Hadassah Medical Center, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Faculty of Medicine, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. Electronic address:

Objectives: To determine whether contrast enhanced DECT low monoenergetic can improve diagnostic conspicuity of inflamed kidney foci in acute pyelonephritis compared to conventional images.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study of 45 patients with clinical signs of acute pyelonephritis undergoing contrast-enhanced exams on a single source-DECT was conducted. Representative conventional and monoenergetic images were randomized and presented to four abdominal radiologists to determine their preference for inflamed kidney foci detection, and to determine the number of foci identified. Read More

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Reactive astrocytes contribute to epileptogenesis in patients with cavernous angioma.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Jul 26;176:106732. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan.

Objective: Patients with cavernous angioma (CA) often suffer from severe epilepsy, and surgical resection is often performed to attenuate these epileptic seizures. Several studies have suggested that surgical removal of the surrounding hemosiderin-pigmented tissues adjacent to CA achieves better seizure control than restricted lesionectomy. Pathological examination of the resected foci reveals not only hemosiderin pigmentation but also various degrees of inflammatory change, such as hemosiderin-laden macrophages, gliosis and fibrosis. Read More

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Ultra-High Field 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Electroencephalography Findings in Epilepsy.

Can Assoc Radiol J 2021 Jul 30:8465371211031802. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Medical Imaging, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, 6221Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Assessment of patients for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery requires multimodality input, including EEG recordings to ensure optimal surgical planning. Often EEG demonstrates abnormal foci not detected on 1.5T MRI. Read More

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Uterine Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: First Report of a ROS1 Fusion.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the uterus is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that frequently harbors ALK rearrangements. In this report, we describe the first uterine IMT with a FN1-ROS1 fusion, which occurred in a 43-year-old woman that presented with menorrhagia. Morphologically, the well-circumscribed 3 cm tumor was comprised of compact and myxoid foci of relatively bland spindle cells admixed with scattered chronic inflammatory cells limited to the myxoid areas. Read More

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Predicting the environmental suitability for onchocerciasis in Africa as an aid to elimination planning.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 28;15(7):e0008824. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana.

Recent evidence suggests that, in some foci, elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa may be feasible with mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. To achieve continental elimination of transmission, mapping surveys will need to be conducted across all implementation units (IUs) for which endemicity status is currently unknown. Using boosted regression tree models with optimised hyperparameter selection, we estimated environmental suitability for onchocerciasis at the 5 × 5-km resolution across Africa. Read More

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Autologous Platelet- and Extracellular Vesicle-Rich Plasma Is an Effective Treatment Modality for Chronic Postoperative Temporal Bone Cavity Inflammation: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 7;9:677541. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervicofacial Surgery, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Purpose: To determine the efficacy of autologous platelet- and extracellular vesicle-rich plasma (PVRP) to treat chronic postoperative temporal bone cavity inflammation (CPTBCI) after exhausting surgical and standard conservative therapies.

Materials And Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with PVRP (PVRP group) or standard conservative methods (control group) in a setting of four once-monthly checkups and subsequent follow-up. The treatment outcome was measured with the Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire-12 (COMQ-12), CPTBCI focus surface area, and CPTBCI symptom-free time after the fourth checkup. Read More

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Focal corticarl dysplasia in epilepsy is associated with GABA increase.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jul 14;31:102763. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Radiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major cause of drug-resistant epilepsy; however the underlying epileptogenic mechanisms of FCD metabolism in epilepsy patients remain unclear. The aim of this study is to detect alterations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutathione (GSH), and the composite of glutamate and glutamine (Glx) in MRI-typical and neuropathologically confirmed FCD-associated epilepsy using Hadamard Encoding and Reconstruction of Mega-Edited Spectroscopy (HERMES).

Materials And Methods: Fourteen epileptic patients suspected to be caused by FCD and 14 healthy controls were enrolled prospectively in this study; all subjects underwent a 3 T MRI scan, including 3D T1 weighted imaging and HERMES. Read More

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Upregulation of Stress-Induced Protein Kinase CK1 Delta is associated with a Poor Prognosis for patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2021 Jul;25(7):504-514

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

This study was designed to analyze the expression of CSNK1D in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and investigate the relationship between the expression of CSNK1D and the prognosis of HCC patients. The CSNK1D and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) expression levels in patients with HCC and their corresponding clinical data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and sorted with a Perl program. CSNK1D and AFP expression differences in liver tissue and liver cancer were compared and analyzed, based on the online database human cancer metastasis database, the relationships between the expression levels of CSNK1D and AFP and the proliferation and metastases of HCC were explored. Read More

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[A rare carcinoma metastasizing to the lung: Sertoli-leydig cell tumor].

Tuberk Toraks 2021 Jun;69(2):247-252

Department of Pathology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.

The lung is the most common site of metastasis for many malignancies. Especially the gastrointestinal system, gynecological malignancies and osteosarcomas frequently metastasize to the lung. It accounts for less than 0. Read More

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Molecular dosimetry of temozolomide: Quantification of critical lesions, correlation to cell death responses and threshold doses.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Institute of Toxicology, Medical Center of the University Mainz

Temozolomide is a DNA-methylating agent used in cancer chemotherapy, notably for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) where it is applied as a front-line drug. One of the DNA alkylation products is the minor lesion O6-methylguanine (O6MeG), which is responsible for nearly all genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of TMZ in the low-dose range relevant for cancer therapy. Here, we addressed the question of how many O6MeG adducts are required to elicit cytotoxic responses. Read More

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Cell-Free DNA Detection of Tumor Mutations in Heterogeneous, Localized Prostate Cancer Via Targeted, Multiregion Sequencing.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 27;5. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) may allow for minimally invasive identification of biologically relevant genomic alterations and genetically distinct tumor subclones. Although existing biomarkers may detect localized prostate cancer, additional strategies interrogating genomic heterogeneity are necessary for identifying and monitoring aggressive disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether circulating tumor DNA can detect genomic alterations present in multiple regions of localized prostate tumor tissue. Read More

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Image-Guided Biopsy for Relapsed Neuroblastoma: Focus on Safety, Adequacy for Genetic Sequencing, and Correlation of Tumor Cell Percent With Quantitative Lesion MIBG Uptake.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 28;5. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: Many novel therapies for relapsed and refractory neuroblastoma require tumor tissue for genomic sequencing. We analyze our experience with image-guided biopsy in these patients, focusing on safety, yield, adequacy for next-generation sequencing (NGS), and correlation of tumor cell percent (TC%) with quantitative uptake on I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) single-photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT/CT).

Materials And Methods: An 11-year retrospective review of image-guided biopsy on 66 patients (30 female), with a median age of 8. Read More

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January 2021

Surveillance of West Nile virus infection in Kashgar Region, Xinjiang, China, 2013-2016.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 7;11(1):14010. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, People's Republic of China.

West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in mainland China from mosquitoes in Jiashi County, Kashgar Region, Xinjiang in 2011, following local outbreaks of viral meningitis and encephalitis caused by WNV. To elaborate the epidemiological characteristics of the WNV, surveillance of WNV infection in Kashgar Region, Xinjiang from 2013 to 2016 were carried out. Blood and CSF samples from surveillance human cases, blood of domestic chicken, cattle, sheep and mosquitoes in Kashgar Region were collected and detected. Read More

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The RAD51-FFPE Test; Calibration of a Functional Homologous Recombination Deficiency Test on Diagnostic Endometrial and Ovarian Tumor Blocks.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 15;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

PARP inhibitor (PARPi) sensitivity is related to tumor-specific defects in homologous recombination (HR). Therefore, there is great clinical interest in tests that can rapidly and reliably identify HR deficiency (HRD). Functional HRD tests determine the actual HR status by using the (dis)ability to accumulate RAD51 protein at sites of DNA damage as read-out. Read More

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Concurrent Adjacent Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia without Simultaneous Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Detection: A Case Series.

Dermatopathology (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;8(2):190-201. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Albany Medical Center, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

Background: The association between Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic leukemia (CLL/SLL) is well established in the literature. A majority of MCCs are known to be associated with Merkel cell carcinoma polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is postulated to be a possible causative agent linking these two entities. We aim to identify the presence of MCPyV in patients with concurrent adjacent MCC and CLL/SLL. Read More

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VRK1 Depletion Facilitates the Synthetic Lethality of Temozolomide and Olaparib in Glioblastoma Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 14;9:683038. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer Program, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

Background: Glioblastomas treated with temozolomide frequently develop resistance to pharmacological treatments. Therefore, there is a need to find alternative drug targets to reduce treatment resistance based on tumor dependencies. A possibility is to target simultaneously two proteins from different DNA-damage repair pathways to facilitate tumor cell death. Read More

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[F]PARPi Imaging Is Not Affected by HPV Status In Vitro.

Mol Imaging 2021 20;2021:6641397. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA.

Background: Human papillomavirus- (HPV-) associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) are clinically and pathologically distinct from HPV-negative tumors. Here, we explore whether HPV affects functional biomarkers, including H2AX, RAD51, and PARP1. Moreover, the role of [F]PARPi as a broadly applicable imaging tool for head and neck carcinomas is investigated. Read More

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January 2021

First case of an invasive Bacteroides dorei infection detected in a patient with a mycotic aortic aneurysm-raising a rebellion of major indigenous bacteria in humans: a case report and review.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 30;21(1):625. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 1-12-1 Fukumuro, Miyagino Ward, Sendai, Miyagi, 983-8512, Japan.

Background: Bacteroides dorei is an anaerobic gram-negative bacterium first described in 2006. Because of the high similarity in mass spectra between B. dorei and Bacteroides vulgatus, discriminating between these species is arduous in clinical practice. Read More

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The Role of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography in Locating Gastrointestinal Tract Perforations.

Cureus 2021 May 27;13(5):e15265. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of General Surgery, Gaziosmanpaşa Hospital, İstanbul Yeni Yüzyıl University, Istanbul, TUR.

Objective With each passing day, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is being used more frequently in the evaluation of abdominal pathologies. In this article, we aimed to assess the role of dual-energy CT in locating gastrointestinal perforations, which are among the causes of acute abdomen. Materials and methods All patients who underwent DECT due to acute abdomen in a COVID-19 designated hospital between June 1st, 2020 and December 31st, 2020, who were found to have gastrointestinal tract (GIT) perforation and underwent surgery were included in the study. Read More

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DNA double-strand breaks in cancer cells as a function of proton linear energy transfer and its variation in time.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 Jul 19:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Purpose: The complex relationship between linear energy transfer (LET) and cellular response to radiation is not yet fully elucidated. To better characterize DNA damage after irradiations with therapeutic protons, we monitored formation and disappearance of DNA double-strand breaks (DNA DSB) as a function of LET and time. Comparisons with conventional γ-rays and high LET carbon ions were also performed. Read More

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Tadalafil Reverses the Effect of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System on Stem Cell Features in A549 and SK-MES-1.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 Jul 28;40(7):869-880. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Cancer Translational Research, Department of Oncology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Cancer Institute of Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Shenzhen, P.R. China.

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer and is a frequent cause of death. In our research, A549 and SK-MES-1 were used to assess the effect of three-dimensional (3D) culture compared to that of two-dimensional (2D) monolayers in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, response to chemotherapy, as well as the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC)-related markers. As tadalafil is a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor with the potential to target CSC maintenance in multiple cancer cell lines, we assessed its function in 3D culture and detected the downstream pathway genes. Read More

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Diversity of West Nile and Usutu virus strains in mosquitoes at an international airport in Austria.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Increased globalization and international transportation have resulted in the inadvertent introduction of exotic mosquitoes and new mosquito-borne diseases. International airports are among the possible points of entry for mosquitoes and their pathogens. We established a mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases monitoring programme at the largest international airport in Austria and report the results for the first two years, 2018 and 2019. Read More

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Cytoproliferative activity in colorectal poorly differentiated clusters: Biological significance in tumor setting.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2021 Aug 16;53:151772. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children & Adults, Division of Pathology, University-Hospital of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Background: Poorly differentiated clusters (PDCs) have gained a significant prognostic role in colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) being associated to high risk of lymph node metastasis, shorter survival time and poor prognosis. The knowledge in PDC biology is not completely clear.

Materials And Methods: We assessed Ki-67 LI in 45 CRCs showing ≥10 PDCs. Read More

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High Expression of Cancer-IgG Is Associated With Poor Prognosis and Radioresistance PI3K/AKT/DNA-PKcs Pathway Regulation in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:675397. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University China-Japan Friendship School of Clinical Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the dominant type of lung neoplasms, and radiotherapy is its mainstay treatment, yet poor prognosis caused by radioresistance remains problematic. Cancer-derived immunoglobulin G (cancer-IgG) has been detected in multiple cancers and plays important roles in carcinogenesis. This study aimed to demonstrate that cancer-IgG is associated with poor prognosis of LUAD and to identify its role in radioresistance. Read More

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Comparison of 18F-FDG, 68Ga-FAPI, and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in a Patient With Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Abstract: We present image findings of 18F-FDG, 68Ga-FAPI, and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in a 35-year-old woman with multiple metastases of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. The images of PET/CTs using 3 different tracers all showed multiple foci of increased activities in the liver and pancreas body, in which 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT displayed the highest tumor-to-liver ratios. However, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT detected more small metastatic lymph node and bone metastases, which were missed by both FDG and FAPI PET/CT. Read More

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Exacerbation of Background Nuclear Cataracts in Sprague-Dawley Rats in Embryo-Fetal Development Studies With JNJ-42165279, a Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor.

Toxicol Pathol 2021 Jun 15:1926233211010444. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, CA, USA.

Fetal examinations in embryo-fetal developmental (EFD) studies are based on macroscopic and dissecting microscopic evaluations, and histopathology is rarely performed other than to confirm macroscopic findings. Fetal lens examination is therefore generally limited to the presence, size, shape, and color of any abnormality. In a Sprague-Dawley rat EFD study with the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor JNJ-42165279, an unusually high incidence of macroscopic granular foci was noted within the lens of gestation day 21 fetuses across all groups including controls, with higher incidence in the high-dose group. Read More

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Insight Into Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 31 (SCA31) From Model.

Front Neurosci 2021 25;15:648133. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo City, Japan.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Its genetic cause is a 2.5- to 3. Read More

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Longitudinal Evaluation of Hyper-Reflective Foci in the Retina Following Subretinal Delivery of Adeno-Associated Virus in Non-Human Primates.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 05;10(6):15

University Eye Hospital, Centre for Ophthalmology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether clinical grade recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8) leads to increased appearance of hyper-reflective foci (HRF) in the retina of non-human primates (NHPs) following subretinal gene therapy injection.

Methods: Different doses of rAAV8 vector (rAAV8. human phosphodiesterase 6A subunit (hPDE6A) at low dose: 1 × 1011 vector genomes (vg), medium dose: 5 × 1011 vg, or high dose: 1 × 1012 vg) were injected subretinally into the left eyes of NHPs in a formal toxicology study in preparation of a clinical trial. Read More

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A new GNPAT variant of foetal rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Jun 10:e1733. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Prenatal Diagnosis, Meyer Children's Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Background: Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a clinical entity resulting from defects of peroxisomal metabolism whose clinical phenotype is characterized by rhizomelia, calcified foci in periarticular cartilage, coronal lesions of vertebral bodies, cataracts and severe cognitive delay. Usually, survival does not exceed the first decade of life. Transmission is autosomal recessive and is related to mutations in the PEX7, GNPAT or AGPS. Read More

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Spontaneous (Hashimoto-like) chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in a rhesus macaque ().

Primate Biol 2021 1;8(1):37-42. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Zentrallabor, Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

A case of a female, 10-year-old rhesus macaque () with spontaneous chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is presented. At necropsy, the thyroid gland was slightly enlarged, with up to 2 mm large, round, confluent, beige foci on the surface of both lobes. Histopathologic features resembled human Hashimoto's thyroiditis: multifocally, the interstitium was infiltrated by lymphocytes and variably sized lymphoid follicles. Read More

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