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Enzymatic Synthesis of Eugenyl Acetate from Essential Oil of Clove Using Lipases in Liquid Formulation as Biocatalyst.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

In this research, eugenyl acetate, a compound with flavoring, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties, was obtained from essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) via liquid lipase-mediated acetylation. Clove essential oil was extracted by drag water vapor from dry flower buds and its physic-chemical characteristics were analyzed. For the enzymatic synthesis, an extensive evaluation of reaction parameters was accomplished through employment of distinct reaction temperatures, acetic anhydride to eugenol molar ratios, enzyme loads, and three different lipases (a lyophilized enzyme produced by solid-state fermentation of sunflower seed with Penicillium sumatrense microorganism and other two commercial lipases - Lipozyme TL 100L and CALB L). Read More

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Forever young: stem cell and plant regeneration one century after Haberlandt 1921.

Protoplasma 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Plants are characterized by a post-embryonic mode of organ development, which results in a need for these photoautotrophic organisms to regenerate lost parts in the course of their life cycle. This capacity depends on the presence of "pluripotent stem cells," which are part of the meristems within the plant body. One hundred years ago, the botanist Gottlieb Haberlandt (1854-1945) published experiments showing wounding-induced callus formation, which led ultimately to plant regeneration in tissue culture and thence to the techniques of "plant biotechnology," with practical applications for mankind. Read More

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LEAFY, a Pioneer Transcription Factor in Plants: A Mini-Review.

Front Plant Sci 2021 5;12:701406. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, Japan.

A subset of eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) possess the ability to reprogram one cell type into another. Genes important for cellular reprograming are typically located in closed chromatin, which is covered by nucleosomes. Pioneer factors are a special class of TFs that can initially engage their target sites in closed chromatin prior to the engagement with, opening of, or modification of the sites by other factors. Read More

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Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of B3 superfamily during ethylene-induced flowering in pineapple (Ananas comosus L.).

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 21;22(1):561. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Fruit Tree Biology of Hainan Province, Institute of Tropical Fruit Trees, Hainan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, 571100, China.

Background: The B3 superfamily (B3s) represents a class of large plant-specific transcription factors, which play diverse roles in plant growth and development process including flowering induction. However, identification and functional surveys of B3 superfamily have not been reported in ethylene-induced pineapple flowering (Ananas comosus).

Results: 57 B3 genes containing B3 domain were identified and phylogenetically classified into five subfamilies. Read More

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First report of associated with the bulb rot of Tulip (Tulipa spp) in India.

Plant Dis 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Kashmir, 29073, Division of Fruit Science, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India;

Tulip is an ornamental bulbous flowering crop belonging to the Genus and family . It is the first ranking bulbous ornamental plant in the world (Nayeem and Qayoom 2015). They are often the first flowers to witness the bloom in the spring. Read More

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Nocturnal ambush predators and their potential impact on flower-visiting moths.

Ecology 2021 Jul 21:e03482. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodaicho, Nada, Kobe, Hyogo, 657-8501, Japan.

Ambush predators such as spiders affect the flower-visiting behavior of diurnal pollinators such as bees (Dukas 2001, Dukas and Morse 2003), potentially causing diurnal pollinators to avoid flowers where ambush predators wait (Dukas 2001). Thus, ambush predators can diminish the reproductive success of flowering plants (Gonçalves-Souza et al. 2008). Read More

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Incomplete reproductive isolation and low genetic differentiation despite floral divergence across varying geographic scales in Castilleja.

Am J Bot 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Program in Plant Biology and Conservation, Northwestern University, O.T. Hogan Hall, Room 6-140B, 2205 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL, 60208, USA.

Premise: Divergence depends on the strength of selection and frequency of gene flow between taxa, while reproductive isolation relies on mating barriers and geographic distance. Less is known about how these processes interact at early stages of speciation. Here, we compared population-level differentiation in floral phenotype and genetic sequence variation among recently diverged Castilleja to explore patterns of diversification under different scenarios of reproductive isolation. Read More

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Whole-genome sequencing and analysis of two azaleas, Rhododendron ripense and Rhododendron kiyosumense.

DNA Res 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba, 292-0818, Japan.

To enhance the genomics and genetics of azalea, the whole-genome sequences of two species of Rhododendron were determined and analyzed in this study: Rhododendron ripense, the cytoplasmic donor and ancestral species of large-flowered and evergreen azalea cultivars; and Rhododendron kiyosumense, a native of Chiba prefecture (Japan) seldomly bred and cultivated. A chromosome-level genome sequence assembly of R. ripense was constructed by single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and genetic mapping, while the genome sequence of R. Read More

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Environmental responsiveness of flowering time in cassava genotypes and associated transcriptome changes.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0253555. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Section of Soil and Crop Sciences, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

Cassava is an important food security crop in tropical regions of the world. Cassava improvement by breeding is limited by its delayed and poor production of flowers, such that cassava flowering under field conditions indirectly lengthens the breeding cycle. By studying genotype and environment interaction under two Nigerian field conditions (Ubiaja and Ibadan) and three controlled temperature conditions (22°C/18°C, 28/24°C and 34/30°C (day/night)), we found that while early flowering genotypes flowered at similar times and rates under all growing conditions (unfavorable and favorable field and controlled-temperature environments), late flowering genotypes were environmentally sensitive such that they were substantially delayed in unfavorable environments. Read More

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A test of Sensory Drive in plant-pollinator interactions: heterogeneity in the signaling environment shapes pollinator preference for a floral visual signal.

New Phytol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA, 29634.

Sensory Drive predicts that habitat-dependent signal transmission and perception explain the diversification of communication signals. Whether Sensory Drive shapes floral evolution remains untested in nature. Pollinators of Argentina anserina prefer small UV-absorbing floral guides at low elevation but larger guides at high. Read More

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Nectary photosynthesis contributes to the production of mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) floral nectar.

New Phytol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research, PO Box 69040, Lincoln, 7640, New Zealand.

Current models of floral nectar production do not include a contribution from photosynthesis by green nectary tissue, even though many species have green nectaries. Mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) floral nectaries are green, and in addition to sugars, their nectar contains dihydroxyacetone (DHA), the precursor of the antimicrobial agent in the honey. We investigated causes of variation in mānuka floral nectar production, particularly the effect of light incident on the nectary. Read More

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Salt tolerance in rice: seedling and reproductive stage QTL mapping come of age.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK.

Key Message: Reproductive stage salinity tolerance is most critical for rice as it determines the yield under stress. Few studies have been undertaken for this trait as phenotyping was cumbersome, but new methodology outlined in this review seeks to redress this deficiency. Sixty-three meta-QTLs, the most important genomic regions to target for enhancing salinity tolerance, are reported. Read More

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Pneumatically Controlled Reconfigurable Bistable Bionic Flower for Robotic Gripper.

Soft Robot 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China.

Beyond their colorful appearances and versatile geometries, flowers can self-shape-morph by adapting to environmental changes. Nature-inspired artificial systems that mimic their natural counterparts in function, flexibility, and adaptation find an emerging application in mobile robotics. In this study, a novel reconfigurable bionic flower made of petal-shaped bistable carbon fiber-reinforced composites and actuated by soft pneumatic actuators is presented. Read More

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Quantification of Thrips Damage Using Ilastik and ImageJ Fiji.

Bio Protoc 2018 Apr 20;8(8):e2806. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Department of Molecular Plant Physiology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Quantification of insect damage is an essential measurement for identifying resistance in plants. In screening for host plant resistance against thrips, the total damaged leaf area is used as a criterion to determine resistance levels. Here we present an objective novel method for analyzing thrips damage on leaf disc using the freely available software programs Ilastik and ImageJ. Read More

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Racial, gender, sexual, and disability identities of the 's editorial board, reviewers, and authors.

J Med Libr Assoc 2021 Apr;109(2):167-173

Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT.

The recently issued a call for submissions that recognize and address social injustices; speak to diversity, equity, and inclusion in our workforce and among our user populations; and share critical perspectives on health sciences librarianship as well as those on any topic within 's scope written by authors who are Black, Indigenous, or People of Color. We also committed to creating more equitable opportunities for authors, reviewers, and editorial board members from marginalized groups. As part of this effort, we conducted a demographic survey of all individuals who served as a member of the editorial board or reviewer or had submitted a manuscript to between 2018 and 2020. Read More

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Electrochemical fabrication of TiO micro-flowers for an efficient intracellular delivery using nanosecond light pulse.

Mater Chem Phys 2021 Jul 10;267. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India.

Introduction of foreign cargo into the targeted living cell with high transfection efficiency and high cell viability is an important mean for many biological and biomedical research purpose. Here, we have demonstrated a newly developed Titanium oxide micro-flower structure (TMS) for intracellular delivery. The TMS were formed on titanium (Ti) substrate using an electrochemical anodization process. Read More

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Transcriptome and proteome of the corm, leaf and flower of Hypoxis hemerocallidea (African potato).

PLoS One 2021 20;16(7):e0253741. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

The corm of Hypoxis hemerocallidea, commonly known as the African potato, is used in traditional medicine to treat several medical conditions such as urinary infections, benign prostate hyperplasia, inflammatory conditions and testicular tumours. The metabolites contributing to the medicinal properties of H. hemerocallidea have been identified in several studies and, more recently, the active terpenoids of the plant were profiled. Read More

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An amorphous hierarchical MnO/acetylene black composite with boosted rate performance as an anode for lithium-ion batteries.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of Materials and Technology, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China.

Amorphization is considered to be an effective way to enhance the electrochemical performances of electrode materials due to the existence of isotropy and numerous defects. Herein, an amorphous hierarchically structured MnO2/acetylene black (a-MnO2/AB) composite is successfully fabricated via a redox method and subsequent mechanical ball milling. The a-MnO2/AB composite is composed of approximately 300 nm flower-like amorphous MnO2 submicron spheres and acetylene black particles with a diameter of about 50 nm. Read More

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3D core-shell [email protected]@MoS composites with enhanced microwave absorption performance.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 9;604:537-549. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Physics and Electronics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemical Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

In this work, a 3D ternary core-shell [email protected]@MoS composite is synthesized by a hydrothermal technique and a modified Stöber method, where magnetic [email protected] microsphere with the core of raspberry-like FeO nanoparticles is completely coated by the flower-like MoS. Herein, the electromagnetic parameters of the composites are effectively tuned by the combination of magnetic FeO with dielectric SiO and MoS. The obtained ternary composites exhibit remarkable enhancement of microwave absorption. Read More

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Integration of Leaky-Integrate-and-Fire Neurons in Standard Machine Learning Architectures to Generate Hybrid Networks: A Surrogate Gradient Approach.

Neural Comput 2021 Jul 19:1-26. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Experimental Otolaryngology, Neuroscience Lab, University Hospital Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen, Germany; Cognitive Computational Neuroscience Group at the Chair of English Philology and Linguistics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg 91054 Erlangen Germany; and Laboratoire Neuorsciences Sensorielles et Cognitives, Aix Marseille-University, 13331 Marseille, France

Up to now, modern machine learning (ML) has been based on approximating big data sets with high-dimensional functions, taking advantage of huge computational resources. We show that biologically inspired neuron models such as the leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF) neuron provide novel and efficient ways of information processing. They can be integrated in machine learning models and are a potential target to improve ML performance. Read More

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Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Proteus, Matrine, and Pyridalyl on Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

Environ Entomol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Plant Protection, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran.

The western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the most harmful pests of crops in greenhouses and fields. Considering the need for studies that introduce new insecticides for control of the WFT, the leaf dip method was carried out to study the acute toxicity of Proteus, matrine, and pyridalyl to adult thrips, and life tables were constructed to assess the impacts of sublethal concentrations (LC25) of these insecticides on the development and reproduction of the F1 generation. Bioassays showed that the toxicity of matrine (LC50: 45. Read More

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Identification and quantification of the bioactive components in roots by HPLC-MS/MS.

J Pharm Anal 2021 Jun 5;11(3):299-307. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Key Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, Ministry of Education; Hubei Province Engineering and Technology Research Center for Fluorinated Pharmaceuticals; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071, China.

The roots of are also a valuable resource in addition to its flowers and fruits. In this study, the HPLC-MS/MS method used for analyzing the chemical constituents in roots extract was developed, which showed high sensitivity for both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Thirty-two compounds were first discovered in roots, one compound of which was reported for the first time. Read More

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Phenotyping Local Eggplant Varieties: Commitment to Biodiversity and Nutritional Quality Preservation.

Front Plant Sci 2021 1;12:696272. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Horticulture Department, Valencian Institute for Agricultural Research (IVIA), Valencia, Spain.

Given the little variability among commercialised eggplants mainly in developed countries, exploring, and structuring of traditional varieties germplasm collections have become a key element for extending ecotypes and promoting biodiversity preservation and consumption. Thirty-one eggplant landraces from Spain were characterised with 22 quantitative and 14 qualitative conventional morphological descriptors. Landraces were grouped based on their fruit skin colour (black-purple, striped, white, and reddish). Read More

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TheLNet270v1 - A Novel Deep-Network Architecture for the Automatic Classification of Thermal Images for Greenhouse Plants.

Front Plant Sci 2021 1;12:630425. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Agricultural AI Research Promotion Office, RCAIT, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), Tsukuba, Japan.

The real challenge for separating leaf pixels from background pixels in thermal images is associated with various factors such as the amount of emitted and reflected thermal radiation from the targeted plant, absorption of reflected radiation by the humidity of the greenhouse, and the outside environment. We proposed TheLNet270v1 (thermal leaf network with 270 layers version 1) to recover the leaf canopy from its background in real time with higher accuracy than previous systems. The proposed network had an accuracy of 91% (mean boundary F1 score or BF score) to distinguish canopy pixels from background pixels and then segment the image into two classes: leaf and background. Read More

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Combined effect of silicon and non-thermal plasma treatments on yield, mineral content, and nutraceutical proprieties of edible flowers of Begonia cucullata.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 11;166:1014-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

CREA Research Centre for Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Via dei Fiori 8, 51017, Pescia (PT), Italy.

Edible flowers are becoming popular as a nutraceutical and functional food that can contribute to human nutrition with high antioxidant molecules and mineral elements. While comparative studies between different flower species have been performed, less is known about the best agronomical practices to increase yield and nutraceutical proprieties of blooms. Silicon stimulates plant resistance against stress and promotes plant growth while non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology has been applied for the disinfection and decontamination of water, as well as for increasing plant production and quality. Read More

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Evolutionary history of Hemerocallis in Japan inferred from chloroplast and nuclear phylogenies and levels of interspecific gene flow.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Jul 14:107264. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka, 819-0395, Japan.

The perennial herb genus Hemerocallis (Asphodelaceae) shows four flowering types: diurnal half-day, diurnal one-day, nocturnal half-day, and nocturnal one-day flowering. These flowering types are corresponding to their main pollinators, and probably act as a primary mechanism of reproductive isolation. To examine how the four flowering types diverged, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Japanese species of Hemerocallis using 1,615 loci of nuclear genome-wide SNPs and 2,078 bp sequences of four cpDNA regions. Read More

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The evolutionary history of vines in a neotropical biodiversity hotspot: phylogenomics and biogeography of a large passion flower clade (Passiflora section Decaloba).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Jul 14:107260. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Blvd, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

Because of their extraordinary flower and leaf morphology, passion flowers (Passifloraceae) have fascinated naturalists since their discovery. Within the large, diverse (600 species) genus Passiflora is an especially enigmatic and species-rich (120 spp.) subclade, Section Decaloba, which occurs in the Neotropics and has its center of diversity in Andean montane forests. Read More

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Identification and characterization of miRNAs associated with sterile flower buds in the tea plant based on small RNA sequencing.

Hereditas 2021 Jul 16;158(1):26. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Tea Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Menghai, Xishuangbanna, 666201, China.

Background: miRNAs are a type of conserved, small RNA molecule that regulate gene expression and play an important role in the growth and development of plants. miRNAs are involved in seed germination, root development, shoot apical meristem maintenance, leaf development, and flower development by regulating various target genes. However, the role of miRNAs in the mechanism of tea plant flower sterility remains unclear. Read More

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Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Seen within 24 Hours at a Tertiary Institution.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 13;30(9):105988. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365-B Clifton Road NE, Suite B4500, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States; Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an emergency with poor visual outcome. Intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 h of vision loss is safe and may improve vision, but is rarely administered because of frequent delays in presentation. Read More

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Gene duplication drove the loss of awn in sorghum.

Mol Plant 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

National Maize Improvement Center; Center for Crop Functional Genomics and Molecular Breeding; Joint Laboratory for International Cooperation in Crop Molecular Breeding, Ministry of Education; Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Laboratory of Crop Heterosis and Utilization, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Loss of the awn in some cereals including sorghum is a key transition during cereal domestication or improvement that has facilitated grain harvest and storage. The genetic basis for the loss of awn in sorghum during domestication or improvement remains unknown. Here, we identified a transcription factor gene awn1 encoding an ALOG domain, which is responsible for awn loss during sorghum domestication or improvement. Read More

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