9,954 results match your criteria focal segmental

The epidemiology of kidney disease in people of African ancestry with HIV in the UK.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Aug 8;38:101006. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

King's College London, King's College Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, Weston Education Center (Rm 2.50), Cutcombe Road, London SE5 9RJ, UK.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The risk of CKD is increased in people of African ancestry and with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study investigating the relationship between region of ancestry (East, Central, South or West Africa) and kidney disease in people of sub-Saharan African ancestry with HIV in the UK between May 2018 and February 2020. Read More

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Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Recurrence in Living Donor Recipients.

Res Rep Urol 2021 14;13:495-499. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Urology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common cause for end-stage renal disease that can recur in the graft after kidney transplantation. The incidence of FSGS recurrence is reported in up to 47% of patients, predisposing those to possible poorer transplantation outcomes. Hence, we examined the incidence of FSGS recurrence and the effect on graft outcome in our patient cohort of living donor kidney transplantations (LDKT). Read More

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Papillorenal syndrome: a systemic diagnosis not to be missed on funduscopy.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jul 20;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury, UK.

A 45-year-old man presented to the ophthalmology department with visual symptoms in his left eye. Almost two decades ago, he required a renal transplant for focal segmental glomerular sclerosis and a detailed enquiry revealed a strong family history of renal and ocular disease. Fundus examination demonstrated significant optic disc dysplasia in his left eye and optical coherence tomography showed intraretinal fluid bilaterally. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Infection and the Kidneys: An Evolving Picture.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1327:107-118

Department of Chemical Pathology, National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus known as Severe Acute Respiratory Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an outbreak of a respiratory illness worldwide. Even though SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory system, other organs such as the heart and kidneys are implicated. The pathophysiology of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients is not clearly defined. Read More

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Recurrent Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis After Kidney Transplantation in African Americans: Review of the Current Evidence.

Exp Clin Transplant 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

From the Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Objectives: In many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the most common causes of end-stage kidney disease are hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis, and diabetes mellitus. So far, literature on recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in sub-Saharan African populations is limited. With the intention of providing guidance for best practices in sub-Saharan Africa, we reviewed available evidence for African Americans, a population with a similar genetic background. Read More

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[Kidney damage in COVID-19].

Nephrol Ther 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Aix Marseille Univ, Inserm, INRAE, C2VN, 13005 Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Univ, Centre de néphrologie et transplantation rénale, Hôpital de la Conception, 147, boulevard Baille, 13005 Marseille, France.

COVID-19 is a disease caused by the RNA virus SARS-CoV-2. It is characterised by an attack mainly affecting the respiratory system. There is renal involvement which is characterised by three main types of damage, acute tubular necrosis occurring in the most severe cases, proximal tubulopathy which is a prognostic marker of the disease and segmental and focal hyalinosis occurring in a genetically predisposed terrain. Read More

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Population-Based Risk Factors for Ascending, Arch, Descending, and Abdominal Aortic Dilations for 60-74-Year-Old Individuals.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jul;78(3):201-211

Elitary Research Centre CIMA, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Background: Aortic dilations (ectasias and aneurysms) may occur on any segment of the aorta. Pathogenesis varies between locations, suggesting that etiology and risk factors may differ. Despite this discrepancy, guidelines recommend screening of the whole aorta if 1 segmental dilation is discovered. Read More

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Re-transplantation in pediatric patients with failure of primary transplant due to recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A pediatric nephrology research consortium study.

Pediatr Transplant 2021 Jul 11:e14085. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Driscoll Children's Hospital, Corpus Christi, TX, USA.

Introduction: Recurrent focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in kidney transplant recipients is associated with lower graft survival and increased morbidity. There are limited data to guide the decision to re-transplant patients with transplant failure due to FSGS recurrence. We aimed to evaluate outcomes in patients re-transplanted after having initial graft failure due to recurrent FSGS and to study physician attitudes and practice patterns. Read More

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Pathogenic Variants in the Genes Affected in Alport Syndrome (COL4A3-COL4A5) and Their Association With Other Kidney Conditions: A Review.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

The University of Melbourne Department of Medicine, Melbourne Health and Northern Health, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville VIC 3050 AUSTRALIA.

Massively Parallel Sequencing identifies pathogenic variants in the genes affected in Alport syndrome (COL4A3 - COL4A5) in up to 30 % of individuals with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), 10 % of those with kidney failure of unknown cause and 20 % with familial IgA glomerulonephritis. FSGS associated with COL4A3 - COL4A5 variants is usually present by kidney failure onset and may develop because the abnormal glomerular membranes result in podocyte loss and secondary hyperfiltration. The association of COL4A3 - COL4A5 variants with kidney failure or IgA glomerulonephritis may be coincidental and not pathogenic. Read More

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Multidimensional inflammatory and immunological endotypes of idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and their association with treatment outcomes.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Jul 14;14(7):1826-1834. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Institut de Recerca Biomedica August Pi Sunyer, Lleida, Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has been linked to immunological and inflammatory response dysregulations. The aim of this study was to find endotypes of FSGS patients using a cluster (CL) analysis based on inflammatory and immunological variables, and to analyse whether a certain endotype is associated with response to treatment with corticosteroids.

Methods: This prospective observational study included patients with idiopathic FSGS diagnosed by kidney biopsy. Read More

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Clinical and pathohistological characteristics of Alport spectrum disorder caused by COL4A4 mutation c.193-2A>C: a case series.

Croat Med J 2021 Jun;62(3):204-214

Tamara Nikuševa Martić, Department of Biology, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Šalata 3, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia,

Aim: To present the pathohistological and clinical characteristics of five Croatian families with Alport spectrum disorders caused by splice acceptor pathogenic variant c.193-2A>C in COL4A4 at the genomic position chr2:227985866.

Methods: The study enrolled five probands with kidney biopsy analysis and five family members. Read More

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A Novel Model for Nephrotic Syndrome Reveals Associated Dysbiosis of the Gut Microbiome and Extramedullary Hematopoiesis.

Cells 2021 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Surgical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany.

Glomerular kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome is a complex systemic disorder and is associated with significant morbidity in affected patient populations. Despite its clinical relevance, well-established models are largely missing to further elucidate the implications of uncontrolled urinary protein loss. To overcome this limitation, we generated a novel, inducible, podocyte-specific transgenic mouse model (), developing nephrotic syndrome in adult mice. Read More

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A Rare Case of SARS-CoV-2-Induced Microscopic Polyangiitis.

Cureus 2021 May 26;13(5):e15259. Epub 2021 May 26.

Nephrology, BronxCare Health System, Bronx, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection triggers elevated levels of circulating cytokines and immune-cell hyperactivation, called a cytokine storm, which leads to dysregulated immune response not only towards the pathogen itself but also contributes to cellular, vascular injury and multiorgan dysfunction. The cytokine-induced endothelial inflammation and vascular pathology of COVID-19 is well reported in post-mortem biopsies and several cases reporting small, medium and large vessel micro/macro thrombotic events and vasculitis in multiple organs. So far, few cases have been reported with newly diagnosed antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis at the time of acute COVID-19 infection. Read More

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Biodegradable magnesium combined with distraction osteogenesis synergistically stimulates bone tissue regeneration via CGRP-FAK-VEGF signaling axis.

Biomaterials 2021 Jun 23;275:120984. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Musculoskeletal Research Laboratory of Department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology and Innovative Orthopaedic Biomaterial and Drug Translational Research Laboratory, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; CHUK Hong Kong - Shenzhen Innovation and Technology Institute (Futian), China. Electronic address:

Critical size bone defects are frequently caused by accidental trauma, oncologic surgery, and infection. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a useful technique to promote the repair of critical size bone defects. However, DO is usually a lengthy treatment, therefore accompanied with increased risks of complications such as infections and delayed union. Read More

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Establishment and characterization of a novel conditionally immortalized human parietal epithelial cell line.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Jun 25;405(2):112712. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Pathology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are epithelial cells in the kidney, surrounding Bowman's space. When activated, PECs increase in cell volume, proliferate, migrate to the glomerular tuft and excrete extracellular matrix. Activated PECs are crucially involved in the formation of sclerotic lesions, seen in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Read More

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Renal vascular TRP channels.

Curr Res Physiol 2021 8;4:17-23. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.

Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are expressed in the kidney have gained prominence in recent years following discoveries of their role in maintaining the integrity of the filtration barrier, regulating tubular reabsorption of Ca and Mg, and sensing osmotic stimuli. Furthermore, evidence has linked mutations in TRP channels to kidney disease pathophysiological mechanisms, including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, disturbances in Mg homeostasis, and polycystic kidney disease. Several subtypes of TRP channels are expressed in the renal vasculature, from preglomerular arteries and arterioles to the descending vasa recta. Read More

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February 2021

Alternative Complement Pathway Is Activated and Associated with Galactose-Deficient IgA Antibody in IgA Nephropathy Patients.

Front Immunol 2021 10;12:638309. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Galactose-deficient IgA (Gd-IgA) and alternative complement pathway activation are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Nevertheless, the relationships between alternative pathway activation and disease activity or Gd-IgA level remains unclear.

Methods: Ninety-eight biopsy-diagnosed IgAN, twenty-five primary focal segmental sclerosis (FSGS) patients and forty-two healthy individuals were recruited in this study. Read More

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Pattern of Presentation of Patients with Vitiligo in a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Nigeria: A Five Year Retrospective Study.

West Afr J Med 2021 Jun;38(6):556-560

Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

Background: Vitiligo is an acquired progressive melanocytopenia of unknown cause. It manifests clinically as well circumscribed depigmented macules and patches often associated with poliosis. AIM: To determine the pattern of presentation of patients with vitiligo in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Read More

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PODO: Trial Design: Phase 2 Study of PF-06730512 in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Jun 3;6(6):1629-1633. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is characterized by proteinuria and a histologic pattern of glomerular lesions of diverse etiology that share features including glomerular scarring and podocyte foot process effacement. Roundabout guidance receptor 2 (ROBO2)/slit guidance ligand 2 (SLIT2) signaling destabilizes the slit diaphragm and reduces podocyte adhesion to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Preclinical studies suggest that inhibition of glomerular ROBO2/SLIT2 signaling can stabilize podocyte adhesion and reduce proteinuria. Read More

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RAGE and αVβ3-integrin are essential for suPAR signaling in podocytes.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jun 22;1867(10):166186. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Houston College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77204, USA. Electronic address:

The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases including primary and recurrent focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), diabetic nephropathy, and acute kidney injuries (AKI). Elevated serum suPAR concentration is a negative prognostic indicator in multiple critical clinical conditions. This study has examined the initial transduction steps used by suPAR in cultured mouse podocytes. Read More

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Super-resolved local recruitment of CLDN5 to filtration slits implicates a direct relationship with podocyte foot process effacement.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Under healthy conditions, foot processes of neighbouring podocytes are interdigitating and connected by an electron-dense slit diaphragm. Besides slit diaphragm proteins, typical adherens junction proteins are also found to be expressed at this cell-cell junction. It is therefore considered as a highly specialized type of adherens junction. Read More

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Role of fibroblast specific protein 1 expression in the progression of adriamycin-induced glomerulosclerosis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Aug 19;567:148-153. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui, Japan. Electronic address:

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a commonly occurring cause of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and frequently progresses to renal failure. Podocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to induce podocyte detachment in glomerular diseases, and severe degeneration and shedding of glomerular podocytes plays a major role in the progression of FSGS. We showed that fibroblast specific protein 1 (FSP1), an EMT marker, is strongly expressed in podocytes of FSGS patients, but the significance of podocyte expression of FSP1 to the pathophysiology of FSGS remained unclear. Read More

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Outcomes of repeat kidney transplantation following prior graft failure secondary to BK nephropathy: A single-center retrospective study.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 Jun 21:e13672. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: BK virus is associated with development of nephropathy (BKVN) that can lead to graft failure after renal transplantation. There are limited data on rates of recurrence and outcomes of repeat renal transplantation after prior graft loss caused by BKVN.

Methods: After IRB approval, data on all patients who underwent a repeat renal transplantation after prior graft failure as a result of BKVN were identified. Read More

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Assessment of the Effect of Recruitment Maneuver on Lung Aeration Through Imaging Analysis in Invasively Ventilated Patients: A Systematic Review.

Front Physiol 2021 4;12:666941. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Intensive Care, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Recruitment maneuvers (RMs) have heterogeneous effects on lung aeration and have adverse side effects. We aimed to identify morphological, anatomical, and functional imaging characteristics that might be used to predict the RMs on lung aeration in invasively ventilated patients. We performed a systemic review. Read More

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A Rare Cause of Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults - Collagenofibrotic Glomerulopathy.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2021 Jan-Feb;32(1):223-226

Department of Pathology, K S Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Adult-onset nephrotic syndrome (NS) is commonly caused by minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, andmembranous nephropathy. Rare causes of NS include amyloidosis, immunoglobulin deposition disease, fibronectin glomerulopathy, and Collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy (CG). CG is caused by deposition of Type 3 collagen in the mesangium and subendothelial area. Read More

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The Clinicopathological Spectrum of Kidney Lesions in Chikungunya Fever: A Report of 5 Cases With Kidney Biopsy.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) Université Paris-Saclay, Hôpital de Bicêtre, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France. Electronic address:

Chikungunya nephropathy is an uncommon etiology of acute kidney injury, associated with the mosquito-borne Chikungunya arbovirus (CHIKV). The very limited number of pathological reports to date have only involved postmortem analyses. We here report five cases of acute kidney injury for which kidney biopsies were performed in patients with confirmed acute CHIKV infection, during the recent outbreak of Chikungunya disease in the French West Indies. Read More

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Effective cholesterol lowering after myocardial infarction in patients with nephrotic syndrome may require a multi-pharmacological approach: a case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 May 13;5(5):ytab151. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm 141 86, Sweden.

Background: Nephrotic syndrome causes severe hypercholesterolaemia due to increased production and altered clearance of lipoproteins from the liver. It is challenging for patients with nephrotic syndrome and coronary heart disease to meet LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) goals for secondary prevention with conventional lipid-lowering therapy.

Case Summary: We present a man with nephrotic syndrome caused by focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) and hypercholesterolaemia. Read More

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Kidney and Urinary Tract Involvement in Epidermolysis Bullosa: Is Routine Follow-Up Necessary?

Dermatol Pract Concept 2021 May 20;11(3):e2021051. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Several renal and urinary tract complications have been reported in patients with epidermolysis bullosa.

Objective: This study investigated kidney and urinary tract involvement in patients with epidermolysis bullosa.

Patients And Methods: Patients with epidermolysis bullosa in treatment at the Dermatology Unit were included in the study. Read More

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Renal and Skeletal Anomalies in a Cohort of Individuals With Clinically Presumed Hereditary Nephropathy Analyzed by Molecular Genetic Testing.

Front Genet 2021 26;12:642849. Epub 2021 May 26.

Institute of Human Genetics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood and adolescence occurs with a median incidence of 9 per million of the age-related population. Over 70% of CKD cases under the age of 25 years can be attributed to a hereditary kidney disease. Among these are hereditary podocytopathies, ciliopathies and (monogenic) congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Read More

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Identification of Genetic Causes of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Increases With Proper Patient Selection.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Objective: To increase the likelihood of finding a causative genetic variant in patients with a focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesion, clinical and histologic characteristics were analyzed.

Patients And Methods: Individuals 18 years and older with an FSGS lesion on kidney biopsy evaluated at Mayo Clinic from November 1, 1999, through October 31, 2019, were divided into 4 groups based on clinical and histologic characteristics: primary FSGS, secondary FSGS with known cause, secondary FSGS without known cause, and undetermined FSGS. A targeted gene panel and a customized gene panel retrieved from exome sequencing were performed. Read More

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