814 results match your criteria flux cytoskeletal


Neuroinflammatory Response to TNFα and IL1β Cytokines Is Accompanied by an Increase in Glycolysis in Human Astrocytes In Vitro.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 14;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Lausanne, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Astrogliosis has been abundantly studied in rodents but relatively poorly in human cells due to limited access to the brain. Astrocytes play important roles in cerebral energy metabolism, and are also key players in neuroinflammation. Astroglial metabolic and inflammatory changes as a function of age have been reported, leading to the hypothesis that mitochondrial metabolism and inflammatory responses are interconnected in supporting a functional switch of astrocytes from neurotrophic to neurotoxic. Read More

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Ozanimod, an S1PR1 ligand, attenuates hypoxia plus glucose deprivation induced autophagic flux and phenotypic switching in human brain VSM cells.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, United States.

Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell phenotypic expression and autophagic state are dynamic responses to stress. Vascular pathologies, such as hypoxemia and ischemic injury induce a synthetic VSM phenotype and autophagic flux resulting in a loss of vascular integrity and VSM cell death respectfully. Both clinical pilot and experimental stroke studies demonstrate that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulation improves stroke outcome; however, specific mechanisms associated with a beneficial outcome at the level of the cerebrovasculature have not been clearly elucidated. Read More

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The Burkholderia pseudomallei intracellular 'TRANSITome'.

Nat Commun 2021 03 26;12(1):1907. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Life Sciences, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI, USA.

Prokaryotic cell transcriptomics has been limited to mixed or sub-population dynamics and individual cells within heterogeneous populations, which has hampered further understanding of spatiotemporal and stage-specific processes of prokaryotic cells within complex environments. Here we develop a 'TRANSITomic' approach to profile transcriptomes of single Burkholderia pseudomallei cells as they transit through host cell infection at defined stages, yielding pathophysiological insights. We find that B. Read More

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Insulin resistance, cardiovascular stiffening and cardiovascular disease.

Metabolism 2021 Mar 22;119:154766. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA; Diabetes and Cardiovascular Center, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA; Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA. Electronic address:

The cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) and obesity are typically characterized by a state of metabolic insulin resistance. As global and US rates of obesity increase there is an acceleration of the incidence and prevalence of insulin resistance along with associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). Under physiological conditions insulin regulates glucose homeostasis by enhancing glucose disposal in insulin sensitive tissues while also regulating delivery of nutrients through its vasodilation actions on small feed arteries. Read More

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Inverse Power Law Scaling of Energy Dissipation Rate in Nonequilibrium Reaction Networks.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Feb;126(8):080601

IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598, USA.

The energy dissipation rate in a nonequilibrium reaction system can be determined by the reaction rates in the underlying reaction network. By developing a coarse-graining process in state space and a corresponding renormalization procedure for reaction rates, we find that energy dissipation rate has an inverse power-law dependence on the number of microscopic states in a coarse-grained state. The dissipation scaling law requires self-similarity of the underlying network, and the scaling exponent depends on the network structure and the probability flux correlation. Read More

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February 2021

LRRK2; a dynamic regulator of cellular trafficking.

Brain Res 2021 Mar 2;1761:147394. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Parkinson's disease (PD) represents the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized clinically by bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and postural instability, and a variety of non-motor features. The etiology of PD is unknown, however genetic, environmental and inflammatory factors may influence disease onset and progression. Genetic variability in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 confers significant genotypic and population-attributable risk for LRRK2-parkinsonism that is clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic PD. Read More

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Quasi-steady-state reduction of a model for cytoplasmic transport of secretory vesicles in stimulated chromaffin cells.

Authors:
Dietmar B Oelz

J Math Biol 2021 Mar 4;82(4):29. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Neurosecretory cells spatially redistribute their pool of secretory vesicles upon stimulation. Recent observations suggest that in chromaffin cells vesicles move either freely or in a directed fashion by what appears to be a conveyor belt mechanism. We suggest that this observation reflects the transient active transport through molecular motors along cytoskeleton fibres and quantify this effect using a 1D mathematical model that couples a diffusion equation to advection equations. Read More

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Tanshinone IIA regulates fibroblast proliferation and migration and post-surgery arthrofibrosis through the autophagy-mediated PI3K and AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(2):565-584. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Central South University Changsha 410012, Hunan, China.

Post-surgery arthrofibrosis is one of the most restrictive factors in the development of intra-articular surgery and has presented tremendous obstacles for most orthopaedic surgeons. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), a key active ingredient of Den-shen, has been used to treat fibrosis-related diseases, such as pulmonary, hepatic and myocardial fibrosis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Tan IIA on post-surgery arthrofibrosis and . Read More

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February 2021

Sport Performance and Manual Therapies: A Review on the Effects on Mitochondrial, Sarcoplasmatic and Ca Flux Response.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Feb 9;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Research Commission on Mind-Body Therapies, Italian Society of Psycho Neuro Endocrino Immunology, 00198 Rome, Italy.

The present narrative review aims to highlight the possible effects manual therapies could have on cells and mitochondria, as these effects could improve athletic performance management. To this aim, this review summarizes the relationship between mechanical stimulation, with a special focus on physical activity, and cell response based on the most recent mechanobiology findings. Mechanobiology analyzes how cells respond to mechanical stressors coming from the environment. Read More

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February 2021

Ion and Water Transport in Neutrophil Granulocytes and Its Impairment during Sepsis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 8;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Institute of Clinical and Experimental Trauma-Immunology, University Hospital of Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

Neutrophil granulocytes are the vanguard of innate immunity in response to numerous pathogens. Their activity drives the clearance of microbe- and damage-associated molecular patterns, thereby contributing substantially to the resolution of inflammation. However, excessive stimulation during sepsis leads to cellular unresponsiveness, immunological dysfunction, bacterial expansion, and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction. Read More

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February 2021

α-synuclein impairs autophagosome maturation through abnormal actin stabilization.

PLoS Genet 2021 Feb 8;17(2):e1009359. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Vesicular trafficking defects, particularly those in the autophagolysosomal system, have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and related α-synucleinopathies. However, mechanisms mediating dysfunction of membrane trafficking remain incompletely understood. Using a Drosophila model of α-synuclein neurotoxicity with widespread and robust pathology, we find that human α-synuclein expression impairs autophagic flux in aging adult neurons. Read More

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February 2021

Function and regulation of the divisome for mitochondrial fission.

Nature 2021 02 3;590(7844):57-66. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Mitochondria form dynamic networks in the cell that are balanced by the flux of iterative fusion and fission events of the organelles. It is now appreciated that mitochondrial fission also represents an end-point event in a signalling axis that allows cells to sense and respond to external cues. The fission process is orchestrated by membrane-associated adaptors, influenced by organellar and cytoskeletal interactions and ultimately executed by the dynamin-like GTPase DRP1. Read More

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February 2021

The Cycling of Intracellular Calcium Released in Response to Fluid Shear Stress Is Critical for Migration-Associated Actin Reorganization in Eosinophils.

Cells 2021 01 15;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada.

The magnitude of eosinophil mobilization into respiratory tissues drives the severity of inflammation in several airway diseases. In classical models of leukocyte extravasation, surface integrins undergo conformational switches to high-affinity states via chemokine binding activation. Recently, we learned that eosinophil integrins possess mechanosensitive properties that detect fluid shear stress, which alone was sufficient to induce activation. Read More

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January 2021

Local modulation of Neurofilament transport at Nodes of Ranvier.

Authors:
Zelin Jia Yinyun Li

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2020 09 8;6(5):055025. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

School of Systems Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, People's Republic of China.

Neurofilaments (NFs) are the most abundant cytoskeletal filaments undergoing 'slow axonal transport' in axons, and the population of NFs determines the axonal morphology. Both in vitro and ex-vivo experimental evidences show that the caliber of node is much thinner and the number of NFs in the node is much lower than the internode. Based on the Continuity equation, lower population of NFs indicates faster transport velocity. Read More

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September 2020

Global changes to HepG2 cell metabolism in response to galactose treatment.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 05 13;320(5):C778-C793. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

Tumor cell proliferation requires sufficient metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway to meet the demand for biosynthetic precursors and to increase protection against oxidative stress which in turn requires an upregulation of substrate flow through glycolysis. This metabolic poise is often coupled with a shift in ATP production from mitochondrial OXPHOS to substrate-level phosphorylation. Despite major advances that were facilitated by using tumor-derived cell lines in research areas spanning from membrane to cytoskeletal biology, this distorted metabolic profile limits their impact as a model in physiology and toxicology. Read More

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Dinoflagellates alter their carbon and nutrient metabolic strategies across environmental gradients in the central Pacific Ocean.

Nat Microbiol 2021 02 4;6(2):173-186. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA.

Marine microeukaryotes play a fundamental role in biogeochemical cycling through the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels and vertical carbon transport. Despite their global importance, microeukaryote physiology, nutrient metabolism and contributions to carbon cycling across offshore ecosystems are poorly characterized. Here, we observed the prevalence of dinoflagellates along a 4,600-km meridional transect extending across the central Pacific Ocean, where oligotrophic gyres meet equatorial upwelling waters rich in macronutrients yet low in dissolved iron. Read More

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February 2021

Dystonin loss-of-function leads to impaired autophagy-endolysosomal pathway dynamics.

Biochem Cell Biol 2020 Dec 21. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 10055, Ottawa, Canada.

The neuronal dystonin protein (DST-a) is a large cytoskeletal linker important for integrating the various components of the cytoskeleton. Recessive Dst mutations lead to a sensory neuropathy in mice known as dystonia musculorum (Dstdt). The disease is characterized by ataxia, autonomic disturbances, and ultimately death, which are associated with massive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neuron degeneration. Read More

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December 2020

Cx43 and the Actin Cytoskeleton: Novel Roles and Implications for Cell-Cell Junction-Based Barrier Function Regulation.

Biomolecules 2020 12 10;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Center for Heart and Reparative Medicine Research, Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA.

Barrier function is a vital homeostatic mechanism employed by epithelial and endothelial tissue. Diseases across a wide range of tissue types involve dynamic changes in transcellular junctional complexes and the actin cytoskeleton in the regulation of substance exchange across tissue compartments. In this review, we focus on the contribution of the gap junction protein, Cx43, to the biophysical and biochemical regulation of barrier function. Read More

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December 2020

Quantifying accuracy and heterogeneity in single-molecule super-resolution microscopy.

Nat Commun 2020 12 11;11(1):6353. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, 63130, USA.

The resolution and accuracy of single-molecule localization microscopes (SMLMs) are routinely benchmarked using simulated data, calibration rulers, or comparisons to secondary imaging modalities. However, these methods cannot quantify the nanoscale accuracy of an arbitrary SMLM dataset. Here, we show that by computing localization stability under a well-chosen perturbation with accurate knowledge of the imaging system, we can robustly measure the confidence of individual localizations without ground-truth knowledge of the sample. Read More

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December 2020

Finding MEMO-Emerging Evidence for MEMO1's Function in Development and Disease.

Genes (Basel) 2020 Nov 6;11(11). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Iowa Institute for Oral Health Research, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Although conserved throughout animal kingdoms, the protein encoded by the gene Mediator of ERBB2 Driven Cell Motility 1 or , has only recently come into focus. True to its namesake, MEMO1 first emerged from a proteomic screen of molecules bound to the ERBB2 receptor and was found to be necessary for efficient cell migration upon receptor activation. While initially placed within the context of breast cancer metastasis-a pathological state that has provided tremendous insight into MEMO1's cellular roles-MEMO1's function has since expanded to encompass additional cancer cell types, developmental processes during embryogenesis and homeostatic regulation of adult organ systems. Read More

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November 2020

Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein regulates non-selective autophagy and mitochondrial homeostasis in human myeloid cells.

Elife 2020 11 2;9. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Programme, University College London Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.

The actin cytoskeletal regulator Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) has been implicated in maintenance of the autophagy-inflammasome axis in innate murine immune cells. Here, we show that WASp deficiency is associated with impaired rapamycin-induced autophagosome formation and trafficking to lysosomes in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). WASp reconstitution in vitro and in WAS patients following clinical gene therapy restores autophagic flux and is dependent on the actin-related protein complex ARP2/3. Read More

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November 2020

NMDAR in cultured astrocytes: Flux-independent pH sensor and flux-dependent regulator of mitochondria and plasma membrane-mitochondria bridging.

FASEB J 2020 12 1;34(12):16622-16644. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Laboratorio Nacional de Canalopatías, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México City, México.

Glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) is critical for neurotransmission as a Ca channel. Nonetheless, flux-independent signaling has also been demonstrated. Astrocytes express NMDAR distinct from its neuronal counterpart, but cultured astrocytes have no electrophysiological response to NMDA. Read More

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December 2020

Microtubule poleward flux in human cells is driven by the coordinated action of four kinesins.

EMBO J 2020 12 19;39(23):e105432. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Danish Cancer Society Research Center (DCRC), Copenhagen, Denmark.

Mitotic spindle microtubules (MTs) undergo continuous poleward flux, whose driving force and function in humans remain unclear. Here, we combined loss-of-function screenings with analysis of MT-dynamics in human cells to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying MT-flux. We report that kinesin-7/CENP-E at kinetochores (KTs) is the predominant driver of MT-flux in early prometaphase, while kinesin-4/KIF4A on chromosome arms facilitates MT-flux during late prometaphase and metaphase. Read More

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December 2020

Tumor necrosis factor-α requires Ezrin to regulate the cytoskeleton and cause pulmonary microvascular endothelial barrier damage.

Microvasc Res 2021 01 30;133:104093. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, PR China. Electronic address:

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapidly progressive disease with unknown pathogenesis. Damage of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) caused by inflammatory storm caused by cytokines such as TNF-α is the potential pathogenesis of ARDS. In this study, we examined the role of ezrin and Rac1 in TNF-α-related pathways, which regulates the permeability of PMVECs. Read More

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January 2021

Integrin-associated ILK and PINCH1 protein content are reduced in skeletal muscle of maintenance haemodialysis patients.

J Physiol 2020 12 2;598(24):5701-5716. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Life Sciences, Sport and Exercise Science Research Center, University of Roehampton, London, UK.

Key Points: Patients with renal failure undergoing maintenance haemodialysis are associated with insulin resistance and protein metabolism dysfunction. Novel research suggests that disruption to the transmembrane protein linkage between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix in skeletal muscle may contribute to reduced amino acid metabolism and insulin resistance in haemodialysis. ILK, PINCH1 and pFAK were significantly decreased in haemodialysis compared to controls, whereas Rac1 and Akt2 showed no different between groups. Read More

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December 2020

Regulation of degenerative spheroids after injury.

Sci Rep 2020 09 22;10(1):15472. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904-4328, USA.

Neuronal injury leads to rapid, programmed disintegration of axons distal to the site of lesion. Much like other forms of axon degeneration (e.g. Read More

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September 2020

Knockdown of Death-Associated Protein Expression Induces Global Transcriptome Changes in Proliferating and Differentiating Muscle Satellite Cells.

Front Physiol 2020 14;11:1036. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.

Death-associated protein (DAP) undergoes substantial changes in expression during turkey skeletal muscle development, decreasing from the 18 day embryonic stage to 1 day posthatch, and again from 1 day posthatch to 16 weeks of age. These changes suggest that DAP plays an important role at critical stages of the developmental process. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of DAP in muscle development by examining the effect of reduced expression on global gene expression in proliferating and differentiating turkey muscle satellite cells. Read More

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Reciprocal regulation of Aurora kinase A and ATIP3 in the control of metaphase spindle length.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Feb 13;78(4):1765-1779. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Inserm U981, Department of Molecular Medicine, Gustave Roussy Cancer Center, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94800, Villejuif, France.

Maintaining the integrity of the mitotic spindle in metaphase is essential to ensure normal cell division. We show here that depletion of microtubule-associated protein ATIP3 reduces metaphase spindle length. Mass spectrometry analyses identified the microtubule minus-end depolymerizing kinesin Kif2A as an ATIP3 binding protein. Read More

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February 2021

BCALM (AC099524.1) Is a Human B Lymphocyte-Specific Long Noncoding RNA That Modulates B Cell Receptor-Mediated Calcium Signaling.

J Immunol 2020 08 22;205(3):595-607. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110

Of the thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) identified in lymphocytes, very few have defined functions. In this study, we report the discovery and functional elucidation of a human B cell-specific lncRNA with high levels of expression in three types of B cell cancer and normal B cells. The gene is upstream of the gene encoding the B cell-specific phospholipase C γ 2 (), a B cell-specific enzyme that stimulates intracellular Ca signaling in response to BCR activation. Read More

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The PKGIα/VASP pathway is involved in insulin- and high glucose-dependent regulation of albumin permeability in cultured rat podocytes.

J Biochem 2020 Dec;168(6):575-588

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Nephrology, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland.

Podocytes, the principal component of the glomerular filtration barrier, regulate glomerular permeability to albumin via their contractile properties. Both insulin- and high glucose (HG)-dependent activation of protein kinase G type Iα (PKGIα) cause reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and podocyte disruption. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is a substrate for PKGIα and involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Read More

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December 2020