31,105 results match your criteria flu shot

Are patients with rheumatic diseases on immunosuppressive therapies protected against preventable infections? A cross-sectional cohort study.

RMD Open 2021 Apr;7(1)

Rheumatology, Rheumazentrum Ruhrgebiet, Herne, Germany.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of infections, prevalence of hospitalisation due to infections, the vaccination status and perceived screening of infections prior to the start of biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) of a patient cohort with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRD).

Methods: Consecutive CIRD patients reporting to our specialised centre were prospectively included (n=975) in this cross-sectional study. Data on comorbidities including infections, treatment, vaccination status, screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and hepatitis B (HepB) were collected. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy: realizing the potential of maternal influenza immunization.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston TX.

Introduction: Pregnant women are at higher risk of severe complications following influenza infection compared to the general population. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy can offer direct protection to pregnant women and passive immunity to infants up to six months of age via maternal antibodies. Pregnant women are a high priority group for influenza immunization. Read More

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Investigating the procurement system for understanding seasonal influenza vaccine brand availability in Europe.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0248943. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Seqirus, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Timely knowledge of which influenza vaccine brands are procured and where is of interest to inform site-selection for brand-specific influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies. Vaccine procurement is a key determinant of brand availability. We therefore sought to understand how the procurement for seasonal influenza vaccine in Europe is organized, how this drives brand availability and how procurement data could enable to determine brand availability pre-season. Read More

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Better, Faster, Stronger: mRNA Vaccines Show Promise for Influenza Vaccination in Older Adults.

Immunol Invest 2021 Apr 8:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Center on Aging and Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.

Older adults have diminished immune responses that lead to increased susceptibility and severity of infectious diseases. Influenza is a leading killer of older adults despite the availability of seasonal influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccines are strain specific, and their efficacy varies greatly year to year based on how well the vaccine virus matches the circulating strains. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 show no infectivity at later stages in a prolonged COVID-19 patient despite positivity in RNA testing.

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pathology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Inpatient COVID-19 cases present enormous costs to patients and health systems in the United States. Many hospitalized patients may continue testing COVID-19 positive even after resolution of symptoms. Thus, a pressing concern for clinicians is the safety of discharging these asymptomatic patients if they have any remaining infectivity. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection and H1N1 vaccination: does a relationship between the two factors really exist? A retrospective analysis of a territorial cohort in Ferrara, Italy.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Mar;25(6):2795-2801

Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Objective: SARS-CoV-2 has been compared with other strains of coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and with the flu viruses: all of them manifest themselves with respiratory symptoms and, although their genetic patterns are similar, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection has quickly reached global dimensions, demonstrating that SARS-CoV-2 is a virus with greater spreading capacity, albeit less lethal. Compared with influenza viruses, coronaviruses have a longer incubation period and the patients with coronaviruses' syndromes develop more severe diseases requiring frequent hospitalizations and intensive care admissions. The aim was to explore the relationships between seasonal influenza vaccination and coronavirus infection and to understand whether this hypothetic role by the flu vaccines modifies SARS-CoV-2 infection's outcomes. Read More

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Attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination, vaccine hesitancy and intention to take the vaccine.

Pharm Pract (Granada) 2021 Jan-Mar;19(1):2317. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

BSc.,MSc, PhD. Professor. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Malta. Msida (Malta).

Background: The pandemic is at a paradoxical stage, with vaccine roll out initiated but a significantly elevated level of infection and death. Hope for recovery lies in high equitable vaccine uptake.

Objective: The study aimed to: i) explore attitudes and factors influencing attitudes, towards the COVID-19 vaccine amongst people living in Malta, ii) identify the reasons as to why individuals are unsure or unwilling to take the vaccine. Read More

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Transmission and protection against re-infection in the ferret model with the SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 reference isolate.

J Virol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 has initiated a global pandemic and several vaccines have now received emergency use authorization. Using the reference strain SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020, we evaluated modes of transmission and the ability of prior infection or vaccine-induced immunity to protect against infection in ferrets. Ferrets were semi-permissive to infection with the USA-WA1/2020 isolate. Read More

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Development of a Genetically Stable Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Strain using an Engineered High-Fidelity Viral Polymerase.

J Virol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Microbiology, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, Japan

RNA viruses demonstrate a vast range of variants, called quasispecies, due to error-prone replication by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Although live attenuated vaccines are effective in preventing RNA virus infection, there is a risk of reversal to virulence post their administration. To test the hypothesis that high-fidelity viral polymerase reduces the diversity of influenza virus quasispecies, resulting in inhibition of reversal of the attenuated phenotype, we first screened for a high-fidelity viral polymerase using serial virus passages under selection with a guanosine analog ribavirin. Read More

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Broadly protective CD8 T cell immunity to highly conserved epitopes elicited by heat shock protein gp96-adjuvanted influenza monovalent split vaccine.

J Virol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China

Currently, immunization with inactivated influenza virus vaccines is the most prevalent method to prevent infections. However, licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection and need to be updated and administered yearly; thus, new vaccines that provide broad protection against multiple influenza subtypes are required. In this study, we demonstrated that intradermal immunization with gp96-adjuvanted seasonal influenza monovalent H1N1 split vaccine could induce cross-protection against both group 1 and group 2 influenza A viruses in BALB/c mice models. Read More

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Willingness to vaccinate against influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 among Brazilian civil servants: Pró-Saúde cohort study.

Rev Bras Epidemiol 2021 2;24:e210014. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.

Objective: To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with the willingness to take the pandemic influenza vaccine.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of Brazilian civil servants participating in the fourth wave (2012-2013) of the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. Associations were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), estimated by multivariate logistic regression models. Read More

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The effect of calcium and magnesium on activity, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a recombinant N1/N2 neuraminidase vaccine.

NPJ Vaccines 2021 Apr 6;6(1):48. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

LID Clinical Studies Unit, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Despite the importance of immunity against neuraminidase (NA), NA content and immunogenicity are neglected in current influenza vaccines. To address this, a recombinant N1/N2 NA vaccine (NAV) was developed. Stability assays were used to determine optimal temperature and buffer conditions for vaccine storage. Read More

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Immunisation Coverage Annual Report 2019.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2021 Mar 31;45. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance.

Abstract: Australian Immunisation Register data have been analysed for children aged < 5 years, focusing on changes in vaccination coverage at standard age milestones (12, 24 and 60 months) between 2018 and 2019. 'Fully vaccinated' coverage in 2019 increased by 0.1-0. Read More

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Simultaneous Detection and Mutation Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and co-infections of multiple respiratory viruses by Rapid field-deployable sequencing.

Med (N Y) 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Strategies for monitoring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are crucial for combating the pandemic. Detection and mutation surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses require separate and complex workflows that rely on highly-specialized facilities, personnel, and reagents. To date, no method can rapidly diagnose multiple viral infections and determine variants in a high-throughput manner. Read More

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National Inpatient Immunization Patterns: Variation in Practice and Policy Between Vaccine Types.

Hosp Pediatr 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

The Saban Research Institute and Southern California Clinical and Translational Science Institute Biostatistics Core, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; and.

Background: Many hospitalized children are underimmunized, yet little is known about current systems supporting inpatient vaccination. We aim to describe national pediatric inpatient immunization practices and determine if variation exists among adolescent, childhood, and influenza vaccines.

Methods: An electronic survey regarding hospital vaccination practices was sent to physician, nurse, and pharmacy leaders via the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network in spring 2019. Read More

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Identification of the dominant non-neutralizing epitope in the haemagglutinin of H7N9 avian influenza virus.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 2;298:198409. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, The Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China; Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. Electronic address:

H7N9 avian influenza vaccines induce high levels of non-neutralizing (nonNeu) antibodies against the haemagglutinin (HA). However, the antigenic epitopes underlying this particular antibody response are still undefined. In this study, a panel of 13 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the HA protein of H7N9 virus was generated and 12 of them had no hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralizing activities. Read More

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The Rapid Development and Early Success of Covid 19 Vaccines Have Raised Hopes for Accelerating the Cancer Treatment Mechanism.

S Amanpour

Arch Razi Inst 2021 03 1;76(1):1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Cancer Biology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought about rapid change in medical science. The production of new generation vaccines for this disease has surprised even their most optimistic supporters. Not only have these vaccines proven to be effective, but the importance of this disease and pandemic situation also significantly shortened the long-standing process of validating such products. Read More

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Pharmacy, workplace or primary care? Where Australian adults get their influenza vaccines.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Biosecurity Program, The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales.

Objective: To estimate the proportion of influenza vaccines administered in non-medical settings in Australia in 2019 and identify factors associated with vaccination site.

Methods: We surveyed 1,444 Australian adults online in October 2019. To identify factors associated with vaccination site, we used Pearson's chi-square test. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development and how Brazil is contributing.

Genet Mol Biol 2021 29;44(1 Suppl 1):e20200320. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Instituto Butantan, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic calls for coordinated efforts by the scientific community for the development of vaccines. The most advanced strategies have focused on modifications of technologies that were already under development for other viruses, such as SARS, MERS, and even Influenza. Classic and new technologies, such as inactivated and attenuated viruses (non-replicative and replicative), DNA and mRNA vaccines, and nanoparticles containing SARS-CoV-2 antigens, are some of the strategies currently investigated. Read More

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Slowing the spread of COVID-19: Review of "Social distancing" interventions deployed by public transit in the United States and Canada.

Transp Policy (Oxf) 2021 Jun 27;106:25-36. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

The University Transportation Research Center, Region 2, The City College of New York, New York, 10031, USA.

This paper presents a review of social distancing measures deployed by transit agencies in the United States and Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic and discusses how specific operators across the two countries have implemented changes. Challenges and impacts on their operations are also provided. Social distancing is one of the community mitigation measures traditionally implemented during influenza pandemics and the novel coronavirus pandemic. Read More

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A retrospective cohort study assessing relative effectiveness of adjuvanted versus high-dose trivalent influenza vaccines among older adults in the United States during the 2018-19 influenza season.

Vaccine 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Seqirus Vaccines Ltd., Summit, NJ, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) against influenza-related hospitalizations/emergency room (ER) visits, influenza-related office visits, and cardio-respiratory disease (CRD)-related hospitalizations/ER visits and compare all-cause and influenza-related costs associated with two vaccines specifically indicated for older adults (≥65 years), adjuvanted (aTIV) and high-dose trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV-HD), for the 2018-19 influenza season.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of older adults was conducted using claims and hospital data in the United States. For clinical evaluations, adjusted analyses were conducted following inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to control for selection bias. Read More

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Intranasal Immunization with the Influenza A Virus Encoding Truncated NS1 Protein Protects Mice from Heterologous Challenge by Restraining the Inflammatory Response in the Lungs.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 26;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Smorodintsev Research Institute of Influenza, 197022 St. Petersburg, Russia.

Influenza viruses with an impaired NS1 protein are unable to antagonize the innate immune system and, therefore, are highly immunogenic because of the self-adjuvating effect. Hence, NS1-mutated viruses are considered promising candidates for the development of live-attenuated influenza vaccines and viral vectors for intranasal administration. We investigated whether the immunogenic advantage of the virus expressing only the N-terminal half of the NS1 protein (124 a. Read More

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Achieving Influenza Vaccine Uptake Target in Canada via a Pharmacy-Led Telephone Discussion during the 2019-2020 Season.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Western University Canada, London, ON N6A 5C2, Canada.

Older adults (≥65 years) are at elevated risk of influenza-related morbidity and mortality. Many developed countries do not achieve the World Health Organization influenza immunization target of 75% in people ≥65 years. We aimed to determine whether a brief pharmacy phone call could increase vaccine uptake of standard and enhanced influenza. Read More

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Antiviral Cyanometabolites-A Review.

Biomolecules 2021 03 22;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Virogenetics Laboratory of Virology, Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7A, PL-30-387 Krakow, Poland.

Global processes, such as climate change, frequent and distant travelling and population growth, increase the risk of viral infection spread. Unfortunately, the number of effective and accessible medicines for the prevention and treatment of these infections is limited. Therefore, in recent years, efforts have been intensified to develop new antiviral medicines or vaccines. Read More

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Factors Affecting Attitudes towards COVID-19 Vaccination: An Online Survey in Slovenia.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

InnoRenew CoE, Livade 6, 6310 Izola, Slovenia.

While the problem of vaccine hesitancy is not new, it has become more pronounced with the new COVID-19 vaccines and represents an obstacle to resolving the crisis. Even people who would usually trust vaccines and experts now prefer to wait for more information. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Slovenia in December 2020 to find out the attitudes of the population regarding COVID-19 vaccination and the factors that affect these attitudes. Read More

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A Call for a Reform of the Influenza Immunization Program in Mexico: Epidemiologic and Economic Evidence for Decision Making.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Vaccinology Section, Sociedad Mexicana de Salud Pública, Mexico City 11590, Mexico.

Limited information is available to determine the effectiveness of Mexico's national influenza vaccination guidelines and inform policy updates. We aim to propose reforms to current influenza vaccination policies based on our analysis of cost-effectiveness studies. This cross-sectional epidemiological study used influenza case, death, discharge and hospitalization data from several influenza seasons and applied a one-year decision-analytic model to assess cost-effectiveness. Read More

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Impact of Individual Viral Gene Segments from Influenza A/H5N8 Virus on the Protective Efficacy of Inactivated Subtype-Specific Influenza Vaccine.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 19;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Virus, National Research Centre, Environmental Research Division, Giza 12622, Egypt.

Since its emergence in 2014, the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 virus has continuously and rapidly spread worldwide in the poultry sector resulting in huge economic losses. A typical inactivated H5N8 vaccine is prepared using the six internal genes from A/PR8/1934 (H1N1) and the two major antigenic proteins (HA and NA) from the circulating H5N8 strain with the HA modified to a low pathogenic form (PR8). The contribution of the other internal proteins from H5N8, either individually or in combination, to the overall protective efficacy of PR8-based H5N8 vaccine has not been investigated. Read More

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Attitudes and Knowledge of European Medical Students and Early Graduates about Vaccination and Self-Reported Vaccination Coverage-Multinational Cross-Sectional Survey.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 30;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

European Medical Students' Association (EMSA), Rue Guimard 15, 1040 Brussels, Belgium.

Vaccination is one of the most useful preventive interventions in healthcare. The purpose of our study was to gain overview of the opinions, knowledge, and engagement in vaccination practices among medical students (MS) and junior doctors (JD) in Europe. The survey was distributed from March 2016 until August 2016 via the e-mail and social media of the European Medical Students' Association. Read More

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Acceptability of a COVID-19 Vaccine among the Saudi Population.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Economics Department, Chancellor College, University of Malawi, Zomba, Malawi.

To investigate the associated factors underlying vaccination intentions for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), an online cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults 18 years or over in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected between 8 and 14 December 2020. A logistic regression analysis was employed to examine and identify the variables associated with vaccination intentions for COVID-19, with the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) also calculated. Read More

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Safety and Immunogenicity of a Novel Intranasal Influenza Vaccine (NasoVAX): A Phase 2 Randomized, Controlled Trial.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Altimmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA.

Annual influenza vaccination greatly reduces morbidity and mortality, but effectiveness remains sub-optimal. Weaknesses of current vaccines include low effectiveness against mismatched strains, lack of mucosal and other effective tissue-resident immune responses, weak cellular immune responses, and insufficiently durable immune responses. The safety and immunogenicity of NasoVAX, a monovalent intranasal influenza vaccine based on a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5 platform, were evaluated in a placebo-controlled single ascending-dose study. Read More

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