74,455 results match your criteria flu

Applying A/B Testing to Clinical Decision Support: Rapid Randomized Controlled Trials.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 9;23(4):e16651. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

Background: Clinical decision support (CDS) is a valuable feature of electronic health records (EHRs) designed to improve quality and safety. However, due to the complexities of system design and inconsistent results, CDS tools may inadvertently increase alert fatigue and contribute to physician burnout. A/B testing, or rapid-cycle randomized tests, is a useful method that can be applied to the EHR in order to rapidly understand and iteratively improve design choices embedded within CDS tools. Read More

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Performance of International AIDS Vaccine Initiative African clinical research laboratories in standardised ELISpot and peripheral blood mononuclear cell processing in support of HIV vaccine clinical trials.

Afr J Lab Med 2021 17;10(1):1056. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Human Immunology Laboratory, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Standardisation of procedures for performing cellular functional assays across laboratories participating in multicentre clinical trials is key for generating comparable and reliable data.

Objective: This article describes the performance of accredited laboratories in Africa and Europe on testing done in support of clinical trials.

Methods: For enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot) proficiency, characterised peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 48 HIV-negative blood donors in Johannesburg, South Africa, were sent to participating laboratories between February 2010 and February 2014. Read More

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February 2021

SARS-CoV 2 Infection (Covid-19) and Cardiovascular Disease in Africa: Health Care and Socio-Economic Implications.

Glob Heart 2021 Mar 15;16(1):18. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Hatter Institute for Cardiovascular Research in Africa, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, ZA.

The current pandemic of SARS-COV 2 infection (Covid-19) is challenging health systems and communities worldwide. At the individual level, the main biological system involved in Covid-19 is the respiratory system. Respiratory complications range from mild flu-like illness symptoms to a fatal respiratory distress syndrome or a severe and fulminant pneumonia. Read More

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Emergence of High Level Carbapenem and Extensively Drug Resistant ST746 Producing NDM-5 in Influent of Wastewater Treatment Plant, Seoul, South Korea.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:645411. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, South Korea.

High level carbapenem and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strain N7, which produces a variant of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-5), was isolated from the influent of the Jungnang wastewater treatment plant located on Han River, Seoul, South Korea. Phenotypic and genotypic resistances to carbapenem were tested using agar and broth dilution methods, and polymerase chain reaction. Whole-genome sequencing was performed to characterize the genetic structure of strain N7. Read More

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Progress of Plant Medicine Derived Extracts and Alkaloids on Modulating Viral Infections and Inflammation.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 31;15:1385-1408. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Key Laboratory of Digital Quality Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica of State Administration of TCM, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510006, People's Republic of China.

Viral infectious diseases are serious threats to human health in both developing and developed countries. Although there is the continued development of new drugs from synthetic sources as antiviral agents, medicinal plants continue to provide the basic raw materials for some of the most important antiviral drugs. Alkaloids are a class of pharmacologically active plant compounds that are usually alkaline in nature. Read More

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The impact of influenza vaccination on cardiovascular disease.

Med Clin (Barc) 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Río Hortega, Valladolid, España.

Influenza infection has been identified as a triggering or exacerbating factor for cardiovascular events. To analyse the effect of influenza vaccination on cardiovascular disease, a systematic search of studies published between 2009-2019 was conducted. All the studies that evaluated the effect of vaccination against influenza on cardiovascular events and their outcome were considered. Read More

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Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees: Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological properties and quality control/quality assurance.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 5:114054. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, 226031, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees is a medicinal herb of the Asian countries used in many traditional medicinal systems for the treatment of diarrhea, flu, leprosy, leptospirosis, malaria, rabies, upper respiratory infections, sinusitis, syphilis, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS etc. Read More

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Annual influenza vaccination effect on the susceptibility to COVID-19 infection.

Cent Eur J Public Health 2021 Mar;29(1):14-17

Infectious Diseases Department, Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objectives: We aimed to study the effect of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination on the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: A total of 203 healthcare workers of a pandemic centre of Istanbul, Turkey, were included in this retrospective study. According to the presence or absence of flu vaccination, participants were divided into group 1 and group 2. Read More

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The Causal Interpretation of "Overall Vaccine Effectiveness" in Test-Negative Studies.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

Test-negative studies are commonly used to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). In a typical study, an "overall VE" estimate may be reported based on data from the entire sample. However, there may be heterogeneity in VE, particularly by age. Read More

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Epidemiology of acute respiratory viral infections in children in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institut Pasteur du Laos, Samsenthai Rd, Ban Kao-gnot, P.O. Box 3560, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Respiratory infections are one of the most frequent reasons for medical consultations in children. In low resource settings such as in Lao PDR, knowledge gaps and the dearth of laboratory capacity to support differential diagnosis may contribute to antibiotic overuse. We studied the etiology, temporal trends and genetic diversity of viral respiratory infections in children to provide evidence for prevention and treatment guidelines. Read More

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Stability of SARS-CoV-2 on the Surfaces of Three Meats in the Setting That Simulates the Cold Chain Transportation.

Virol Sin 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.

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Portal vein thrombosis in COVID-19 infection.

Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 8;7(1):87. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of General, Visceral, Endocrine and Transplantation Surgery, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, 9007, Saint Gallen, Switzerland.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly spread worldwide. As it is a novel disease, we have less experience in its possible appearances. Predominantly affecting the respiratory tract, about 20-43% patients also present with extrapulmonary manifestations such as coagulation disorders with thrombotic angiopathy. Read More

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The Impact of Immunization and Use of Oseltamivir on Influenza-Related Hospitalizations: A Population-Based Study.

J Prim Care Community Health 2021 Jan-Dec;12:21501327211005906

Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues into flu season, it is critical to minimize hospitalizations to maximize capacity and preserve critical care resources. We sought to identify risk factors for influenza-related hospitalization, specifically the role of immunization and oseltamivir prescriptions.

Methods: Patients with influenza diagnoses were identified from the MarketScan database (2014-2018). Read More

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The moderating effect of autonomy on promotional health messages encouraging healthcare professionals' to get the influenza vaccine.

J Exp Psychol Appl 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Management.

Rates of flu vaccination among healthcare professionals often remain lower than recommended guidelines. We tested whether autonomy-supportive communication styles could improve the effectiveness of statements seeking to promote professionals' flu vaccination uptake. A pilot study established that statements presented in an autonomy-supportive communication style (i. Read More

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Low circulation of Influenza A and coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 among other respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 pandemic in a region of southern Brazil.

J Med Virol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

With the arrival of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil in February 2020, several preventive measures were taken by the population aiming to avoid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection including the use of masks, social distancing, and frequent hand washing then, these measures may have contributed to preventing infection also by other respiratory viruses. Our goal was to determine the frequencies of Influenza A and B viruses (FLUAV/FLUBV), human mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C), Enterovirus 68 (EV-68), and rhinovirus (RV) besides SARS-CoV-2 among hospitalized patients suspect of COVID-19 with cases of acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) in the period of March to December 2020 and to detect possible coinfections among them. Nucleic acid detection was performed using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in respiratory samples using naso-oropharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection and H1N1 vaccination: does a relationship between the two factors really exist? A retrospective analysis of a territorial cohort in Ferrara, Italy.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Mar;25(6):2795-2801

Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Objective: SARS-CoV-2 has been compared with other strains of coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and with the flu viruses: all of them manifest themselves with respiratory symptoms and, although their genetic patterns are similar, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection has quickly reached global dimensions, demonstrating that SARS-CoV-2 is a virus with greater spreading capacity, albeit less lethal. Compared with influenza viruses, coronaviruses have a longer incubation period and the patients with coronaviruses' syndromes develop more severe diseases requiring frequent hospitalizations and intensive care admissions. The aim was to explore the relationships between seasonal influenza vaccination and coronavirus infection and to understand whether this hypothetic role by the flu vaccines modifies SARS-CoV-2 infection's outcomes. Read More

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Inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) combined with zinc sulfate and silver nanoparticles on avian influenza A virus subtype H5N1.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Mar;25(6):2630-2636

Pharmacy, Middle East University, Amman, Jordan.

Objective: Even though antiviral drugs against H5N1 flu infection are accessible, they are still limited by antiviral drug resistance and unfavorable side effects. Thus, this work tested the action of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) co-administered with both zinc (II) ions and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs).

Materials And Methods: EGCG was used with both zinc sulfate (zinc II) and silver nanoparticles to test their antiviral activities against avian flu subtype H5N1 in embryonated SPF eggs. Read More

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Development of an immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of H7 subtype avian influenza viruses.

Virol J 2021 Apr 7;18(1):68. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, China.

Background: H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) including highly and low pathogenic viruses have been detected in China since 2013. H7N9 AIV has a high mortality rate after infection in humans, and most human cases have close contacted with poultry in the live poultry market. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a rapid point-of-care testing (POCT) technique for H7N9 AIV detection. Read More

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Elderberry for prevention and treatment of viral respiratory illnesses: a systematic review.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Apr 7;21(1):112. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Elderberry has traditionally been used to prevent and treat respiratory problems. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been interest in elderberry supplements to treat or prevent illness, but also concern that elderberry might overstimulate the immune system and increase the risk of 'cytokine storm'. We aimed to determine benefits and harms of elderberry for the prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections, and to assess the relationship between elderberry supplements and negative health impacts associated with overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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IgG and IgM antibody formation to spike and nucleocapsid proteins in COVID-19 characterized by multiplex immunoblot assays.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 7;21(1):325. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

ID-FISH Technology Inc, 556 Gibraltar Drive, Milpitas, CA, 95035, USA.

Background: Rapid and simple serological assays for characterizing antibody responses are important in the current COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Multiplex immunoblot (IB) assays termed COVID-19 IB assays were developed for detecting IgG and IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 virus proteins in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: Recombinant nucleocapsid protein and the S1, S2 and receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 were used as target antigens in the COVID-19 IBs. Read More

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Differences in antibiotic and antiviral use in people with confirmed influenza: a retrospective comparison of rapid influenza PCR and multiplex respiratory virus PCR tests.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 7;21(1):321. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory virus with clinical impacts on patient morbidity, mortality and hospital bed management. The effect of rapid nucleic acid testing (RPCR) in comparison to standard multiplex PCR (MPCR) diagnosis in treatment decisions is unclear. This study aimed to determine whether RPCR influenza testing in comparison to standard MPCR testing was associated with differences in antibiotic and antiviral (oseltamivir) utilisation and hospital length of stay in emergency department and inpatient hospital settings. Read More

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Use of self-reported vaccination status can bias vaccine effectiveness estimates from test-negative studies.

Vaccine X 2019 Apr 29;1:100003. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.

Introduction: A number of national/multi-national networks provide annual estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) based on the test-negative design. Most of these networks use subject self-reports to define influenza vaccination history. In this study, we used simulations to estimate the degree to which self-reported vaccination status can bias test-negative VE estimates. Read More

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Willingness to vaccinate against influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 among Brazilian civil servants: Pró-Saúde cohort study.

Rev Bras Epidemiol 2021 2;24:e210014. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.

Objective: To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with the willingness to take the pandemic influenza vaccine.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of Brazilian civil servants participating in the fourth wave (2012-2013) of the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. Associations were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), estimated by multivariate logistic regression models. Read More

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Genetic variability in COVID-19-related genes in the Brazilian population.

Hum Genome Var 2021 2;8:15. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Translational Medicine, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), and The Brazilian Institute of Neuroscience and Neurotechnology (BRAINN), Campinas, SP Brazil.

SARS-CoV-2 utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) to infect human lung cells. Previous studies have suggested that different host and genetic backgrounds might contribute to differences in the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 severity. Recent studies have also shown that variants in 15 genes related to type I interferon immunity to influenza virus might predispose patients toward life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. Read More

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Low relapse risk in poor risk AML after conditioning with 10-day decitabine, fludarabine and 2 Gray TBI prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Hematology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Patients with poor risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a dismal outcome. We hypothesized that combining decitabine with a standard non-myeloablative (NMA) conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo HCT), might decrease the relapse incidence. We conducted a multicenter prospective phase II study (NCT02252107) with 10-day decitabine (20 mg/m/day) integrated in a standard non-myeloablative conditioning regimen (3 days fludarabine 30 mg/m with 2 Gray total body irradiation (TBI)). Read More

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Cost-effectiveness analysis of flucytosine as induction therapy in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected adults in South Africa.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 6;21(1):305. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine, Greys Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Background: Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa accounts for three-quarters of the global cases and 135,000 deaths per annum. Current treatment includes the use of fluconazole and amphotericin B. Recent evidence has shown that the synergistic use of flucytosine improves efficacy and reduces toxicity, however affordability and availability has hampered access to flucytosine in many countries. Read More

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Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with ustekinumab treatment.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care, Yale-New Haven Health Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USA.

Disclaimer: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. Read More

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Simultaneous Detection and Mutation Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and co-infections of multiple respiratory viruses by Rapid field-deployable sequencing.

Med (N Y) 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Strategies for monitoring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are crucial for combating the pandemic. Detection and mutation surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses require separate and complex workflows that rely on highly-specialized facilities, personnel, and reagents. To date, no method can rapidly diagnose multiple viral infections and determine variants in a high-throughput manner. Read More

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Risk of thrombotic complications in influenza versus COVID-19 hospitalized patients.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Thrombosis and Hemostasis Leiden University Medical Center Leiden the Netherlands.

Background: Whereas accumulating studies on COVID-19 patients report high incidences of thrombotic complications, large studies on clinically relevant thrombosis in patients with other respiratory tract infections are lacking. How this high risk in COVID-19 patients compares to those observed in hospitalized patients with other viral pneumonias such as influenza is unknown.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of venous and arterial thrombotic complications in hospitalized influenza patients as opposed to that observed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Read More

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February 2021

COVID-19 vs influenza viruses: A cockroach optimized deep neural network classification approach.

Int J Imaging Syst Technol 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Faculty of Computer and Artificial intelligence Cairo University Cairo Egypt.

Among Coronavirus, as with many other viruses, receptor interactions are an essential determinant of species specificity, virulence, and pathogenesis. The pathogenesis of the COVID-19 depends on the virus's ability to attach to and enter into a suitable human host cell. This paper presents a cockroach optimized deep neural network to detect COVID-19 and differentiate between COVID-19 and influenza types A, B, and C. Read More

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February 2021