75 results match your criteria fluoroquinolones examples

Antibiotic residues in substrates and output materials from biogas plants - Implications for agriculture.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 29;278:130425. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Crop and Soil Science, Bundesallee 69, 38116, Braunschweig, Germany. Electronic address:

Bio-based fertilizers including farmyard manure, sewage sludge, meat and bone meal, composts, digestates and derived products are nutrient-rich fertilizers. They deliver organic matter but may pose the risk to contaminate soils by pollutants such as pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, resistance genes or pathogens. Manure and sewage sludge are increasingly used in biogas plants for energy production with the residue being used as fertilizer. Read More

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The microbiome of a polluted urban lake harbors pathogens with diverse antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 11;273:116488. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Center of Limnology and Aquatic Resources, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is one of the greatest threats to the modern human population. Paradoxically, urban settlements are often culpable in generating such resistance by influencing the adaptation of bacterial communities via pollution of natural ecosystems. Urban lakes are well-known examples of this problem, as they often receive discharges of both domestic and industrial wastewater. Read More

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January 2021

Sales data as a measure of antibiotics usage: Concepts, examples and discussion of influencing factors.

Vet Med Sci 2020 02 21;6(1):154-163. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

PHW-Zentrallabor, Visbek, Germany.

Monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial usage in animals is a public health concern and different methods are currently discussed widely in public, science and politics. The objective of the paper is to present the available methods of monitoring and to discuss possible differences in the assessment of the antibiotics treatment. Sales data are expressed as the average amount of substance per animal or kg live weight (e. Read More

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February 2020

Developing an antimicrobial stewardship program across a rural health system: The Avera Health experience.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2019 Jan;76(2):108-113

Avera Health Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Avera Medical Group Infectious Disease Specialists, Sioux Falls, SD.

Purpose: The stages of development of a health system-wide antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) using existing personnel and technology are described.

Summary: Small hospitals with limited resources may struggle to meet ASP requirements, particularly facilities without onsite infectious disease physicians and/or experienced infectious disease pharmacists. Strategies for ASP development employed by Avera Health, a 33-hospital health system in the Midwest, included identifying relevant drug utilization and resistance patterns, education and pathway development, and implementation of Web-based conferencing to provide pharmacists throughout the system with access to infectious disease expertise on a daily basis. Read More

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January 2019

Embryonic development, locomotor behavior, biochemical, and epigenetic effects of the pharmaceutical drugs paracetamol and ciprofloxacin in larvae and embryos of Danio rerio when exposed to environmental realistic levels of both drugs.

Environ Toxicol 2019 Nov 19;34(11):1177-1190. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, Aveiro, Portugal.

For several years, the scientific community has been concerned about the presence of pharmaceuticals in the wild, since these compounds may have unpredictable deleterious effects on living organisms. Two examples of widely used pharmaceuticals that are present in the environment are paracetamol and ciprofloxacin. Despite their common presence in the aquatic environment due to their poor removal by sewage treatment plants, knowledge concerning their putative toxic effects is still scarce. Read More

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November 2019

Cyclodextrins as Chiral Selectors in Capillary Electrophoresis Enantioseparations.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1985:339-356

Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Charles University, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

Due to their structural variability and their commercial availability, cyclodextrins are the most frequently used chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis. A variety of migration modes can be realized depending on the characteristics of the cyclodextrins and the analytes. The basic considerations regarding the development of a chiral CE method employing cyclodextrins as chiral selectors are briefly discussed. Read More

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January 2020

One Health-Its Importance in Helping to Better Control Antimicrobial Resistance.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Jan 29;4(1). Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph N1G 2W1, Canada.

Approaching any issue from a One Health perspective necessitates looking at the interactions of people, domestic animals, wildlife, plants, and our environment. For antimicrobial resistance this includes antimicrobial use (and abuse) in the human, animal and environmental sectors. More importantly, the spread of resistant bacteria and resistance determinants within and between these sectors and globally must be addressed. Read More

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January 2019

Antimicrobial Resistance in spp.

Microbiol Spectr 2018 04;6(2)

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

is a major foodborne pathogen and has become increasingly resistant to clinically important antimicrobials. To cope with the selection pressure from antimicrobial use in both veterinary and human medicine, has developed multiple mechanisms for antibiotic resistance, including modification or mutation of antimicrobial targets, modification or inactivation of antibiotics, and reduced drug accumulation by drug efflux pumps. Some of these mechanisms confer resistance to a specific class of antimicrobials, while others give rise to multidrug resistance. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations of Antibiotics of Last Resort in Treating Gram-Negative Infections in Adult Critically Ill Patients.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Apr 5;20(5):10. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We provide an overview of antimicrobials that are considered last resort for the treatment of resistant gram-negative infections in adult critically ill patients. The role in therapy, pharmacodynamic (PD) goals, and pharmacokinetic (PK) changes in critical illness for aminoglycosides, polymyxins, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and fluoroquinolones are summarized.

Recent Findings: Altered PK in septic patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is observed with many of our agents of last resort. Read More

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Phase variation of DNA methyltransferases and the regulation of virulence and immune evasion in the pathogenic Neisseria.

Pathog Dis 2017 08;75(6)

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia.

The pathogenic Neisseria provide textbook examples of phase variation: the high frequency, random and reversible switching of gene expression. Typically, phase variable gene expression is observed in genes required for the expression of surface proteins and carbohydrate structures. All Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. Read More

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Improving the estimation of parameter uncertainty distributions in nonlinear mixed effects models using sampling importance resampling.

J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2016 12 11;43(6):583-596. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Box 591, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.

Taking parameter uncertainty into account is key to make drug development decisions such as testing whether trial endpoints meet defined criteria. Currently used methods for assessing parameter uncertainty in NLMEM have limitations, and there is a lack of diagnostics for when these limitations occur. In this work, a method based on sampling importance resampling (SIR) is proposed, which has the advantage of being free of distributional assumptions and does not require repeated parameter estimation. Read More

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December 2016

dOFV distributions: a new diagnostic for the adequacy of parameter uncertainty in nonlinear mixed-effects models applied to the bootstrap.

J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2016 12 11;43(6):597-608. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 591, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.

Knowledge of the uncertainty in model parameters is essential for decision-making in drug development. Contrarily to other aspects of nonlinear mixed effects models (NLMEM), scrutiny towards assumptions around parameter uncertainty is low, and no diagnostic exists to judge whether the estimated uncertainty is appropriate. This work aims at introducing a diagnostic capable of assessing the appropriateness of a given parameter uncertainty distribution. Read More

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December 2016

Glycosylated Conductive Polymer: A Multimodal Biointerface for Studying Carbohydrate-Protein Interactions.

Acc Chem Res 2016 09 15;49(9):1624-33. Epub 2016 Aug 15.

Department of Chemistry, Oakland University , Rochester, Michigan 48309, United States.

Carbohydrate-protein interactions occur through glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides displayed on the cell surface with lectins. However, studying these interactions is challenging because of the complexity and heterogeneity of the cell surface, the inherent structural complexity of carbohydrates, and the typically weak affinities of the binding reactions between the lectins and monovalent carbohydrates. The lack of chromophores and fluorophores in carbohydrate structures often drives such investigations toward fluorescence labeling techniques, which usually require tedious and complex synthetic work to conjugate fluorescent tags with additional risk of altering the reaction dynamics. Read More

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September 2016

Aminoglycosides: An Overview.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2016 06 1;6(6). Epub 2016 Jun 1.

Achaogen, South San Francisco, California 94080 Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143.

Aminoglycosides are natural or semisynthetic antibiotics derived from actinomycetes. They were among the first antibiotics to be introduced for routine clinical use and several examples have been approved for use in humans. They found widespread use as first-line agents in the early days of antimicrobial chemotherapy, but were eventually replaced in the 1980s with cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones. Read More

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Solubility-driven lead optimisation: Recent examples and personal perspectives.

Nadia M Ahmad

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2016 07 19;26(13):2975-2979. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Vertex Pharmaceuticals, 86-88 Jubilee Avenue, Milton Park, Abingdon OX14 4RY, United Kingdom.

Solubility is recognised as one of the most important physicochemical parameters necessary for a successful clinical candidate. Despite that, there are few articles in the medicinal chemistry literature with a specific focus on solubility-driven optimisation of lead compounds. This could be because the importance of measuring solubilities as part of the optimisation process is relatively underappreciated, or the fact that obtaining sufficient high quality solubility data is difficult. Read More

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Scaffold Repurposing of Old Drugs Towards New Cancer Drug Discovery.

Curr Top Med Chem 2016 ;16(19):2107-14

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, United States.

As commented by the Nobelist James Black that "The most fruitful basis of the discovery of a new drug is to start with an old drug", drug repurposing represents an attractive drug discovery strategy. Despite the success of several repurposed drugs on the market, the ultimate therapeutic potential of a large number of non-cancer drugs is hindered during their repositioning due to various issues including the limited efficacy and intellectual property. With the increasing knowledge about the pharmacological properties and newly identified targets, the scaffolds of the old drugs emerge as a great treasure-trove towards new cancer drug discovery. Read More

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February 2017

[Antibiotic stewardship (ABS). Definition, contents, necessity and practice on examples of current clinical-urological controversies].

Urologe A 2016 Apr;55(4):489-93

Klinik für Urologie, Universität Regensburg, Caritas Krankenhaus St. Josef, Regensburg, Deutschland.

Background: Infectious diseases caused by multi-resistant pathogens are increasing worldwide and are posing a challenge to German urology as well. Furthermore, there is a limited perspective of new antibiotic developments. One way out of this dilemma is a differentiated handling and use of antibiotics (antibiotic stewardship, ABS). Read More

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Trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from humans in Belgium, 2009 to 2013.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 Jan 10;59(1):544-52. Epub 2014 Nov 10.

Unit Bacterial Diseases, Scientific Institute of Public Health (WIV-ISP), Brussels, Belgium

The Belgian National Reference Centre for Salmonella received 16,544 human isolates of Salmonella enterica between January 2009 and December 2013. Although 377 different serotypes were identified, the landscape is dominated by S. enterica serovars Typhimurium (55%) and Enteritidis (19%) in a ratio which is inverse to European Union averages. Read More

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January 2015

Adverse drug reactions - examples of detection of rare events using databases.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2015 Oct 1;80(4):855-61. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Centre for Safe Medication Practice and Research, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

It is recognised that randomised controlled trials are not feasible for capturing rare adverse events. There is an increasing trend towards observational research methodologies using large population-based health databases. These databases offer more scope for adequate sample sizes, allowing for comprehensive patient characterisation and assessment of the associated factors. Read More

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October 2015

Concordance between criteria for covariate model building.

J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2014 Apr 6;41(2):109-25. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Bioscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden,

When performing a population pharmacokinetic modelling analysis covariates are often added to the model. Such additions are often justified by improved goodness of fit and/or decreased in unexplained (random) parameter variability. Increased goodness of fit is most commonly measured by the decrease in the objective function value. Read More

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Monitoring of dynamic microbiological processes using real-time flow cytometry.

PLoS One 2013 14;8(11):e80117. Epub 2013 Nov 14.

Department of Environmental Microbiology, Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland ; Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

We describe a straightforward approach to continuously monitor a variety of highly dynamic microbiological processes in millisecond resolution with flow cytometry, using standard bench-top instrumentation. Four main experimental examples are provided, namely: (1) green fluorescent protein expression by antibiotic-stressed Escherichia coli, (2) fluorescent labeling of heat-induced membrane damage in an autochthonous freshwater bacterial community, (3) the initial growth response of late stationary E. coli cells inoculated into fresh growth media, and (4) oxidative disinfection of a mixed culture of auto-fluorescent microorganisms. Read More

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Systematic review of allelic exchange experiments aimed at identifying mutations that confer drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2014 Feb 20;69(2):331-42. Epub 2013 Sep 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Background: Improving our understanding of the relationship between the genotype and the drug resistance phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis will aid the development of more accurate molecular diagnostics for drug-resistant tuberculosis. Studies that use direct genetic manipulation to identify the mutations that cause M. tuberculosis drug resistance are superior to associational studies in elucidating an individual mutation's contribution to the drug resistance phenotype. Read More

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February 2014

[The eye as target of adverse ocular drug reactions. Focus on systemic antiinfective therapy].

Med Monatsschr Pharm 2012 Dec;35(12):436-42; quiz 443-4

Charité - Universitäts-medizin Berlin, Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin.

The functions of the eye can be disturbed by pharmaceutical agents via various mechanisms. This review describes the complexity of ocular adverse drug reactions and underlines the need for a close interdisciplinary cooperation especially in this field to optimize drug safety. Antimicrobial agents will be used as examples to describe ocular adverse drug reactions. Read More

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December 2012

[Epidemiological overview of antibiotic resistance in France and worldwide].

Guillaume Arlet

Rev Prat 2012 Sep;62(7):962-7

Service de Bactériologie hygiène, hôpital Tenon, póle biologie médicale et pathologie, hôpitaux universitaires Est Parisien, AP-HP, département de Bactériologie, faculté de médecine Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie-Paris-6, 75970 Paris Cedex, France.

Antibiotic resistance appeared early after the introduction of these molecules in therapeutic. But, this resistance has long been confined to care facilities. Twenty years ago, resistance emerged in community with the methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and also with the reduced susceptibility to penicillin in pneumococci, which are good examples. Read More

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September 2012

Is repositioning of drugs a viable alternative in the treatment of tuberculosis?

J Antimicrob Chemother 2013 Feb 16;68(2):275-83. Epub 2012 Oct 16.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Biochemistry & Microbiology, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.

Antimicrobial resistance is a serious problem because of the scarcity of new antibiotics effective against pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Extensively drug resistance is particularly worrying in tuberculosis (TB), since the causative bacteria have become resistant to almost all available first- and second-line drugs and resistance is a threat to achieving control of the disease. Development of new drugs is a lengthy and costly endeavour. Read More

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February 2013

Current epidemiology and growing resistance of gram-negative pathogens.

Korean J Intern Med 2012 Jun 31;27(2):128-42. Epub 2012 May 31.

Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.

In the 1980s, gram-negative pathogens appeared to have been beaten by oxyimino-cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones. Yet these pathogens have fought back, aided by their membrane organization, which promotes the exclusion and efflux of antibiotics, and by a remarkable propensity to recruit, transfer, and modify the expression of resistance genes, including those for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemases, aminoglycoside-blocking 16S rRNA methylases, and even a quinolone-modifying variant of an aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme. Gram-negative isolates--both fermenters and non-fermenters--susceptible only to colistin and, more variably, fosfomycin and tigecycline, are encountered with increasing frequency, including in Korea. Read More

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Early steps in the development of a claims-based targeted healthcare safety monitoring system and application to three empirical examples.

Drug Saf 2012 May;35(5):407-16

Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02120, USA.

Background: Several efforts are under way to develop and test methods for prospective drug safety monitoring using large, electronic claims databases. Prospective monitoring systems must incorporate signalling algorithms and techniques to mitigate confounding in order to minimize false positive and false negative signals due to chance and bias.

Objective: The aim of the study was to describe a prototypical targeted active safety monitoring system and apply the framework to three empirical examples. Read More

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The difficulties of polytherapy: examples from antimicrobial chemotherapy.

Teresita Mazzei

Intern Emerg Med 2011 Oct;6 Suppl 1:103-9

Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, Florence, Italy.

Medical therapy in patients with more than one pathology means using more pharmaceuticals, which results in a higher risk of drug interactions which are modifications in the action of one drug when it is administered in the presence of another. The consequences can be diminished therapeutic effect or increased adverse reactions. The pharmacological interactions can be either physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic, on the basis of their mechanisms. Read More

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October 2011

Exploiting bacterial DNA gyrase as a drug target: current state and perspectives.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2011 Nov 9;92(3):479-97. Epub 2011 Sep 9.

Department Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK.

DNA gyrase is a type II topoisomerase that can introduce negative supercoils into DNA at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. It is essential in all bacteria but absent from higher eukaryotes, making it an attractive target for antibacterials. The fluoroquinolones are examples of very successful gyrase-targeted drugs, but the rise in bacterial resistance to these agents means that we not only need to seek new compounds, but also new modes of inhibition of this enzyme. Read More

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November 2011